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PIPRIDAE - Manakins1,2,3 (17:48)
NEOPELMINAE
NEOPELMA P.L. Sclater, 1861 N - Muscicapa aurifrons zu Wied, 1831; type by monotypy  
Neopelma pallescens   (Lafresnaye, 1853) Pale-bellied Tyrant Manakin
iE, C and S Brazil (both sides of lower R. Amazon and lower R. Tapajós) and extreme NE Bolivia (Serranía de Huanchaca in NE Santa Cruz)
Neopelma chrysocephalum   (von Pelzeln, 1868) Saffron-crested Tyrant Manakin
vExtreme E Colombia (Vaupés), S Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (mainly R. Negro drainage and extreme N Amapá); NE Peru (Loreto)
Neopelma aurifrons 4  (zu Wied, 1831) Wied's Tyrant Manakin
iE Brazil (S Bahia to E Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro)
Neopelma chrysolophum 5  O.M. de O. Pinto, 1944 Serra do Mar Tyrant Manakin
vSE Brazil (EC Minas Gerais to São Paulo); adjacent E Paraná (?)
Neopelma sulphureiventer   (Hellmayr, 1903) Sulfur-bellied Tyrant Manakin
iNC and SE Peru (SW Loreto and E San Martín; S Ucayali to Madre de Dios), N and C Bolivia and adjacent W Brazil
TYRANNEUTES P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1881 M - Tyranneutes brachyurus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1881; type by monotypy = Pipra virescens von Pelzeln, 1868  
Tyranneutes stolzmanni   (Hellmayr, 1906) Dwarf Tyrant Manakin
iS Venezuela (Amazonas, W and S Bolívar) and Amazonia (except for area north of R. Amazon, east of R. Branco)
Tyranneutes virescens 6  (von Pelzeln, 1868) Tiny Tyrant Manakin
iE Venezuela (NE and SE Bolívar), the Guianas and NE Amazonian Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Branco)
PIPRINAE

Tribe PIPRINI
XENOPIPO Cabanis, 1847 F - Xenopipo atronitens Cabanis, 1847; type by original designation  7
Xenopipo uniformis Olive Manakin
duidae (Chapman, 1929) Tepuis of SC Venezuela (Cerro Paraque and Cerro Duida in Amazonas)
uniformis (Salvin & Godman, 1884) vTepuis of SE Venezuela (S Bolívar), extreme N Brazil (Serra Uei in N Roraima) and adjacent W Guyana
Xenopipo atronitens   Cabanis, 1847 Black Manakin
iE Colombia, S and SE Venezuela, the Guianas and E Amazonian Brazil (west to R. Negro and R. Tapajós); also locally in E Peru, NE Bolivia and SW Amazonian Brazil
HETEROCERCUS P.L. Sclater, 1862 M - Elaenia linteata Strickland, 1850; type by monotypy  
Heterocercus aurantiivertex   P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1880 Orange-crowned Manakin/Orange-crested Manakin
iE Ecuador (Sucumbíos to Pastaza), NE Peru (Loreto) and extreme W Brazil (R. Javari)
Heterocercus flavivertex   von Pelzeln, 1868 Yellow-crowned Manakin/Yellow-crested Manakin
iE Colombia, SW Venezuela (SE Apure, Amazonas) and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, R. Negro to NW Pará)
Heterocercus linteatus 8,9  (Strickland, 1850) Flame-crowned Manakin/Flame-crested Manakin
vE Peru, S Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Juruá to R. Xingu) and extreme NE Bolivia; SE Peru (Pampas de Heath)
MANACUS Brisson, 1760 M - Manacus Brisson; type by tautonymy = Pipra manacus Linnaeus, 1766  
Manacus manacus10 Bearded Manakin
1 candei (Parzudaki, 1841)11,12 Caribbean slope from SE Mexico (N Oaxaca) to extreme W Panama (NW Bocas del Toro)
2 aurantiacus (Salvin, 1870)13 vPacific slope from W Costa Rica (Golfo de Nicoya) to WC Panama (Azuero Pen.)
