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ANATIDAE - Ducks, Geese and Swans1 (53:162)
DENDROCYGNA Swainson, 1837 F - Anas arcuata Horsfield, 1824; type by subsequent designation (Eyton, 1838, Monograph on the Anatidae, p. 28).  
Dendrocygna viduata   (Linnaeus, 1766) White-faced Whistling Duck
vCosta Rica and Trinidad to N Argentina and Uruguay; sub-Saharan Africa, Comoros, Madagascar
Dendrocygna autumnalis2 Black-bellied Whistling Duck
fulgens Friedmann, 1947 S USA (C Texas, Louisiana) to C Panama
autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) vE Panama to Ecuador and east of Andes to N Argentina
Dendrocygna guttata   Schlegel, 1866 Spotted Whistling Duck
vS Philippines (Mindanao), Sulawesi, Moluccas, Lesser Sundas, lowland New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., NE Australia (N Cape York Pen.)
Dendrocygna arborea   (Linnaeus, 1758) West Indian Whistling Duck
vBahamas, Turks and Caicos Is., Greater Antilles and N Lesser Antilles (south to Martinique)
Dendrocygna bicolor 3  (Vieillot, 1816) Fulvous Whistling Duck
iS USA to C South America; sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar; S Asia, Myanmar, S Vietnam
Dendrocygna eytoni   (Eyton, 1838) Plumed Whistling Duck
iN and E Australia >> lowland S New Guinea
Dendrocygna arcuata Wandering Whistling Duck
arcuata (Horsfield, 1824) vPhilippines, Greater Sundas, Sulawesi, Banggai Is., Sula Is., Lesser Sundas (east to Timor)
pygmaea Mayr, 1945 vLowland N New Guinea, New Britain; formerly Fiji
australis Reichenbach, 1850 vLowland S New Guinea, coastal N and NE Australia
Dendrocygna javanica   (Horsfield, 1821) Lesser Whistling Duck
vS Asia, SW and S China, Ryukyu Is., Taiwan, mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas, W and C Lesser Sundas (east to Timor)
HETERONETTA Salvadori, 1865 F - Anas melanocephala Vieillot, 1816 not of J.F. Gmelin; type by original designation and monotypy = Anas atricapilla Merrem, 1841  
Heteronetta atricapilla   (Merrem, 1841) Black-headed Duck
iC Chile (Santiago to Araucanía), N and C Argentina (south to Buenos Aires), S Uruguay, C Paraguay and E Bolivia
NOMONYX Ridgway, 1880 M - Anas dominica Linnaeus, 1766; type by original designation  
Nomonyx dominicus   (Linnaeus, 1766) Masked Duck
vWest Indies and Mexico to NW Peru, south to NE Argentina (east of Andes)
OXYURA Bonaparte, 1828 F - Anas rubidus A. Wilson, 1814; type by monotypy = Anas jamaicensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789  
Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy Duck
1 rubida (A. Wilson, 1814)5 vS Canada, USA >> S USA to S Mexico
1 jamaicensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vWest Indies6
2 ferruginea (Eyton, 1838)7 vAndes of Colombia to Tierra del Fuego
Oxyura vittata   (R.A. Philippi, Sr., 1860) Lake Duck
vC Chile (Atacama to Los Lagos), Uruguay, C and S Argentina (Santa Fé to Tierra del Fuego)
Oxyura australis   Gould, 1837 Blue-billed Duckα
vS Australia, Tasmania
Oxyura maccoa 8  (Eyton, 1838) Maccoa Duck
iEthiopia to N Tanzania; Namibia to Zimbabwe and South Africa
Oxyura leucocephala   (Scopoli, 1769) White-headed Duck
vLocally from Mediterranean to C Asia and NW China (Xinjiang) >> N Africa, SW Asia, Pakistan
MALACORHYNCHUS Swainson, 1831 M - Anas membranacea Latham, 1801; type by monotypy  9
Malacorhynchus membranaceus   (Latham, 1801) Pink-eared Duckα
vInland and subcoastal Australia
CEREOPSIS Latham, 1801 F - Cereopsis novaehollandiae Latham, 1801; type by monotypy  10
Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cape Barren Goose
novaehollandiae Latham, 1801 αiCoastal SC and SE Australia, Tasmania
grisea (Vieillot, 1818)11 vSW Australia (Recherche Arch.) [Vieillot, 1818 #4006]
COSCOROBA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Anser candidus Vieillot, 1816; type by original designation and tautonymy = Anas coscoroba G.I. Molina, 1782  
Coscoroba coscoroba   (G.I. Molina, 1782) Coscoroba Swan
iSE Brazil, Paraguay, NE Argentina and C Chile south to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
CYGNUS Bechstein, 1803 M - Anas olor J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy  12,13
Cygnus melancoryphus 14  (G.I. Molina, 1782) Black-necked Swanδ
vC Chile, C Argentina and Uruguay south to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is. >> SE Brazil, SE Paraguay, NE Argentina
Cygnus atratus   (Latham, 1790) Black Swan
vW, S and E Australia, Tasmania15
Cygnus olor   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Mute Swan
iEurope to C Asia >> N Africa16
Cygnus buccinator 17  J. Richardson, 1831 Trumpeter Swan
iC and S Alaska, W Canada and NC USA >> coastal SE Alaska, British Columbia and NW USA [Wilson, 1831 #15829]
Cygnus columbianus Tundra Swan
columbianus (Ord, 1815) vTundra of W and N Alaska, N Canada (east to NW Québec), Aleutian Is. and NE Siberia (Chukchi Pen.) >> W and coastal E USA
bewickii Yarrell, 183018 iN Eurasia >> W and C Europe, C and E Asia to Japan
Cygnus cygnus 19  (Linnaeus, 1758) Whooper Swan
iN Eurasia >> W and C Europe, C Asia, China
BRANTA Scopoli, 1769 F - Anas bernicla Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Bannister, 1870, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 131).  20
Branta bernicla Brent Goose/Brant
bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) iNW Russia to NC Siberia (Taymyr Pen.) >> NW Europe
hrota (O.F. Müller, 1776) iNE Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land >> NE USA, NW Europe (Ireland; Denmark to Netherlands)
nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)21,22 iNE Siberia, Alaska, NW Canada >> NE China, Korea, Japan and W North America
Branta leucopsis   (Bechstein, 1803) Barnacle Goose
iNE Greenland, Svalbard, Scandinavia, Finland, NW Russia, Netherlands, Baltic area >> NW Europe23
Branta ruficollis   (Pallas, 1769) Red-breasted Goose
vNW Siberia >> SE Europe, S Russia, SW Asia
Branta hutchinsii24 Cackling Goose
minima Ridgway, 1885 vCoastal W Alaska >> W USA (Oregon to California)
leucopareia (von Brandt, 1836)25 vSW Alaska (W Aleutian Is.) >> W USA (California); formerly also Bering I. and N Kuril Is.
