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COTINGIDAE - Cotingas1,2 (25:65)
PIPREOLINAE
PIPREOLA Swainson, 1838 F - Pipreola chlorolepidota Swainson, 1838; type by monotypy  
Pipreola riefferii3 Green-and-black Fruiteater
1 melanolaema P.L. Sclater, 1856 vAndes and Coastal Range of NW and N Venezuela (S Lara to C Táchira; Aragua to Miranda)
1 occidentalis (Chapman, 1914) vW Andes of Colombia and W slope of Andes in Ecuador (south to El Oro)
1 riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840) Sierra de Perijá; Andes of SW Venezuela (W Táchira), C and E Andes of Colombia
1 confusa J.T. Zimmer, 19364 vE slope of Andes of Ecuador and extreme N Peru (W Amazonas)
1 chachapoyas (Hellmayr, 1915) E slope of Andes of N Peru (Amazonas and San Martín)
2 tallmanorum O'Neill & T.A. Parker, 19815 Mountains of C Peru (E slope of Andes and Cerros del Sira in S Huánuco) [O'Neill, 1981 #2797]
Pipreola intermedia Band-tailed Fruiteater
intermedia Taczanowski, 1884 vE slope of Andes of C Peru (E La Libertad and San Martín to Junín)
signata (Hellmayr, 1917) vE slope of Andes of SE Peru (Cuzco) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Pipreola arcuata Barred Fruiteater
arcuata (Lafresnaye, 1843) vSierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela to C Peru (Pasco)
viridicauda Meyer de Schauensee, 1953 E slope of Andes of C Peru (Junín) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Pipreola aureopectus6 Golden-breasted Fruiteater
decora Bangs, 1899 vSanta Marta Mts. (N Colombia)
aureopectus (Lafresnaye, 1843) Sierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela to NE Colombia (Norte de Santander), W Andes and N end of C Andes of Colombia
festiva (Todd, 1912) vCoastal Range of Venezuela (Carabobo to Aragua)
Pipreola jucunda 7  P.L. Sclater, 1860 Orange-breasted Fruiteater
vW slope of W Andes of Colombia (S Chocó) to NW Ecuador (Pichincha)
Pipreola lubomirskii   Taczanowski, 1879 Black-chested Fruiteater
iE slope of Andes of S Colombia (Huila) to N Peru (C Amazonas); also on W slope of Andes in N Peru (Zaña valley in W Cajamarca)
Pipreola pulchra   (Hellmayr, 1917) Masked Fruiteater
vE slope of Andes of Peru (S Amazonas to Cuzco)
Pipreola frontalis Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater
1 squamipectus (Chapman, 1925)8 E slope of Andes of N Ecuador (W Napo) to N Peru (San Martín)
2 frontalis (P.L. Sclater, 1859) αvE slope of Andes of C Peru (Huánuco) to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Pipreola chlorolepidota 9  Swainson, 1838 α Fiery-throated Fruiteater
vE slope of Andes of S Colombia (SE Cauca, W Caquetá) to C and SE Peru (Pasco; N Puno)
Pipreola formosa Handsome Fruiteater
1 formosa (Hartlaub, 1849) vMountains of N Venezuela (Falcón, Yaracuy, Coastal Range from Carabobo to Miranda)
2 rubidior (Chapman, 1925)10 vCoastal Range of NE Venezuela (N Anzoátegui, Sucre and N Monagas)
2 pariae W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949 Mountains of NE Venezuela (Paria Pen.)