3 vitellinus (Gould, 1843)14 vW Panama (E Bocas del Toro on Caribbean slope and E Veraguas on Pacific slope) to NW Colombia (N Chocó, NW Antioquia)
3 amitinus Wetmore, 195915 vIsla Escudo de Veraguas (off NW Panama)
3 milleri Chapman, 1915 NW Colombia (Córdoba, Antioquia, Bolívar)
3 viridiventris Griscom, 1929 vW Colombia (C Chocó to SW Cauca; upper Cauca valley in Tolima)
4 abditivus Bangs, 1899 vN Colombia (south to lower Cauca valley and middle Magdalena valley)
4 flaveolus Cassin, 1852 αvC Colombia (upper Magdalena valley)
4 bangsi Chapman, 1914 SW Colombia (SW Cauca) to extreme NW Ecuador (N Esmeraldas, W Imbabura)
4 interior Chapman, 1914 vNW and SC Venezuela, E and S Colombia, E Ecuador, NE Peru (north of R. Marañón) and NW Brazil (upper R. Negro)
4 leucochlamys Chapman, 1914 W Ecuador (W Esmeraldas to W Guayas)
4 maximus Chapman, 1924 vSW Ecuador (E Guayas) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
4 trinitatis (E. Hartert, 1912) Trinidad
4 umbrosus Friedmann, 1944 vS Venezuela (Cerro Yapacana in W Amazonas)
4 manacus (Linnaeus, 1766)16 S Venezuela (S Amazonas), the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Negro)
4 expectatus Gyldenstolpe, 1941 vE Peru (E Loreto; Madre de Dios), W Amazonian Brazil (R. Juruá) and NW Bolivia (east to R. Beni)
4 purus Bangs, 1899 vC Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, lower R. Madeira to lower R. Xingu)
4 subpurus Cherrie & Reichenberger, 1923 vSC Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, upper R. Madeira to W Mato Grosso), N Bolivia (Beni, N Santa Cruz)
4 longibarbatus J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Xingu to R. Tocantins)
4 purissimus Todd, 1928 vNE Amazonian Brazil (west to R. Tocantins)
4 gutturosus (Desmarest, 1806) vE Brazil (Alagoas to SE Mato Grosso do Sul and extreme N Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones)
PIPRA Linnaeus, 1764 F - Parus aureola Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 33).  17
Pipra filicauda Wire-tailed Manakin
subpallida (Todd, 1928)18 vE Colombia and NW Venezuela (east to Miranda and Apure)
filicauda von Spix, 1825 S Venezuela (W and S Amazonas), W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Branco and middle R. Purus), E Ecuador and NE Peru (south to middle R. Ucayali)
Pipra aureola19,20,21 Crimson-hooded Manakin
aureola (Linnaeus, 1758) vE Venezuela, the Guianas and NE Brazil (Amapá, SE Pará)
flavicollis P.L. Sclater, 1852 αvN Amazonian Brazil (along R. Amazon from R. Negro to R. Maicuru)
aurantiicollis Todd, 1925 vN Amazonian Brazil (along R. Amazon from R. Tapajós to R. Xingu)
borbae J.T. Zimmer, 1936 C Amazonian Brazil (along R. Madeira from Borba to Humaitá)
Pipra fasciicauda Band-tailed Manakin
saturata J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vNC Peru (R. Huallaga drainage in San Martín)
purusiana E. Snethlage, 1907 vE Peru (S Loreto to N Cuzco) and SW Amazonian Brazil (Acre to upper R. Purus)
fasciicauda Hellmayr, 1906 SE Peru (Madre de Dios, N Puno) to C Bolivia (N Cochabamba, N Santa Cruz)
calamae Hellmayr, 1910 S Amazonian Brazil (Rondônia and extreme NW Mato Grosso)
scarlatina Hellmayr, 1915 vC and S Brazil (C Pará to Mato Grosso do Sul, W Minas Gerais and NW São Paulo), N Bolivia (Pando, Beni), SE Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones); NE Brazil (N Ceará)
MACHAEROPTERUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Pipra strigilata zu Wied, 1822; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 147). = Pipra regulus Hahn, 1819  
Machaeropterus deliciosus   (P.L. Sclater, 1860) Club-winged Manakin