taverneri Delacour, 195126 NE Alaska to NW Canada (Mackenzie delta) >> SW USA, Mexico
hutchinsii (J. Richardson, 1832) NC Canada (Melville Pen., Southampton I., Ellesmere I., Baffin I.) >> Texas and Mexico
Branta sandvicensis 27,28  (Vigors, 1834) Hawaiian Gooseα
vHawaiian Is. [Vigors, 1834 #4026]
Branta canadensis29 Canada Goose
occidentalis (S.F. Baird, 1858) vCoastal S Alaska >> coastal W North America (S British Columbia to N Oregon)
fulva Delacour, 195130 vCoastal S Alaska and W British Columbia
maxima Delacour, 195131 vReintroduced SC Canada
parvipes (Cassin, 1852) iC Alaska, WC Canada >> SC USA
moffitti Aldrich, 1946 iSW Canada, NW USA >> NW USA to N Mexico
interior Todd, 1938 vEC Canada >> E USA
canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE Canada and NE USA >> E USA32
ANSER Brisson, 1760 M - Anser Brisson; type by tautonymy = Anas anser Linnaeus, 1758  33
Anser canagicus 34  (Sevastianov, 1802) Emperor Goose
vNE Siberia, NW Alaska >> Kamchatka, Aleutian Is., S Alaska
Anser caerulescens Snow Goose
caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) iWrangel I. (NE Siberia); N Alaska and N Canada (east to S Baffin I.) >> S USA and N Mexico
atlanticus (Kennard, 1927)35 vNW Greenland, NE Canada (Queen Elizabeth Is., N Baffin I.) >> NE USA (coastal Delaware, Maryland, Virginia)
Anser rossii   Cassin, 1861 Ross's Goose
iN Canada (Queen Maud Gulf, W coast of Hudson Bay, Banks I., Baffin I., Southampton I.) >> S USA (California, New Mexico, Texas, Louisiana)
Anser indicus   (Latham, 1790) Bar-headed Goose
vC Asia (south to Ladakh and east to N China) >> N India, Myanmar36
Anser brachyrhynchus 37  Baillon, 1834 Pink-footed Goose
vGreenland, Iceland, Svalbard >> W Europe
Anser anser Greylag Goose
anser (Linnaeus, 1758) iN, W, WC, and SE Europe >> W and S Europe, N Africa and Middle East38
rubrirostris Swinhoe, 1871 vEC Europe to Iraq and China >> SE Europe to S and E Asia, N continental SE Asia
Anser cygnoid 39  (Linnaeus, 1758) Swan Gooseδ
iC Asia to SE Siberia and Mongolia >> China
Anser fabalis40 Bean Goose
fabalis (Latham, 1787) vN Europe to NC Siberia >> W, C and SE Europe, SW Asia
johanseni Delacour, 1951 iW Siberia >> Iran and Turkmenistan to W China
middendorffii Severtsov, 187341,42 δiE Siberia, Transbaikalia >> E China and Japan
rossicus Buturlin, 1933 vN Russia, NW Siberia >> W and C Europe, SW Asia
serrirostris Gould, 185243,44 vNE Siberia >> China, Korea, Japan
Anser albifrons45 Greater White-fronted Goose
flavirostris Dalgety & P.M. Scott, 1948 vW Greenland >> British Isles
albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) iN Eurasia >> W and S Europe, SW Asia (to Transcaspia), N India, China
gambelli Hartlaub, 185246,47 δiN and C Alaska and N Canada (east to Boothia Pen.) >> S USA and NE Mexico
sponsa Banks, 2011 iW Alaska (Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Bristol Bay area) >> California and W Mexico [Banks, 2011 #12771]
elgasi Delacour & Ripley, 1975 iSC Alaska (Cook Inlet area) >> C California (Sacramento valley)
Anser erythropus 48  (Linnaeus, 1758) Lesser White-fronted Goose
iN Eurasia >> C and SE Europe and China
CLANGULA Leach, 1819 F - Anas glacialis Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy = Anas hyemalis Linnaeus, 1758  
Clangula hyemalis   (Linnaeus, 1758) Long-tailed Duck
vArctic N Holarctic >> W and N Europe; E Asia; W and E North America
SOMATERIA Leach, 1819 F - Anas spectabilis Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  
Somateria fischeri   (von Brandt, 1847) Spectacled Eider
iNE Siberia (east from Lena delta), W and N Alaska >> Bering Sea
Somateria spectabilis   (Linnaeus, 1758) King Eider
vArctic Russia and Siberia (east from Kanin Pen.), N Alaska, N Canada and Greenland >> Arctic and subarctic ocean coasts
Somateria mollissima49 Common Eider
1 v-nigrum Bonaparte & G.R. Gray, 185550 δiW Arctic Canada, Alaska and NE Siberia (west to Chaunskaya Bay and New Siberia Is.) >> Bering Sea Is. and Aleutian Is.
2 sedentaria Snyder, 1941 vEC Canada (Hudson Bay)
2 borealis (C.L. Brehm, 1824) vNE Canada; Greenland; Iceland; Svalbard; Franz Josef Land >> N Atlantic coasts
2 dresseri Sharpe, 1871 iE Canada (Labrador) to NE USA (Maine) >> NW Atlantic coasts
2 faeroeensis C.L. Brehm, 183151 δvFaroe Is., Shetland Is., Orkney Is. and Outer Hebrides
2 mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758) vIreland and Scotland to Baltic Sea, Norway and NW Russia, south to France >> NW and C Europe
POLYSTICTA Eyton, 1836 F - Anas stelleri Pallas, 1769; type by monotypy  
Polysticta stelleri   (Pallas, 1769) Steller's Eider
iNE Europe and N Siberia to W and N Alaska >> Baltic Sea, N Norway, Bering Sea shores, S Alaska
MELANITTA Boie, 1822 F - Anas fusca Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Eyton, 1838, Monograph on the Anatidae, p. 52).  