Pipreola whitelyi Red-banded Fruiteater
kathleenae J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1944 Tepuis of SE Venezuela (La Gran Sabana, except Mt. Roraima)
whitelyi Salvin & Godman, 1884 Tepuis of SE Venezuela (Mt. Roraima) and adjacent Guyana (Mt. Roraima, Mt. Twek-quay and Mt. Kowa)
AMPELIOIDES J. Verreaux, 1867 M - Ampelioides flavitorques J. Verreaux, 1867; type by monotypy = Cotinga tschudii G.R. Gray, 1846  
Ampelioides tschudii   (G.R. Gray, 1846) Scaled Fruiteater
iSierra de Perijá; W Andes of Colombia (Antioquia) to Ecuador (Loja), E Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander) to NW Bolivia (La Paz, Beni)
COTINGINAE

Tribe PHYTOTOMINI
ZARATORNIS Koepcke, 1954 M - Zaratornis stresemanni Koepcke, 1954; type by monotypy  11
Zaratornis stresemanni   Koepcke, 1954 White-cheeked Cotinga
iLocally on W slope of Andes of N and C Peru (La Libertad to Ayacucho)
PHYTOTOMA G.I. Molina, 1782 F - Phytotoma rara G.I. Molina, 1782; type by monotypy  12
Phytotoma raimondii   Taczanowski, 1883 Peruvian Plantcutter
iCoastal NW Peru (Piura to N Lima)
Phytotoma rutila13 White-tipped Plantcutter
angustirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 vHighlands of C and S Bolivia (La Paz and W Santa Cruz to Tarija) and N Argentina (Jujuy, NW Salta)
rutila Vieillot, 1818 vW Paraguay, N and E Argentina (south to Río Negro and NE Chubut) and W Uruguay
Phytotoma rara   G.I. Molina, 1782 Rufous-tailed Plantcutter
iAndes of C and S Chile (S Atacama to Magallanes) and adjacent Argentina (W Neuquén to W Santa Cruz)
DOLIORNIS Taczanowski, 1874 M - Doliornis sclateri Taczanowski, 1874; type by monotypy  14
Doliornis remseni   Robbins, G.H. Rosenberg & F.S. Molina, 1994 Chestnut-bellied Cotinga
iC Andes of Colombia (Quindío); locally on E slope of Andes of Ecuador (SE Carchi to Zamora-Chichipe) [Robbins, 1994 #3350]
Doliornis sclateri 15  Taczanowski, 1874 Bay-vented Cotinga
iE slopes of Andes of C Peru (San Martín to Junín)
AMPELION von Tschudi, 1845 M - Ampelis rufaxilla von Tschudi, 1844; type by monotypy  
Ampelion rubrocristatus   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Red-crested Cotinga
vSanta Marta Mts.; Sierra de Perijá; Andes from W Venezuela to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Ampelion rufaxilla Chestnut-crested Cotinga
antioquiae (Chapman, 1924)16 Locally in W and C Andes of Colombia; E slope of Andes of extreme N Ecuador (W Sucumbíos) (?)
rufaxilla (von Tschudi, 1844) Locally on E slope of Andes of S Ecuador (S Zamora-Chinchipe) to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Tribe RUPICOLINI
CARPORNIS G.R. Gray, 1846 F - Ampelis melanocephala Bonaparte; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 147). = Procnias melanocephalus zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820  
Carpornis cucullata   (Swainson, 1821) Hooded Berryeater
vSE Brazil (C Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul)
Carpornis melanocephala   (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) Black-headed Berryeater
vE Brazil (NE Alagoas; E Bahia to NE Paraná)
PHOENICIRCUS Swainson, 1832 M - Lanius carnifex Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 33).  