vW slope of Andes from SW Colombia (Risaralda) to W Ecuador (Carchi to Pichincha; El Oro and W Loja)
Machaeropterus regulus Striped Manakin
1 zulianus W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1952 vNW Venezuela (Zulia and Táchira to NW Barinas)
1 obscurostriatus W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941 vNW Venezuela (W Trujillo and W Mérida)
1 antioquiae Chapman, 1924 W and C Colombia (Magdalena valley, Cauca valley and Caribbean region)
1 striolatus (Bonaparte, 1838)22 vE Colombia, E Ecuador, NE Peru (south to N Ucayali) and adjacent W Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Urucu)
1 aureopectus W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941 SE Venezuela (C Amazonas, NW and SE Bolívar), adjacent N Brazil and W Guyana
2 regulus (Hahn, 1819) Coastal E Brazil (Bahia to C Rio de Janeiro)
Machaeropterus pyrocephalus Fiery-capped Manakin
pallidiceps J.T. Zimmer, 1936 S Venezuela (lower Caura valley and middle Paragua valley in Bolívar; NW Amazonas) and extreme N Brazil (N Roraima)
pyrocephalus (P.L. Sclater, 1852) vE Peru, N Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil (mainly in south, east to S Amapá and Goiás)
DIXIPHIA Reichenbach, 1850 F - Pipra leucocilla Linnaeus, 1764; type by subsequent monotypy (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 55). = Parus pipra Linnaeus, 1758
Dixiphia pipra23,24 White-crowned Manakin
anthracina (Ridgway, 1906) vC Costa Rica to C Panama
bolivari (Meyer de Schauensee, 1950) NW Colombia (Córdoba to S Bolívar)
minima (Chapman, 1917) vSW Colombia (Valle and Cauca)
unica (Meyer de Schauensee, 1945) vC Colombia (Andean slopes of Magdalena valley from Caldas to Huila)
coracina (P.L. Sclater, 1856) vNW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá and SE Lara to SE Táchira), E slope of E Andes of Colombia to N Peru (N San Martín)
pipra (Linnaeus, 1758) E Colombia, S and E Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
discolor (J.T. Zimmer, 1936) NE Peru (R. Napo), E Ecuador (?)
pygmaea (J.T. Zimmer, 1936) vNC Peru (lower R. Huallaga)
occulta (J.T. Zimmer, 1936) vE Andean foothills of C Peru (San Martín to Huánuco)
comata (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894) vE Andean foothills of C and S Peru (Pasco to N Cuzco)
microlopha (J.T. Zimmer, 1929) vE Peru (south of R. Marañón) and W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Madeira)
separabilis (J.T. Zimmer, 1936) vE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Tapajós)
cephaleucos (Thunberg, 1822) Coastal E Brazil (S Bahia to N Rio de Janeiro)
CERATOPIPRA Bonaparte, 1854 F - Pipra cornuta von Spix, 1825; type by monotypy25
Ceratopipra cornuta   (von Spix, 1825) Scarlet-horned Manakin
vTepuis of S Venezuela, extreme N Brazil (NE Roraima) and W Guyana
Ceratopipra mentalis Red-capped Manakin
mentalis (P.L. Sclater, 1857) vCaribbean slope from SE Mexico (S Veracruz) to E Costa Rica
ignifera (Bangs, 1901) vPanama (mainly on Caribbean slope)
minor (E. Hartert, 1898) vW Colombia and W Ecuador (Esmeraldas and NW Pichincha; N Manabí, N Los Ríos, NW Azuay)
Ceratopipra erythrocephala26 Golden-headed Manakin
erythrocephala (Linnaeus, 1758) vE Panama, NW, NC and NE Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Negro)
berlepschi (Ridgway, 1906)27 S and E Colombia, E Ecuador, NC and NE Peru, and NW Brazil (north of R. Amazon, east to R. Negro)
Ceratopipra rubrocapilla   (Temminck, 1821) Red-headed Manakin
E Peru, S Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon), N Bolivia; coastal E Brazil (Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro)