Melanitta perspicillata   (Linnaeus, 1758) Surf Scoter
vAlaska, N and E Canada >> Aleutian Is. and coasts of W and E North America
Melanitta fusca Velvet Scoter/White-winged Scoter
fusca (Linnaeus, 1758) vN Europe, NW Siberia, E Turkey and Transcaucasia >> W and S Europe and SW Asia
stejnegeri (Ridgway, 1887) iC and E Siberia >> coasts of NE Pacific
deglandi (Bonaparte, 1850)52,53 iAlaska and Canada (east to Hudson Bay) >> W and E North American coasts
Melanitta nigra   (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Scoter
vN Europe, NW and NC Siberia >> W and S Europe and NW Africa
Melanitta americana 54  (Swainson, 1832) Black Scoter
vNE Siberia (east from R. Lena), Kamchatka and N Kuril Is., W Alaska; E Canada >> N Pacific coasts; Great Lakes; NW Atlantic coasts
BUCEPHALA S.F. Baird, 1858 F - Anas albeola Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation  
Bucephala albeola   (Linnaeus, 1758) Bufflehead
vAlaska, Canada, NW and NC USA >> Aleutian Is. to S and E USA, N Mexico
Bucephala clangula Common Goldeneye
clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) iC and N Europe, N Asia >> W and S Europe to C Asia, Nepal, N India and E Asia
americana (Bonaparte, 1838) vAlaska, Canada, N USA >> Aleutian Is. to S and E USA
Bucephala islandica   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Barrow's Goldeneye
vS Alaska to NW USA (N California and Wyoming); E Canada (Labrador); SW Greenland; Iceland >> W North America; E North America
MERGELLUS Selby, 1840 M - Mergus albellus Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  55
Mergellus albellus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Smew
vN Eurasia >> W and S Europe to C and E Asia
LOPHODYTES Reichenbach, 1853 M - Mergus cucullatus Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation  56
Lophodytes cucullatus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Hooded Merganser
vSE Alaska to NW USA (Oregon); SE Canada to SE USA >> W, S and E USA, N Mexico
MERGUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Mergus castor Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (Eyton, 1838, Monograph on the Anatidae, p. 76). = Mergus serrator Linnaeus, 1758  
Mergus merganser Goosander/Common Merganser
merganser Linnaeus, 1758 iIceland; N and C Europe to N Japan >> W and S Europe to Japan, Korea, north S Asia and S China
orientalis Gould, 1845 vC Asia to W Himalayas (Ladakh and Himachal Pradesh) >> NE India (Assam)
americanus Cassin, 1852 vSE Alaska to E Canada (Newfoundland) and W USA (south to N California and NC New Mexico) >> E and S USA
Mergus squamatus 57  Gould, 1864 Scaly-sided Merganser
vRussian Far East, Korea, NE China >> China, Taiwan
Mergus serrator 58  Linnaeus, 1758 Red-breasted Merganser
iGreenland, N Europe, N and NE Asia; Alaska and Canada >> W Europe to WC Asia, Japan, Korea, coastal China; coastal USA and NE Mexico
Mergus australis   Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841 Auckland Island Merganser
vAuckland Is.
Mergus octosetaceus   Vieillot, 1817 Brazilian Merganser
vSC Brazil (isolated populations in W Bahia, W Minas Gerais, Tocantins and Goiás) and NE Argentina (Misiones)
HISTRIONICUS Lesson, 1828 M - Anas histrionica Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation and tautonymy  
Histrionicus histrionicus 59  (Linnaeus, 1758) Harlequin Duck
v(a) NE Siberia and NW North America >> N Pacific coasts; (b) E Canada to Greenland and Iceland >> NW Atlantic coasts
CAMPTORHYNCHUS Bonaparte, 1838 M - Anas labradoria J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy  
Camptorhynchus labradorius   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Labrador Duck
vE Canada (Labrador Pen.) >> NW Atlantic shores
NEOCHEN Oberholser, 1918 F - Anser jubatus von Spix, 1825; type by original designation and monotypy  
Neochen jubata   (von Spix, 1825) Orinoco Goose
vNE Colombia east to the Guianas and south to W Paraguay and N Argentina (N Salta)
CHLOEPHAGA Eyton, 1838 F - Anas magellanica J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation = Anas leucoptera J.F. Gmelin, 1789  
Chloephaga melanoptera   (Eyton, 1838) Andean Goose
vAndes of C Peru (Ancash) to C Chile (N Bíobío) and N Argentina (Mendoza)
Chloephaga picta Upland Goose
picta (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vC Chile (Maule) and SC Argentina (Neuquén) to Tierra del Fuego >> EC Argentina (Buenos Aires)
leucoptera (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vFalkland Is.
Chloephaga hybrida Kelp Goose
hybrida (G.I. Molina, 1782) iCoastal S Chile (south from Isla de Chiloé) and extreme S Argentina (Tierra del Fuego and Isla de los Estados)
malvinarum J.C. Phillips, 1916 iFalkland Is.
Chloephaga poliocephala   P.L. Sclater, 1857 Ashy-headed Goose
vS Chile (south from Bíobío) and adjacent SW Argentina (south from Neuquén) >> EC Argentina (Buenos Aires)
Chloephaga rubidiceps   P.L. Sclater, 1861 Ruddy-headed Goose
iN Tierra del Fuego >> EC Argentina (Buenos Aires); Falkland Is.
RADJAH Reichenbach, 1853 M - Radjah eytoni Reichenbach, 1853; type by original designation and tautonymy = Anas radjah Garnot & Lesson, 1828  60
Radjah radjah Radjah Shelduck
radjah (Garnot & Lesson, 1828)61 Moluccas, Lesser Sundas (Timor and Tanimbar Is.), Aru Is., lowland New Guinea
rufitergum (E. Hartert, 1905) Tropical N and E Australia
ALOPOCHEN Stejneger, 1885 F - Anas aegyptiaca Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (Oberholser, 1918, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 8, p. 572).  