Phoenicircus carnifex 17  (Linnaeus, 1758) Guianan Red Cotinga
iSE Venezuela (E Bolívar), the Guianas and NE Amazonian Brazil (west to Manaus and lower R. Tapajós)
Phoenicircus nigricollis   Swainson, 1832 Black-necked Red Cotinga
vE Ecuador, NE Peru, SE Colombia, S Venezuela (S Amazonas) and W and C Amazonian Brazil (east to lower R. Negro and lower R. Tapajós)
RUPICOLA Brisson, 1760 M - Rupicola Brisson; type by tautonymy = Pipra rupicola Linnaeus, 1766  
Rupicola rupicola 18  (Linnaeus, 1766) Guianan Cock-of-the-rock
iE Colombia (SE Vichada to Vaupés), S Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar), the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Negro)
Rupicola peruvianus Andean Cock-of-the-rock
sanguinolentus Gould, 1859 vW Andes of Colombia and NW Ecuador (south to Cotopaxi)
aequatorialis Taczanowski, 1889 vAndes of SW Venezuela (NW Barinas, Táchira), C and E Andes of Colombia and E slope of Andes of Ecuador to N Peru (N San Martín)
peruvianus (Latham, 1790) vE slope of Andes of C Peru (S San Martín to Junín)
saturatus Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 186019 vE slope of Andes of SE Peru (Cuzco) to W Bolivia (Cochabamba)
SNOWORNIS Prum, 2001 M - Lipaugus subalaris P.L. Sclater, 1861; type by original designation  20
Snowornis subalaris   (P.L. Sclater, 1861) Gray-tailed Piha
vLocally on E slope of Andes of S Colombia (Huila) to SE Peru (S Madre de Dios)
Snowornis cryptolophus Olivaceous Piha
mindoensis (Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1914) vW Andes of Colombia (Antioquia) to NW Ecuador (Pichincha)
cryptolophus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1877) vE slope of Andes of S Colombia (Huila) to C Peru (Huánuco)
Tribe COTINGINI
HAEMATODERUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - [Haematoderus] militaris Gmelin; type by monotypy = Coracias militaris Shaw, 1792  
Haematoderus militaris   (Shaw, 1792) Crimson Fruitcrow
vS Venezuela (Serranía de la Neblina); the Guianas and N Brazil (NE Amazonas to Amapá and NE Pará); locally in S Amazonian Brazil (S Amazonas, Rondônia)
QUERULA Vieillot, 1816 F - Piauhau Buffon; type by monotypy = Muscicapa purpurata Statius Muller, 1776  
Querula purpurata   (Statius Muller, 1776) Purple-throated Fruitcrow
vSE Nicaragua to NC Colombia and NW Ecuador; SE Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia (largely absent from Brazil north of R. Amazon)
PYRODERUS G.R. Gray, 1840 M - [Pyroderus] scutatus Latham; type by original designation = Coracias scutata Shaw, 1792  
Pyroderus scutatus Red-ruffed Fruitcrow
occidentalis Chapman, 1914 vW Andes and W slope of C Andes of Colombia, W slope of Andes in NW Ecuador (south to Pichincha)
granadensis (Lafresnaye, 1846) vSierra de Perijá; W Coastal Range and Andes of Venezuela, E Andes and E slope of C Andes of Colombia
orenocensis (Lafresnaye, 1846) vE Venezuela (NE Bolívar) and adjacent NW Guyana
masoni Ridgway, 1886 E slope of Andes in N and C Peru (Amazonas to Pasco)
scutatus (Shaw, 1792) vSE Brazil (Bahia and SE Goiás to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes)
CEPHALOPTERUS E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809 M - Cephalopterus ornatus E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809; type by original designation and monotypy  
Cephalopterus glabricollis   Gould, 1851 Bare-necked Umbrellabird
vCaribbean slope of Costa Rica to WC Panama (Veraguas)
Cephalopterus ornatus 21  E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809 Amazonian Umbrellabird
vS Venezuela, SW Guyana and Amazonia (although absent from NE); also E Andean foothills of Colombia to Peru
Cephalopterus penduliger   P.L. Sclater, 1859 Long-wattled Umbrellabird
iW slope of Andes and lowlands of SW Colombia (Valle) to SW Ecuador (El Oro)