Ceratopipra chloromeros   (von Tschudi, 1844) Round-tailed Manakin
E Peru (S Amazonas) to adjacent W Brazil (Acre) and N Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
CRYPTOPIPO Ohlson, Fjeldså & Ericson, 2013 F - Chloropipo holochlora P.L. Sclater, 1888; type by original designation28
Cryptopipo holochlora Green Manakin
1 suffusa (Griscom, 1932)29 vE Panama (Comarca Guna Yala, Darién) and adjacent NW Colombia
1 litae (Hellmayr, 1906)30 W Colombia (Chocó) to NW Ecuador (Pichincha); NW Colombia (N end of C Andes in Antioquia)
2 holochlora (P.L. Sclater, 1888) vE slope of Andes and adjacent lowlands from C Colombia (Meta) to C Peru (E Junín)
2 viridior (Chapman, 1924)31 vE slope of Andes in SE Peru (SE Cuzco, NW Puno)
LEPIDOTHRIX Bonaparte, 1854 F - Pipra cyanocapilla Hahn, 1826; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 147). = Pipra coronata von Spix, 182532,33,34,35
Lepidothrix suavissima 36  (Salvin & Godman, 1882) Orange-bellied Manakin
vTepuis of S and SE Venezuela, NC Guyana and adjacent extreme N Brazil
Lepidothrix serena   (Linnaeus, 1766) White-fronted Manakin
vExtreme SE Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and NE Amazonian Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to lower R. Negro)
Lepidothrix coronata37,38 Blue-crowned Manakin
1 velutina (von Berlepsch, 1883) vCosta Rica (Pacific slope; Caribbean slope only in extreme E) and W Panama (Chiriquí, Bocas del Toro and Veraguas)
1 minuscula (Todd, 1919) vC Panama (Colón, Panamá) to W and NC Colombia and NW Ecuador (N Manabí)
2 caquetae (Meyer de Schauensee, 1953) C Colombia (W Meta, W Caquetá)
2 carbonata (Todd, 1925) vSC Colombia to S Venezuela, NE Peru (north of R. Napo and R. Amazon) and NW Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
2 coronata (von Spix, 1825) vE Ecuador, NE Peru (south of R. Napo and R. Amazon in Loreto and N Ucayali) and adjacent W Brazil (south of R. Amazon)
3 exquisita (Hellmayr, 1905) vC Peru (Amazonas to Cuzco)
3 caelestipileata (Goeldi, 1905) vSE Peru (Madre de Dios), adjacent W Brazil (Acre, SW Amazonas) and NW Bolivia (Pando)
3 regalis (J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940) vNC Bolivia (Cochabamba and Beni)
Lepidothrix nattereri Snow-capped Manakin
nattereri (P.L. Sclater, 1865) C Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Madeira to R. Tapajós in Amazonas and W Pará)
gracilis (Hellmayr, 1903)39 vSE Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Madeira to upper R. Xingu) and extreme NE Bolivia (NE Santa Cruz) [Hellmayr, 1903 #14498]
Lepidothrix vilasboasi   (Sick, 1959) Golden-crowned Manakin
iEC Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Cururu and Consórcio Jamanxim in SW Pará)
Lepidothrix iris Opal-crowned Manakin
eucephala (Todd, 1928)40 vE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, along right bank of lower R. Tapajós)
iris (Schinz, 1851) E Amazonian Brazil (west to lower R. Tocantins and upper R. Xingu)
Lepidothrix isidorei Blue-rumped Manakin
isidorei (P.L. Sclater, 1852) E slope of E Andes from C Colombia (Boyacá) to N Peru (N Amazonas)
leucopygia (Hellmayr, 1903)41 vE slope of Andes in N Peru (S Amazonas to N Huánuco)
Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla   (von Tschudi, 1844) α Cerulean-capped Manakin
iE slope of Andes of C and SE Peru (S Huánuco to N Puno)
Tribe ILICURINI
ILICURA Reichenbach, 1850 F - Pipra militaris Shaw, 1809; type by subsequent monotypy (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 55).  