Alopochen aegyptiaca   (Linnaeus, 1766) Egyptian Goose
vS Mauritania to S Egypt and Ethiopia, south to South Africa62
Alopochen mauritiana   (E. Newton & Gadow, 1893) Mauritius Shelduck
Alopochen kervazoi   (Cowles, 1994) Réunion Shelduck
TADORNA Boie, 1822 F - Anas familiaris Boie, 1822; type by tautonymy = Anas tadorna Linnaeus, 1758  63
Tadorna tadorna   (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Shelduck
iW Europe to NE China >> N Africa, SW Asia, north S Asia, S China
Tadorna ferruginea   (Pallas, 1764) Ruddy Shelduck
vNW Africa and Ethiopia; S Europe, SW and C Asia >> S Europe, N Africa, SW, S and E Asia, Myanmar 64
Tadorna cana   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) South African Shelduck
vNamibia, Botswana, South Africa
Tadorna tadornoides   (Jardine & Selby, 1828) Australian Shelduck
iS Australia, Tasmania
Tadorna variegata   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Paradise Shelduck
vNew Zealand
Tadorna cristata   (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1917) Crested Shelduck
vNE Asia >> Russian Far East, Korea, S Japan, NE China
PTERONETTA Salvadori, 1895 F - Querquedula hartlaubii Cassin, 1860; type by original designation and monotypy  
Pteronetta hartlaubii   (Cassin, 1860) Hartlaub's Duckα
iNW Sierra Leone to S Ghana; SW Nigeria to SW Uganda, south to N Angola
CYANOCHEN Bonaparte, 1856 F - Bernicla cyanoptera Rüppell, 1845; type by monotypy  65
Cyanochen cyanoptera   (Rüppell, 1845) Blue-winged Goose
vHighlands of Ethiopia
MARMARONETTA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Anas angustirostris Ménétriés, 1832; type by original designation  
Marmaronetta angustirostris   (Ménétries, 1832) Marbled Teal
vS Spain, NW Africa; locally from NE Africa to Kazakhstan and Pakistan >> N India
ASARCORNIS Salvadori, 1895 F - Anas scutulata S. Müller, 1842; type by original designation and monotypy  66
Asarcornis scutulata   (S. Müller, 1842) White-winged Duck
vExtreme NE India, continental SE Asia, N and C Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, W Java67
NETTA Kaup, 1829 F - Anas rufina Pallas, 1773; type by monotypy  
Netta rufina   (Pallas, 1773) Red-crested Pochard
vC and S Europe, SW and C Asia, N China >> S Europe, N and NE Africa, S Asia, Myanmar
Netta peposaca   (Vieillot, 1816) Rosy-billed Pochard
iSW Paraguay and SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) to C Argentina (Mendoza, Río Negro) and C Chile (Atacama to Magallanes) >> SE Bolivia and S Brazil (S Mato Grosso)
Netta erythrophthalma Southern Pochard
brunnea (Eyton, 1838) vE DR Congo to South Africa >> Kenya and Ethiopia
erythrophthalma (zu Wied, 1833) αvN and W Venezuela; C Colombia; W Peru; NW Argentina; E Brazil (Ceará to São Paulo)
AYTHYA Boie, 1822 F - Anas marila Linnaeus, 1761; type by monotypy  
Aythya ferina 68  (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Pochard
vW Europe to C Asia and N China >> N and E Africa, Japan, S Asia, S China, N continental SE Asia
Aythya valisineria   (A. Wilson, 1814) Canvasback
iC Alaska and W Canada south to NC USA (E Montana to Minnesota) >> S USA, Mexico
Aythya americana   (Eyton, 1838) Redhead
vC Alaska, W Canada, NW and NC USA >> S USA, Mexico and Greater Antilles
Aythya australis Hardhead
australis (Eyton, 1838)69 vNew Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand; vagrant to Indonesia
extima Mayr, 194070,71 vVanuatu, New Caledonia
Aythya innotata   (Salvadori, 1894) Madagascar Pochard
vN and E Madagascar
Aythya baeri   (Radde, 1863) Baer's Pochard
iSE Siberia, NE China >> NE India, Bangladesh, China, N continental SE Asia
Aythya nyroca   (Güldenstädt, 1770) Ferruginous Duck
iNW Africa, C and S Europe to C Asia >> N and NE Africa, SW and S Asia, N continental SE Asia
Aythya novaeseelandiae   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) New Zealand Scaup
iNew Zealand
Aythya collaris   (Donovan, 1809) Ring-necked Duck
vE Alaska, Canada, N USA >> S USA, Central America, West Indies
Aythya fuligula   (Linnaeus, 1758) Tufted Duck
iN Eurasia >> Europe, N Africa, SW, S and E Asia, mainland SE Asia, N Borneo, Philippines
Aythya marila Greater Scaup
marila (Linnaeus, 1761) iN Europe and NW Asia >> W and S Europe, NW India
nearctica Stejneger, 188572 vNE Siberia (east of R. Lena), Alaska and N Canada >> coastal China, Japan, Korea; W and E USA
Aythya affinis   (Eyton, 1838) Lesser Scaup
vC Alaska to NW and N USA >> S USA, Central America and West Indies
RHODONESSA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Anas caryophyllacea Latham, 1790; type by original designation  
Rhodonessa caryophyllacea   (Latham, 1790) Pink-headed Duck
vNepal, E and NE India, Bangladesh, Myanmar
TACHYERES Owen, 1875 M - Anas brachyptera Latham, 1790; type by monotypy  
Tachyeres patachonicus 73  (P.P. King, 1831) Flying Steamer Duck
vCoastal S Chile and S Argentina [King, 1831 #6689]74
Tachyeres pteneres   (J.R. Forster, 1844) Magellanic Steamer Duck
iCoastal S Chile (south from Los Lagos) and extreme S Argentina (Tierra del Fuego and Isla de los Estados)
Tachyeres brachypterus   (Latham, 1790) Falkland Steamer Duck
vFalkland Is.
Tachyeres leucocephalus   Humphrey & Thompson, 1981 White-headed Steamer Duck
vCoastal S Argentina (Chubut) [Humphrey, 1981 #2043]
LOPHONETTA Riley, 1914 F - Anas cristata J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation = Anas specularioides P.P. King, 1828  75
Lophonetta specularioides Crested Duck
alticola (Menegaux, 1909) iAndes from C Peru (Ancash) to C Chile (Maule) and WC Argentina (Mendoza)
specularioides (P.P. King, 1828) iS Chile, WC and S Argentina; Falkland Is.