PERISSOCEPHALUS Oberholser, 1899 M - Corvus calvus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by original designation = Corvus tricolor Statius Muller, 1776  
Perissocephalus tricolor   (Statius Muller, 1776) Capuchinbird
iE Colombia (E Vaupés), S and SE Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Negro)
COTINGA Brisson, 1760 F - Cotinga Brisson; type by tautonymy = Ampelis cotinga Linnaeus, 1766  
Cotinga amabilis   Gould, 1857 Lovely Cotinga
vCaribbean slope of SE Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca, N Chiapas) to SE Costa Rica
Cotinga ridgwayi   Ridgway, 1887 Turquoise Cotinga
iPacific slope of Costa Rica (Golfo de Nicoya) to W Panama (W Chiriquí)
Cotinga nattererii   (Boissonneau, 1840) Blue Cotinga
iC Panama (E Colón, Panamá) to NC and W Colombia and NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas); W Venezuela (NW Táchira, Mérida)
Cotinga maynana   (Linnaeus, 1766) Plum-throated Cotinga
vSE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia (south to Beni and N La Paz) and W Amazonian Brazil (east to lower R. Negro and lower R. Madeira)
Cotinga cotinga 22  (Linnaeus, 1766) Purple-breasted Cotinga
iE Colombia, S and E Venezuela, the Guianas, N and E Amazonian Brazil; also locally in NE Peru (Loreto, San Martín) and S Amazonian Brazil (Rondônia)
Cotinga maculata   (Statius Muller, 1776) Banded Cotinga
vCoastal E Brazil (SE Bahia and N Espírito Santo)
Cotinga cayana   (Linnaeus, 1766) Spangled Cotinga
vE Colombia, S and E Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia
LIPAUGUS Boie, 1828 M - Muscicapa plumbea M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 29). = Muscicapa vociferans zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820  
Lipaugus weberi   Cuervo, Salaman, Donegan & Ochoa, 2001 Chestnut-capped Piha
iC Andes of NC Colombia (east of Nechí Valley in C Antioquia) [Cuervo, 2001 #1101]
Lipaugus fuscocinereus 23  (Lafresnaye, 1843) Dusky Piha
vE, C and N end of W Andes of Colombia, E slope of Andes in Ecuador and extreme N Peru (Cerro Chinguela)
Lipaugus uropygialis 24  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) Scimitar-winged Piha
vE slope of Andes of SE Peru (E Puno) to W Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Lipaugus unirufus Rufous Piha
unirufus P.L. Sclater, 1860 αvCaribbean slope of SE Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca, N Chiapas) to Panama, NC and W Colombia (east to Santander and south to Valle)
castaneotinctus (E. Hartert, 1902) vSW Colombia (Cauca) to NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
Lipaugus vociferans 25  (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) Screaming Piha
iS and E Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia; E Brazil (Pernambuco to C Espírito Santo)
Lipaugus lanioides   (Lesson, 1844) Cinnamon-vented Piha
iSE Brazil (SE Bahia, C and NE Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to NE Santa Catarina)
Lipaugus streptophorus   (Salvin & Godman, 1884) Rose-collared Piha
vTepuis of SE Venezuela (SE Bolívar) and adjacent N Brazil (Mt. Roraima, Serra Uei) and extreme SW Guyana
TIJUCA Férussac, 1829 F - Tijuca atra Lesson; type by monotypy = Tijuca atra Férussac, 1829  
Tijuca atra   Férussac, 1829 Black-and-gold Cotinga
vMountains of SE Brazil (extreme E São Paulo, extreme S Minas Gerais and SW Rio de Janeiro)
Tijuca condita   Snow, 1980 Gray-winged Cotinga
vMountains of SE Brazil (Serra dos Orgãos and Serra do Tinguá in C Rio de Janeiro) [Snow, 1980 #3673]
PROCNIAS Illiger, 1811 M - Ampelis variegata J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 34). = Ampelis averano Hermann, 1783  
Procnias tricarunculatus   (J. & E. Verreaux, 1853) Three-wattled Bellbird
vMountains of E Honduras (Sierra de Agalta) and NC Nicaragua; Costa Rica to WC Panama (Azuero Pen.) >> adjacent lowlands
Procnias albus White Bellbird