Ilicura militaris 42,43  (Shaw, 1809) Θ Pin-tailed Manakin
vSE Brazil (S Bahia; S Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to W Paraná and NE Santa Catarina)
MASIUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Pipra chrysoptera Lafresnaye, 1843; type by monotypy  44
Masius chrysopterus45 Golden-winged Manakin
bellus E. Hartert & Hellmayr, 1903 vW Andes and W slope of C Andes of Colombia
coronulatus P.L. Sclater, 1860 vW slope of Andes from SW Colombia (Cauca) to SW Ecuador (W Loja)
chrysopterus (Lafresnaye, 1843) vAndes of NW Venezuela, E Andes (on both slopes south to Boyacá) and E slope of C Andes of Colombia
pax Meyer de Schauensee, 1952 E slope of E Andes from C Colombia (Cundinamarca) to S Ecuador (N Zamora-Chinchipe)
peruvianus Carriker, 1934 vAndes of extreme S Ecuador (S Zamora-Chinchipe) and N Peru (Cajamarca, N San Martín)
CORAPIPO Bonaparte, 1854 F - Pipra gutturalis Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy  
Corapipo altera46 White-ruffed Manakin
altera Hellmayr, 1906 vCaribbean slope of Central America (south from E Honduras), Pacific slope of S Costa Rica and Panama to NW Colombia
heteroleuca Hellmayr, 1910 vPacific slope of SW Costa Rica and W Panama (W Chiriquí)
Corapipo leucorrhoa   (P.L. Sclater, 1863) White-bibbed Manakin
vNC and W Colombia (south to middle Magdalena valley, east to NW Arauca; Pacific slope in Valle); W Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá and Andean foothills)
Corapipo gutturalis 47  (Linnaeus, 1766) White-throated Manakin
vS Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to Roraima)
ANTILOPHIA Reichenbach, 1850 F - Pipra galeata M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823; type by subsequent monotypy (Bonaparte, 1854, L'Ateneo Italiano, 2, p. 315).  48
Antilophia bokermanni   Coelho & W. Silva, 1998 Araripe Manakin
iNE Brazil (Chapada do Araripe in S Ceará) [Coelho, 1998 #4366]
Antilophia galeata   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Helmeted Manakin
vEC and S Brazil (C Maranhão to S Mato Grosso, W Paraná and N São Paulo), NE Bolivia (NE Santa Cruz) and NE Paraguay
CHIROXIPHIA Cabanis, 1847 F - Pipra caudata Shaw, 1793; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 55).  49
Chiroxiphia linearis 50  (Bonaparte, 1838) Long-tailed Manakin
vPacific slope from S Mexico (extreme SE Oaxaca) to NW Costa Rica (Golfo de Nicoya)
Chiroxiphia lanceolata   (Wagler, 1830) Lance-tailed Manakin
vPacific slope from SW Costa Rica to E Panama; N Colombia, N Venezuela, Isla de Margarita
Chiroxiphia pareola51 Blue-backed Manakin
atlantica Dalmas, 1900 vTobago
pareola (Linnaeus, 1766) SE Venezuela, the Guianas, E Amazonian Brazil (west to R. Branco and R. Tapajós); E Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte to N Espírito Santo)
napensis W. deW. Miller, 1908 vSC Colombia, E Ecuador, N and C Peru (north of R. Amazon and west of R. Ucayali)
regina P.L. Sclater, 1856 E Peru (south of R. Amazon and east of R. Ucayali), W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Tapajós and R. Negro) and N Bolivia
Chiroxiphia boliviana 52  J.A. Allen, 1889 Yungas Manakin
vE slope of Andes from S Peru (Cuzco) to SC Bolivia (N Chuquisaca)
Chiroxiphia caudata 53  (Shaw, 1793) Swallow-tailed Manakin/Blue Manakin
vSE Brazil (SE Bahia to S Mato Grosso do Sul and Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones, NE Corrientes)
GENUS INCERTAE SEDIS
CHLOROPIPO Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1860 F - Chloropipo flavicollis Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1860; type by original designation = Pipra flavicapilla P.L. Sclater, 1852
Chloropipo flavicapilla   (P.L. Sclater, 1852) Yellow-headed Manakin
Locally in W Andes (Valle, Cauca) and C Andes (Antioquia, Tolima, south from Huila) of Colombia, E slope of Andes of Ecuador (W Napo, Tungurahua)
Chloropipo unicolor   Taczanowski, 1884 Jet Manakin
E slope of Andes from N Ecuador (W Napo) to S Peru (Puno)

1 Genetic data confirm the monophyly of the Pipridae as constituted here; see Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002], McKay et al. (2010) [McKay, 2010 #12303] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
2 Treatment in two subfamilies, one with two tribes follows Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
3 Sequence of genera based on Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
4 This and all other species in the genus thought by Snow (1979, 2004) [Snow, 1979 #14496], [Snow, 2004 #12196] to form a superspecies.
5 For treatment as a species separate from N. aurifrons, see Whitney et al. (1995) [Whitney, 1995 #4198].
6 Forms a superspecies with T. stolzmanni; see Snow (1979, 2004) [Snow, 1979 #14496], [Snow, 2004 #12196] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
7 For inclusion of Chloropipo in Xenopipo, see Prum (1992) [Prum, 1992 #3163]; however Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910] found Chloropipo polyphyletic and placed just C. uniformis herein.