SPECULANAS von Boetticher, 1929 F - Anas specularis P.P. King, 1828; type by original designation  76
Speculanas specularis   (P.P. King, 1828) Spectacled Duck
vAndean valleys of S Chile (south from Bíobío) and S Argentina (south from Neuquén) >> WC Argentina
AMAZONETTA von Boetticher, 1929 F - Anas brasiliensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation  77
Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian Teal
brasiliensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vE Colombia, Venezuela and Guyana south to SC Brazil (Mato Grosso and São Paulo)
ipecutiri (Vieillot, 1816) iE Bolivia and S Brazil (S Mato Grosso and São Paulo) to NE Argentina (Entre Ríos) and Uruguay
SPATULA Boie, 1822 F - Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  78
Spatula querquedula   (Linnaeus, 1758) Garganey
W Europe to Japan >> Africa, SW and S Asia, S China, SE Asia, New Guinea, N Australia, central Pacific Ocean
Spatula hottentota 79,80  (Eyton, 1838) Hottentot Teal
vN Nigeria to Eritrea south to E and S Africa, Madagascar
Spatula puna 81  (von Tschudi, 1844) Puna Teal
Andes from C Peru (Junín) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and NW Argentina (Jujuy)
Spatula versicolor Silver Teal
versicolor (Vieillot, 1816) iS Bolivia and Paraguay to C Argentina (Río Negro), also C Chile (Santiago to Araucanía)
fretensis (P.P. King, 1831) vC Chile (Los Lagos) and C Argentina (Chubut) south to Tierra del Fuego >> NE Argentina, Uruguay and SE Brazil; Falkland Is
Spatula platalea   (Vieillot, 1816) Red Shoveler
C Chile and S Brazil to Tierra del Fuego; Andes of SE Peru (Cuzco, Puno)
Spatula smithii   E. Hartert, 1891 Cape Shoveler
S Angola to W Zimbabwe and S South Africa
Spatula rhynchotis Australasian Shoveler
rhynchotis (Latham, 1801) αvS Australia, Tasmania
variegata Gould, 1856 vNew Zealand
Spatula clypeata   (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Shoveler
vN Eurasia; North America >> N and E Africa, SW and S Asia, China, mainland SE Asia; Mexico
Spatula cyanoptera Cinnamon Teal
septentrionalium (Snyder & H.G. Lumsden, 1951) iW North America (S British Columbia and S Alberta to N Baja California and C Mexico) >> Central America and NW South America
tropica (Snyder & H.G. Lumsden, 1951) δvNW Colombia (Cauca and Magdalena valleys)
†? borreroi (Snyder & H.G. Lumsden, 1951) iE Andes of Colombia
orinoma (Oberholser, 1906) δvAndes of Peru (Cajamarca) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and NW Argentina (Jujuy)
cyanoptera (Vieillot, 1816) vLowlands of coastal S Peru, Paraguay and SE Brazil south to Tierra del Fuego
Spatula discors 82  (Linnaeus, 1766) Blue-winged Teal
S Canada and USA >> Central America, West Indies, South America S to C Argentina
SIBIRIONETTA von Boetticher, 1929 F - Anas formosa Georgi, 1775; type by original designation  83
Sibirionetta formosa   (Georgi, 1775) Baikal Teal
vE Siberia >> Japan, Korea, E China
MARECA Stephens, 1824 F - Mareca fistularis Stephens; type by subsequent designation (Eyton, 1838, Monograph on the Anatidae, p. 33). = Anas penelope Linnaeus, 1758  84
Mareca falcata   (Georgi, 1775) Falcated Duck
vE Siberia, Mongolia, NE China >> Japan, Korea, S China, NE India, N continental SE Asia
Mareca strepera Gadwall
strepera (Linnaeus, 1758) vN and C Eurasia; North America >> SC and SE Eurasia, Africa; C North America
†? couesi (Streets, 1876) iTabuaeran (Line Is.)
Mareca penelope 85  (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian Wigeon
N Eurasia >> N, NE Africa, S Asia, China, Japan, Philippines
Mareca americana   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) American Wigeon
vAlaska, Canada, N USA >> coasts of North America to Costa Rica, West Indies
Mareca sibilatrix   (Poeppig, 1829) Chiloe Wigeon
C and S Chile (south from Coquimbo) and S Argentina (south from Córdoba and Buenos Aires) >> S Paraguay and SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul); Falkland Is.
ANAS Linnaeus, 1758 F - Anas boschas Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (Lesson, 1828, Manuel d'Ornithologie, 2, p. 417). = Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758  
Anas sparsa African Black Duck
leucostigma Rüppell, 184586 iSE Guinea; SE Nigeria to S Gabon; South Sudan and Ethiopia to Tanzania and Angola
sparsa Eyton, 1838 vZimbabwe, E Botswana, Namibia, South Africa
Anas undulata Yellow-billed Duck
ruppelli Blyth, 185587 δiE Nigeria and C Cameroon (subsp.?); Ethiopia, N Kenya
undulata C.F. Dubois, 1839 vS Kenya to Angola and South Africa
Anas melleri   P.L. Sclater, 1865 Meller's Duck
iE Madagascar88
Anas superciliosa Pacific Black Duck
superciliosa J.F. Gmelin, 178989 vSumatra, Java, Bali, Kangean Is., Sulawesi, S Moluccas, W and C Lesser Sundas (east to Timor), S New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand
pelewensis Hartlaub & Finsch, 187290 vMicronesia to N New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Solomons, C and E Melanesia and W Polynesia to Iles Australes
Anas luzonica   Fraser, 1839 Philippine Duck
Anas laysanensis   Rothschild, 1892 Laysan Duck
vLaysan (NW Hawaiian Is.)
Anas zonorhyncha 91  Swinhoe, 1866 Chinese Spot-billed Duck
SE Siberia, Japan, Korea, E China >> S China, Taiwan
Anas poecilorhyncha Indian Spot-billed Duck
poecilorhyncha J.R. Forster, 1781 vS Asia
haringtoni (E.W. Oates, 1907) iSW China, N continental SE Asia
Anas platyrhynchos92 Mallard
platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 175893 iEurope, Asia; North America >> south to N Africa, Europe, SW, S and E Asia; south to Mexico94
conboschas C.L. Brehm, 1831 iCoasts of SW and SE Greenland
diazi Ridgway, 188695 iSC USA (SE Arizona, S New Mexico, SW Texas) to C Mexico (Jalisco and México)
Anas rubripes 96  Brewster, 1902 American Black Duck
iE Canada and NE USA >> E USA
Anas fulvigula Mottled Duck
fulvigula Ridgway, 1874 iSE USA (Florida Pen.)
maculosa Sennett, 1889 vCoastal SC USA (Louisiana, Texas) and NE Mexico (Tamaulipas)
Anas wyvilliana   P.L. Sclater, 1878 Hawaiian Duck
vHawaiian Is. (Kauai and Niihau, reintroduced to Oahu, Hawaii and Maui)
Anas gibberifrons97 Grey Teal
1 albogularis (Hume, 1873) vAndamans
2 gibberifrons S. Müller, 1842 iS Sumatra, Java, Bali, Sulawesi, W and C Lesser Sundas (east to Timor and Wetar)
3 gracilis Buller, 186998 vNew Guinea, Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, New Zealand
3†? remissa Ripley, 194299 vRennell (S Solomons)
Anas castanea 100  (Eyton, 1838) Chestnut-breasted Teal/Chestnut Teal
vS Australia, Tasmania
Anas aucklandica101 New Zealand Teal
chlorotis G.R. Gray, 1845 vNew Zealand; formerly Chatham Is.
aucklandica (G.R. Gray, 1844) vAuckland Is.
nesiotis (J.H. Fleming, 1935) Campbell I.
Anas bernieri   (Hartlaub, 1860) Madagascar Teal/Bernier's Teal
iW Madagascar
Anas capensis   J.F. Gmelin, 1789 Cape Teal
vChad to Ethiopia, E Africa, Angola, Botswana and South Africa
Anas bahamensis White-cheeked Pintail
bahamensis Linnaeus, 1758 vWest Indies; Netherlands Antilles; coastal N South America from Colombia to N Brazil (Belém)
rubrirostris Vieillot, 1816 vE Bolivia, W Paraguay, N and C Argentina (south to Buenos Aires) and Uruguay; coastal Ecuador, Peru and C Chile
galapagensis (Ridgway, 1890) αvGalapagos Is.