albus (Hermann, 1783) vS and E Venezuela (S Amazonas, S and E Bolívar), the Guianas and adjacent N Brazil (N Roraima and N Pará)
wallacei Oren & Novaes, 1985 E Amazonian Brazil (Serra dos Carajás in E Pará) [Oren, 1985 #2869]
Procnias averano Bearded Bellbird
carnobarba (Cuvier, 1816)26 αN end of Sierra de Perijá; locally in Coastal Range of Venezuela; tepuis of S and SE Venezuela, N Brazil (N Roraima) and adjacent W Guyana; Trinidad
averano (Hermann, 1783) NE Brazil (S Maranhão and Ceará to Alagoas)
Procnias nudicollis   (Vieillot, 1817) Bare-throated Bellbird
vE Brazil (E Pernambuco, E Alagoas; SE Bahia to E Mato Grosso do Sul and NE Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones)
PORPHYROLAEMA Bonaparte, 1854 F - Cotinga porphyrolaema Deville & P.L. Sclater, 1852; type by monotypy and tautonymy  
Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema   (Deville & P.L. Sclater, 1852) Purple-throated Cotinga
vS Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, NW Bolivia (La Paz) and W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and N Mato Grosso)
CARPODECTES Salvin, 1865 M - Carpodectes nitidus Salvin, 1865; type by original designation  
Carpodectes hopkei   von Berlepsch, 1897 Black-tipped Cotinga
iSE Panama (Darién), W Colombia and NW Ecuador (south to Pichincha)
Carpodectes antoniae   Ridgway, 1884 Yellow-billed Cotinga
iPacific slope of NW Costa Rica (S Golfo de Nicoya) to WC Panama (Veraguas)
Carpodectes nitidus 27  Salvin, 1865 Snowy Cotinga
vCaribbean slope from NW Honduras to extreme W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
XIPHOLENA Gloger, 1841 F - Ampelis pompadora Linnaeus, 1766 ; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 56). = Turdus puniceus Pallas, 1764  
Xipholena punicea 28  (Pallas, 1764) Pompadour Cotinga
vE Colombia, S and E Venezuela, the Guianas, N and C Amazonian Brazil, NE Peru (Loreto) and NE Bolivia
Xipholena lamellipennis   (Lafresnaye, 1839) White-tailed Cotinga
vE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to lower R. Tapajós)
Xipholena atropurpurea   (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) White-winged Cotinga
vCoastal E Brazil (Paraíba to N Rio de Janeiro)
GYMNODERUS E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809 M - Corvus nudus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by original designation = Gracula foetida Linnaeus, 1758  
Gymnoderus foetidus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Bare-necked Fruitcrow
vS Venezuela (NW Bolívar, W and C Amazonas), the Guianas and Amazonia (absent from NW)
CONIOPTILON Lowery & O'Neill, 1966 N - Conioptilon mcilhennyi Lowery & O'Neill, 1966; type by monotypy  
Conioptilon mcilhennyi   Lowery & O'Neill, 1966 Black-faced Cotinga
iSE Peru (S Ucayali, NE Cuzco, Madre de Dios), adjacent SW Brazil (Acre) and NW Bolivia (Pando)
GENUS INCERTAE SEDIS
PHIBALURA Vieillot, 1816 F - Phibalura flavirostris Vieillot, 1816; type by monotypy  29
Phibalura flavirostris Swallow-tailed Cotinga
1 flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 vSE Brazil (C Bahia; S Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones)
2 boliviana Chapman, 193030 vE slope of Andes of NW Bolivia (area around Apolo in N La Paz)

1 Sequence of genera adapted from Ohlson et al. (2007) [Ohlson, 2007 #9993] and Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002].
2 See the Tityridae for what was the cotingid subfamily Tityrinae in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
3 Considered to form a superspecies with P. intermedia by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
4 Doubtfully distinct from chachapoyas; see O'Neill & Parker (1981) [O'Neill, 1981 #2797].
5 May deserve species rank; see O'Neill & Parker (1981) [O'Neill, 1981 #2797] and Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195].