8 For mention of H. luteocephalus see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
9 This and the other species in the genus form a superspecies; see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
10 Species limits highly uncertain; recent genetic data indicate that narrowly defined M. manacus is paraphyletic with respect to non-white-bellied taxa; see Brumfield & Braun (2001) [Brumfield, 2001 #560] and Brumfield et al. (2001) [Brumfield, 2001 #561]. Therefore, pending further information, we return to a broadly defined M. manacus; but see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
11 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and many others.
12 Proposed subspecies cerritus represents intergradation between this and the subspecies vitellinus; see Parsons et al. (1993) [Parsons, 1993 #14499] and Brumfield & Braun (2001) [Brumfield, 2001 #560].
13 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and many others.
14 The vitellinus subspecies group is treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and many others.
15 Omitted in error by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
16 The manacus subspecies group is treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and many others. Some subspecies within this group may not be diagnosable; see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196].
17 Sequence of species follows Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
18 See Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497] for discussion of whether to recognise this subspecies.
19 Forms a superspecies with P. filicauda and P. fasciicauda; see Snow (1979, 2004) [Snow, 1979 #14496], [Snow, 2004 #12196].
20 Rêgo et al. (2007) [Rego, 2007 #10312] found evidence that the P. aureola superspecies may be more closely related to Heterocercus than to other Pipra; those other species are now placed in Ceratopipra following Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
21 See Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497] for discussion of subspecies, in particular about the diagnosibility of aurantiicollis and borbae.
22 Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] considered the Amazonian striolatus subspecies group to be a separate species.
23 May comprise more than one species; see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196]. Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910] found support for this view.
24 Placement of this species in the monotypic genus Dixiphia is required to maintain monophyly in the genus Pipra; see Prum (1992, 1994) [Prum, 1992 #3163], [Prum, 1994 #3166], Rego et al. 2007 [Rego, 2007 #10312].
25 The genus Ceratopipra was resurrected for the P. erythrocephala group to maintain the monophyly of Pipra; see Rêgo et al. (2007) [Rego, 2007 #10312], Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
26 Forms a superspecies with C. mentalis, C. rubrocapilla and C. chloromeros; see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
27 Includes flammiceps; see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
28 This species formerly placed in Chloropipo, but see Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
29 Doubtfully distinct from litae; see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
30 May merit treatment, along with suffusa, as a separate species; see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) [Ridgely, 1994 #3272] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
31 Doubtfully distinct from nominate holochlora; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
32 For recognition of Lepidothrix see Prum (1992) [Prum, 1992 #3163], Rêgo et al. (2007) [Rego, 2007 #10312] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
33 Zuccon (2011) [Zuccon, 2011 #12891] has shown that Paclt (2009) [Paclt, 2009 #11745] was incorrect in claiming that this name was preoccupied and in proposing Neolepidothrix.
34 Sequence of species follows Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
35 The species of Lepidothrix form a superspecies; see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
36 For treatment as a separate species from L. serena, see Prum (1990, 1994) [Prum, 1990 #3161], [Prum, 1994 #3165].
37 Subspecies groups based on Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196].
38 The name hoffmannsi is thought to apply to an intergradient population; see Haffer (1970) [Haffer, 1970 #14779].
39 For recognition see Stotz et al. (1997) [Stotz, 1997 #15084], Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
40 May deserve treatment as a separate species; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
41 Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] suggested that this may deserve species rank. But see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
42 For change in authorship see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9496].
43 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9496].
44 This and Corapipo are sister genera; see Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002].
45 Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497] suggested that subspecies revision is needed.
46 For treatment as a separate species from C. leucorrhoa, see Wetmore (1972) [Wetmore, 1972 #4153]; but see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] and Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
47 Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496] considered the species in his genus Corapipo to form a superspecies.
48 Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12196] proposed that this and Chiroxiphia were sister genera; this has been confirmed by genetic data, see Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002].
49 The species of Chiroxiphia form a superspecies; see Snow (1975, 1979) [Snow, 1975 #11196], [Snow, 1979 #14496], Haffer (1987) [Haffer, 1987 #13890], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
50 Includes fastuosa; see Kirwan (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #13291].
51 Probably comprises more than one species; see Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443].
52 For treatment as a separate species from C. pareola, see Parker & Remsen (1987) [Parker, 1987 #2908].
53 For change in authorship see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9496].
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