Anas erythrorhyncha   J.F. Gmelin, 1789 Red-billed Teal
vEthiopia to E and S Africa, Madagascar
Anas acuta 102  Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Pintail
v(a) N Europe, N Asia >> N tropical and E Africa, India, China, Philippines; (b) N North America >> Central America
Anas georgica Yellow-billed Pintail
†? niceforoi Wetmore & Borrero, 1946 iAndes of EC Colombia (Boyacá and Cundinamarca)
spinicauda Vieillot, 1816103 iAndes from S Colombia to Tierra del Fuego, into lowlands of Chile and Argentina >> Uruguay and SE Brazil; Falkland Is.
georgica J.F. Gmelin, 1789 vSouth Georgia I.
Anas eatoni104 Kerguelen Pintail/Eaton's Pintail
eatoni (Sharpe, 1875) iIles Kerguelen
drygalskii Reichenow, 1904 iIles Crozet
Anas crecca105 Common Teal/Green-winged Teal
crecca Linnaeus, 1758106 iN Eurasia, Aleutian Is. >> C and S Europe, N Africa, SW, S and E Asia
carolinensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789107 vN North America >> W and S North America, Central America, West Indies
Anas andium108 Andean Teal
altipetens (Conover, 1941) Andes of SW Venezuela (Trujillo) to NE Colombia (Bogotá)
andium (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873) Andes of C Colombia (Caldas and Tolima) to S Ecuador (Azuay)
Anas flavirostris Speckled Teal
oxyptera Meyen, 1834 vAndes of N Peru (Cajamarca) to N Chile (Atacama) and NW Argentina (Catamarca)
flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 vLowlands from C Chile (Coquimbo) and C Argentina (Córdoba) south to Tierra del Fuego >> Paraguay and SE Brazil; Falkland Is.; South Georgia I.
Anas theodori   E. Newton & Gadow, 1893 Mascarene Teal
Mauritius, Réunion
THALASSORNIS Eyton, 1838 M - Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton, 1838; type by original designation  
Thalassornis leuconotus White-backed Duck
leuconotus Eyton, 1838110 δvN Benin, E Cameroon to S Ethiopia and south to S South Africa
insularis Richmond, 1897 vMadagascar
STICTONETTA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Anas naevosa Gould, 1841; type by original designation  
Stictonetta naevosa   (Gould, 1841) Freckled Duck
vInland S Australia
BIZIURA Stephens, 1824 F - Biziura novaehollandiae Stephens, 1824; type by monotypy = Anas lobata Shaw, 1796  111
Biziura lobata Musk Duck
lobata (Shaw, 1796)112 vSW Australia
menziesi Mathews, 1914113 iC South Australia to SE Australia, Tasmania [Mathews, 1914 #5141]
PLECTROPTERUS Stephens, 1824 M - Anas gambensis Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (Eyton, 1838, Monograph on the Anatidae, p. 10).  
Plectropterus gambensis Spur-winged Goose
gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) vSenegal to Sudan, south to C and E Africa
niger P.L. Sclater, 1877 vSouthern Africa
HYMENOLAIMUS G.R. Gray, 1843 M - Anas malacorhynchos J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy  114
Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Blue Duck
iC North Island and montane W South Island (New Zealand)
MERGANETTA Gould, 1842 F - Merganetta armata Gould, 1842; type by monotypy  
Merganetta armata Torrent Duck
colombiana Des Murs, 1845 vAndes of W Venezuela to S Ecuador
leucogenis (von Tschudi, 1843) vAndes of N and C Peru (Amazonas to Junín)
turneri P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869 iAndes of S Peru (Cuzco) to extreme N Chile (N Tarapacá)
garleppi von Berlepsch, 1894 iAndes of N and C Bolivia (La Paz to Chuquisaca)
berlepschi E. Hartert, 1909 iAndes of S Bolivia (Tarija) to NW Argentina (N La Rioja)
armata Gould, 1841115 vAndes of C and S Chile (south from Atacama) and S Argentina (south from C San Juan)
SALVADORINA Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1894 F - Salvadorina waigiuensis Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1894; type by monotypy  116
Salvadorina waigiuensis   Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1894 Salvadori's Teal
vMontane New Guinea117
SARKIDIORNIS Eyton, 1838 M - Anser melanotos Pennant, 1769; type by original designation  
Sarkidiornis melanotos Comb Duck
melanotos (Pennant, 1769) iSub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, Pakistan, India, SE China, continental SE Asia
sylvicola H. & R. von Ihering, 1907118 iN Colombia E to E Brazil and S to N Argentina (Córdoba) and Uruguay
CAIRINA J. Fleming, 1822 F - Anas moschata Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  119
Cairina moschata   (Linnaeus, 1758) Muscovy Duck
vC Mexico to E Peru, east to E Brazil and south to NE Argentina and N Uruguay
AIX Boie, 1828 F - Anas sponsa Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Eyton, 1838, Monograph on the Anatidae, p. 35).  120
Aix galericulata   (Linnaeus, 1758) Mandarin Duck
vSE Siberia, Japan, Korea, E China, >> south of 40° N
Aix sponsa   (Linnaeus, 1758) Wood Duck
iS Canada and W, SC and E USA; Cuba
CHENONETTA von Brandt, 1836 F - Anser lophotus von Brandt, 1836; type by monotypy = Anas jubata Latham, 1801  
Chenonetta jubata   (Latham, 1801) Maned Duckα
vAustralia, Tasmania
NETTAPUS von Brandt, 1836 M - Anas madagascariensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy = Anas aurita Boddaert, 1783  
Nettapus auritus   (Boddaert, 1783) African Pygmy Goose
vSenegal to Ethiopia south to South Africa; Madagascar
Nettapus coromandelianus Asian Pygmy Goose/Cotton Teal
coromandelianus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vS Asia, S China, mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas, Philippines, N Sulawesi, lowland N New Guinea
albipennis Gould, 1842 vNE Australia (E Queensland)
Nettapus pulchellus   Gould, 1842 Green Pygmy Goose
vSulawesi, S Moluccas, C and E Lesser Sundas (west to Flores), lowland S New Guinea, N Australia
CALLONETTA Delacour, 1936 F - Anas leucophrys Vieillot, 1816; type by original designation  121
Callonetta leucophrys   (Vieillot, 1816) Ringed Teal
iSE Bolivia, Paraguay and SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) to NE Argentina (N Buenos Aires) and Uruguay

1 Composition and sequence of subfamiles, tribes and genera largely derived from Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965]. See also Bulgarella et al. (2010) [Bulgarella, 2010 #13702] and Fulton et al. (2012) [Fulton, 2012 #13667].