6 Considered to form a superspecies with P. jacunda, P. lubomirskii and P. pulchra by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
7 For treatment of P. jucunda, P. lubomirskii and P. pulchra as separate species from P. aureopectus; see Snow (1982, 2004) [Snow, 1982 #15085], [Snow, 2004 #12195].
8 May deserve species rank; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195].
9 Considered to form a superspecies with P. frontalis by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #3672].
10 May merit treatment, along with pariae, as a separate species; see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477] and Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
11 Some authors, e.g., Snow (1973, 1979) [Snow, 1973 #11195], [Snow, 1979 #3672], Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] have merged Doliornis into Ampelion; for continued separation from Ampelion, see Lanyon & Lanyon (1989) [Lanyon, 1989 #2327], Robbins et al. (1994) [Robbins, 1994 #3350], Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195], and Ohlson et al. (2007) [Ohlson, 2007 #9993].
12 Formerly treated in a separate family, Phytotomidae; for reasons to treat this genus in the Cotingidae see Lanyon & Lanyon (1989) [Lanyon, 1989 #2327], Sibley & Ahlquist (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Prum et al. (2000) [Prum, 2000 #3167], Johansson et al. (2003) [Johansson, 2003 #2122], Chesser (2004) [Chesser, 2004 #744], Ohlson et al. (2007) [Ohlson, 2007 #9993], and Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002].
13 Forms a superspecies with P. raimondii; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195].
14 Some authors, e.g., Snow (1973, 1979) [Snow, 1973 #11195], [Snow, 1979 #3672], Fjeldsä & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldsä, 1990 #1570] have merged Doliornis into Ampelion; for continued separation from Ampelion, see Lanyon & Lanyon (1989) [Lanyon, 1989 #2327], Robbins et al. (1994) [Robbins, 1994 #3350], Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195], and Ohlson et al. (2007) [Ohlson, 2007 #9993].
15 Forms a superspecies with D. remseni; see Robbins et al. (1994) [Robbins, 1994 #3350].
16 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
17 Forms a superspecies with P. nigricollis; see Haffer (1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870], Snow (1979, 2004) [Snow, 1979 #3672], [Snow, 2004 #12195] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
18 Considered to form a superspecies with R. peruvianus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #3672] and Haffer (1987) [Haffer, 1987 #13890].
19 For best date to use see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
20 For recognition of this genus see Prum et al. (2000) [Prum, 2000 #3167], Prum (2001) [Prum, 2001 #3168], Ohlson et al. (2007, 2013) [Ohlson, 2007 #9993], [Ohlson, 2013 #14349] and Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002].
21 Considered to form a superspecies with C. glabricollis and C. penduliger by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #3672] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
22 Forms a superspecies with C. amabilis, C. ridgwayi, C. nattererii, C. maynana and C. maculata; see Haffer (1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870], A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195].
23 Presumably forms a superspecies with L. uropygialis; see Remsen (1984) [Remsen, 1984 #14918].
24 Formerly, e.g. by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #3672], treated in a monotypic genus, Chirocylla, but see Remsen et al. (1982) [Remsen, 1982 #14917], Prum (2001) [Prum, 2001 #3168] and Cuervo et al. (2001) [Cuervo, 2001 #1101] for merger into Lipaugus.
25 Considered to form a superspecies with L. unirufus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #3672].
26 Given as 1817 by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #3672], but see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542].
27 Considered to form a superspecies with C. hopkei and C. antoniae by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #3672].
28 Considered to form a superspecies with X. lamellipennis and X. atropurpurea by Snow (1979, 2004) [Snow, 1979 #3672], [Snow, 2004 #12195].
29 Provisionally placed by Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14349] in the subfamily Phytotominae.
30 May deserve treatment as a separate species; see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195] and Hennessey (2011) [Hennessey, 2011 #12859].
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