2 Subspecies classification follows Banks (1978) [Banks, 1978 #12658].
3 Includes helva; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125]. Considered to form a superspecies with D. arcuata by Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
4 Sequence of genera based on McCracken et al. (1999) [McCracken, 1999 #2589].
5 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326], Carboneras (1992) [Carboneras, 1992 #13744], and Brua (2001) [Brua, 2001 #12925].
6 Introduced (ssp rubida) to United Kingdom (undergoing deliberate eradication).
7 For treatment as subspecies of O. jamaicensis, see Adams & Slavid (1984) [Adams, 1984 #13740], Fjeldså (1986) [Fjeldså, 1986 #1566] and McCracken & Sorenson (2005) [McCracken, 2005 #2591]. For treatment of andina as a name applicable to hybrids see the same sources.
8 For conservation of this name see Opinion 1078 (I.C.Z.N., 1977) [I.C.Z.N., 1977 #6628].
9 For placement in Anserinae see Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
10 For sister relationship to Coscoroba, see Donne-Gousse et al. (2002) [Donne-Gousse, 2002 #1407], St. John et al. (2005) [St. John, 2005 #10075], and Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
11 For recognition see Storr (1980) [Storr, 1980 #3751].
12 Species sequence derived from Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
13 For suggestion that authorship of Gersault (1764) be recognized, see Welter-Schultes & Klug (2009) [Welter-Schultes, 2009 #12017].
14 Often misspelled, but the original spelling must stand.
15 Introduced to Japan (Honshu, Kyushu) and New Zealand.
16 Introduced to Japan, SW Australia, New Zealand, SW Canada (SW British Columbia) and N USA (NE Atlantic coast and Great Lakes region).
17 This name dates from publication in American Ornithology, vol. 4, as reported by Monroe et al. (1989) [Monroe, 1989 #14912] and explained by Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542].
18 Includes jankowskyi; see Cramp (1977) [Cramp, 1977 #1083] and Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125] (original spelling verified). Johnsgard (1974) [Johnsgard, 1974 #13976] proposed that bewickii might be more closely related to C. cygnus.
19 Includes islandicus; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
20 Species sequence derived from Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
21 Formerly treated as a separate species but most recent literature treats them as conspecific. Includes orientalis; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. Distinctive population in western part of range may be an undescribed subspecies; see Boyd & Maltby (1979) [Boyd, 1979 #13924] and Shields (1990) [Shields, 1990 #13941].
22 Application of name nigricans controversial (Delacour & Zimmer 1952) [Delacour, 1952 #13927].
23 Small feral population in England.
24 For treatment as a separate species from B. canadensis see Paxinos et al. (2002) [Paxinos, 2002 #2964], Scribner et al. (2003) [Scribner, 2003 #3561], and Banks et al. (2004) [Banks, 2004 #203]; but see also Palmer (1976) [Palmer, 1976 #13937] and van Wagner & Baker (1990) [van Wagner, 1990 #13946] for possible introgression between the two.
25 Includes †asiatica; see Mowbray et al. (2002) [Mowbray, 2002 #13089].
26 Considered undiagnosable from B. canadensis parvipes by Palmer (1976) [Palmer, 1976 #13937].
27 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Nesochen but see Quinn et al. (1991) [Quinn, 1991 #13982].
28 For establishment of correct original description, see Olson (1989) [Olson, 1989 #2852].
29 For comments on Hanson (2006, 2007) [Hanson, 2006 #13629] [Hanson, 2007 #13630] see Appendix 2.3.
30 Probably undiagnosable from occidentalis; see Palmer (1976) [Palmer, 1976 #13937].
31 Introduced to New Zealand.
32 Introduced to British Is., Norway, Sweden, Finland, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Japan (C Honshu) and New Zealand.
33 Composition and species sequence derived from Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965]. Includes Chen; see Livezey (1996) [Livezey, 1996 #10226] and Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
34 For revised spelling see Banks et al. (2004) [Banks, 2004 #203].
35 Perhaps undiagnosable (Cooke et al. 1995) [Cooke, 1995 #13926].
36 Introduced to the Netherlands.
37 Treated as subspecies of A. fabalis by Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967] and Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125]. For treatment as a separate species see Cramp et al. (1977) [Cramp, 1977 #1083], Carboneras (1992) [Carboneras, 1992 #13744] and Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2171].
38 Introduced to New Zealand.
39 Correct original spelling. No conclusive internal evidence permitting emendation.
40 Dutch wintering birds vary extensively, but intergradation between subspecies may account for this. For treatment of serrirostris as a separate species, rossicus as a subspecies, see Sangster et al. (1999) [Sangster, 1999 #13920]. Uncertain extent of intergradation prevents satisfactory identification of subspecies groups.
41 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Ruokonen et al. (2008) [Ruokonen, 2008 #10953].
42 Correct original spelling. Spelling middendorffi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS [Incorrect Subsequent Spelling].
43 Treated as a separate species, including also rossicus, by Sangster & Oreel (1996) [Sangster, 1996 #13948].
44 Previously dated 1871 and long credited to Swinhoe, but see Bruce & McAllan (1991) [Bruce, 1991 #5956].
45 Subspecies classification follows Banks (2011) [Banks, 2011 #12771].
46 Includes frontalis; see Banks (2011) [Banks, 2011 #12771].
47 Correct original spelling. No internal evidence permitting emendation; see Banks (2011) [Banks, 2011 #12771].
48 Considered to form a superspecies with A. albifrons by Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
49 Subspecies group designations follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and see also Sonsthagen et al. (2011) [Sonsthagen, 2011 #12798].
50 For changed date, authorship and citation see Bruce & David (2007) [Bruce, 2007 #9512].
51 Correct original spelling. Spelling faroeenis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
52 Includes dixoni; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
53 Treated as a separate species from M. fusca by Sangster et al. (2005) [Sangster, 2005 #10055].
54 For treatment as a separate species from M. nigra see Sangster (2009) [Sangster, 2009 #11997] and Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12460].
55 We follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] in retaining this monotypic genus.
56 Johnsgard (1978) [Johnsgard, 1978 #13931] and Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965] are followed in retaining this monotypic genus, but it may be embedded in Mergus; see Solovyeva & Pearce (2011) [Solovyeva, 2011 #12797].
57 Solovyeva & Pearce (2011) [Solovyeva, 2011 #12797] found this to be basal to M. merganser.
58 Includes schioleri; see Roselaar in Cramp et al. (1977) [Cramp, 1977 #1083].
59 Includes pacificus; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
60 Included in Tadorna by Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125], but three recent reviews of the relationships of this monotypic genus have found it paraphyletic in Tadorna with respect to Alopochen; see Sraml et al. (1996) [Sraml, 1996 #12764], Worthy (2009) [Worthy, 2009 #12765] and Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
61 Authorship corrected based on Dickinson et al. (2015) [Dickinson, 2015 #15882].
62 Introduced to England, S Scotland, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany.
63 Attributed to Fleming, 1822, by Peters (1931) [Peters, 1931 #3006] and to Boie, 1822, by Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125]. Boie appears to have published first.
64 Introduced to Switzerland.
65 For sister relationship to Pteronetta, see Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
66 For recognition see Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172]. For close relationship to Netta and Aythya, see Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
67 For suggestion that birds of Sumatra and Java may deserve subspecific recognition, see Green (1992, 1993) [Green, 1992 #1803] [Green, 1993 #1804].
68 Considered to form a superspecies with A. valisineria by Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
69 Includes lebeboeri and papuana; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
70 For recognition see Mayr (1940) [Mayr, 1940 #2547]. However, treated as synonym of nominate australis by Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172].
71 Treated as synonym of nominate australis by Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172].
72 The name mariloides Vigors, 1839, sometimes applied to all or part of this population, is unavailable because it was attached to specimens of the Lesser Scaup; see Banks (1986) [Banks, 1986 #192]. Its type locality has been corrected to San Francisco Bay.
73 The prior name Oidemia patachonica King, 1828, thought to have been provided for a different species, has been suppressed in relation to priority; see Opinion 1648 (I.C.Z.N., 1991) [I.C.Z.N., 1991 #2058].
74 Birds on the Falklands previously thought to be this species are actually a flying population of T. brachypterus; see Fulton et al. (2012) [Fulton, 2012 #13667].
75 For continued recognition as separate from Anas see Johnson & Sorenson (1999) [Johnson, 1999 #13687] and Eo et al. (2009) [Eo Soo Hyung, 2009 #11843].
76 For treatment as separate from Anas, see Livezey (1991, 1997) [Livezey, 1991 #2402] [Livezey, 1997 #2406], Johnson & Sorenson (1999) [Johnson, 1999 #13687], and Eo et al. (2009) [Eo Soo Hyung, 2009 #11843].
77 For continued recognition as separate from Anas see Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172].
78 Recognition based on molecular distance in Fig. 1 in Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
79 For suppression of Anas punctata Burchell, 1822, see Opinion 1078 (I.C.Z.N., 1977) [I.C.Z.N., 1977 #6628].
80 For close relationship to S. puna and S. versicolor, see Johnsgard (1965) [Johnsgard, 1965 #13743] and Johnson & Sorenson (1999) [Johnson, 1999 #13687].
81 For treatment as a separate species from A. versicolor see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6474] and Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326].
82 Includes orphna; see Palmer (1976) [Palmer, 1976 #13937].
83 Recognition based on molecular distance in Fig. 1 in Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
84 Recognition based on molecular distance in Fig. 1 in Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
85 Forms a superspecies with M. americana and M. sibilatrix; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
86 Includes maclatchyi; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
87 Correct original spelling. Spelling rueppelli in Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125] an unjustified emendation.
88 Introduced to Mauritius.
89 Includes rogersi because its type locality lies within Australia; see Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486].
90 Includes rukensis Kuroda, Sr., 1939 [Kuroda, 1939 #2298]; see Baker (1951) [Baker, 1951 #165].
91 For separation from A. poecilorhyncha, see Leader (2006) [Leader, 2006 #9424].
92 For comments on the relationships of this and the next three species, see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
93 Includes neoborea Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2808]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536] and David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
94 Introduced to South Africa, Mauritius, S Australia, New Zealand, Chatham Is., New Caledonia and C Vanuatu.
95 Small samples with limited geographic and gene sampling (McCracken et al. 2001 [McCracken, 2001 #2590], Kulikova et al. 2004 [Kulikova, 2004 #2290], Gonzalez et al. 2009 [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965]) suggest that this should be treated as a separate species. However, see Hubbard (1977) [Hubbard, 1977 #13703] for evidence of widespread gene flow between this and A. p. platyrhynchos.
96 Treated as a separate species from A. platyrhynchos despite frequent hybridization because mating mostly assortative, see e.g., Brodsky & Weatherhead (1984) [Brodsky, 1984 #13925].
97 For comments on relationship to A. castanea, see Kennedy & Spencer (2000) [Kennedy, 2000 #2202].
98 Treated as a species (with remissa in synonymy) by Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486] and Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172], but see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
99 For recognition see Mayr & Diamond (2001) [Mayr, 2001 #10562]. Not recognised by Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172].
100 For close relationship to A. gibberifrons gracilis, see Joseph et al. (2009) [Joseph, 2009 #11859].
101 For treatment as three separate species; see Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486], Kennedy & Spencer (2000) [Kennedy, 2000 #2202] and Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172].
102 Considered to form a superspecies with A. georgica and A. eatoni by Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
103 May merit treatment as a separate species (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274]; in fact, no real rationale has ever been published for its treatment as conspecific with A. georgica.
104 For treatment as a separate species from A. acuta see Stahl et al. (1984) [Stahl, 1984 #13942].
105 Forms a superspecies with A. andium and A. flavirostris; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
106 Includes nimia; see Gibson & Byrd (2007) [Gibson, 2007 #13974].
107 Treated as a separate species by Sangster et al. (2001, 2002) [Sangster, 2001 #3472] [Sangster, 2002 #3474], but see Peters et al. (2012) [Peters, 2012 #14052].
108 For treatment as a separate species from A. flavirostris see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6474] and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
109 Genera placed here either await molecular screening or have emerged from that with conflicting results; morpho-behavioural evidence is not seen as determinant.
110 Correct original spelling. Spelling leuconotos in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
111 Formerly considered closely related to Oxyura and related genera, but see McCracken et al. (1999) [McCracken, 1999 #2589]; see also Gonzalez et al. (1999) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
112 Circumscription follows Guay et al. (2010) [Guay, 2010 #12522].
113 For recognition see Guay et al. (2010) [Guay, 2010 #12522].
114 For possible relationships see Worthy (2009) [Worthy, 2009 #12765] and Robertson & Goldstein (2012) [Robertson, 2012 #13916].
115 Includes fraenata; see Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
116 For reasons to retain this genus see Mlíkovsky (1989) [Mlíkovsky, 1989 #2695].
117 Not known to occur on Waigeo.
118 Includes carunculatus; see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6474] and Johnsgard (1979) [Johnsgard, 1979 #2125].
119 Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965] suggested a close relationship with shelducks. Corroboration needed.
120 For sister relationship to Cairina, see Gonzalez et al. (2009) [Gonzalez, 2009 #11965].
121 Formerly placed in Anas, but see Johnsgard (1960) [Johnsgard, 1960 #13742], Woolfenden (1961) [Woolfenden, 1961 #13741], and Kear (2005) [Kear, 2005 #2172].