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LANIIDAE - Shrikes1 (4:34)
CORVINELLA Lesson, 1831 F - Lanius corvinus Shaw, 1809; type by monotypy   
Corvinella corvina Yellow-billed Shrike
corvina (Shaw, 1809) vS Mauritania and Senegal to SW Niger
togoensis Neumann, 19002 vGuinea-Bissau to Nigeria, S Chad, Central African Republic and W and C Sudan
affinis Hartlaub, 18573 vW and S South Sudan, W Kenya, N Uganda, NE DR Congo
UROLESTES Cabanis, 1851 M - Lanius melanoleucus Jardine, 1831; type by monotypy   4
Urolestes melanoleucus Magpie Shrike
aequatorialis Reichenow, 1887 vSW Kenya to S Tanzania
expressus (Clancey, 1961) vSE Zimbabwe, S Mozambique, NE South Africa [Clancey, 1961 #808]
melanoleucus (Jardine, 1831)5 vS Angola to N Mozambique, Zimbabwe (except SE), Botswana and N South Africa
EUROCEPHALUS A. Smith, 1836 M - Eurocephalus anguitimens A. Smith, 1836; type by monotypy   6
Eurocephalus ruppelli 7  Bonaparte, 1853 δ White-rumped Shrike
iSE South Sudan, S and E Ethiopia and Somalia to Kenya and N, C and SW Tanzania
Eurocephalus anguitimens8 White-crowned Shrike
anguitimens A. Smith, 1836 NW Angola, N Namibia to W Zimbabwe, N South Africa
niveus Clancey, 1965 vC and E Zimbabwe, S Mozambique, NE South Africa [Clancey, 1965 #824]
LANIUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Lanius excubitor Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Swainson, 1824, Zool. Journ., 1, p. 294).   9
Lanius tigrinus   Drapiez, 1828 Tiger Shrike
vRussian Far East, C Japan, Korea, C, NE and E China >> C and S Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas including Bali
Lanius souzae Souza's Shrike
souzae Bocage, 1878 SE Gabon, PR Congo, N and C Angola, N Zambia, SE DR Congo
tacitus Clancey, 1970 vSE Angola, S Zambia, Malawi, W Mozambique [Clancey, 1970 #843]
burigi Chapin, 1950 Rwanda, W and S Tanzania, E Zambia
Lanius bucephalus Bull-headed Shrike
bucephalus Temminck & Schlegel, 184510 αvRussian Far East, Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., Japan, Korea >> E China, Ryukyu Is.
sicarius Bangs & J.L. Peters, 1928 Gansu (NC China)
Lanius cristatus11 Brown Shrike
cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 vC Siberia east to Kamchatka, south to N Mongolia >> S Asia, mainland SE Asia
confusus Stegmann, 192912 vRussian Far East, NE China >> S continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo, N Philippines
lucionensis Linnaeus, 176613 δvS Japan, Korea, C, E and SE China >> Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, N Sulawesi, Moluccas
superciliosus Latham, 180114 αvCoastal Russian Far East, N Japan >> Greater Sundas, Lesser Sundas (east to Flores)
Lanius collurio 15,16  Linnaeus, 1758 Red-backed Shrike
Europe and W Siberia to Asia Minor, Caucasus area, Levant, N and NW Iran, N Kazakhstan and Altai Mts. >> E and S Africa
Lanius phoenicuroides 17  (Schalow, 1875) Turkestan Shrike/Red-tailed Shrike
C Iran to Tien Shan Mts., NW Xinjiang, Afghanistan and W Pakistan >> SW Asia, NE and E Africa
Lanius isabellinus18 Isabelline Shrike
isabellinus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 183319 vTransbaikalia to Mongolia and NW and N China (NE Xinjiang to N and C Nei Mongol) >> Arabian Pen., NE and E Africa
arenarius Blyth, 184620 vNW and N China (C and S Xinjiang to SW Nei Mongol) >> Pakistan, N India [Blyth, 1846 #366]
tsaidamensis Stegmann, 1930 vNW China (Tsaidam Basin in N Qinghai) >> ?
Lanius collurioides Burmese Shrike
collurioides Lesson, 183221 αS China, W, N and EC continental SE Asia >> continental SE Asia
nigricapillus Delacour, 1926 S Vietnam
Lanius gubernator   Hartlaub, 1882 Emin's Shrike
iN Ivory Coast to S South Sudan and N Uganda
Lanius vittatus Bay-backed Shrike
nargianus Vaurie, 1955 vS Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, W Pakistan and SE Iran
vittatus Valenciennes, 1826 vC and S Pakistan, India (except NE), SW Nepal
Lanius schach22 Long-tailed Shrike
erythronotus (Vigors, 1831)23 vSC Kazakhstan to Afghanistan, Pakistan, NW India and Himalayan foothills (east to Uttarakhand)
caniceps Blyth, 184626 India (except N and E), Sri Lanka
tricolor Hodgson, 1837 W and S Yunnan, Himalayan foothills (east from Uttarakhand), E and NE India, N continental SE Asia (east to N Laos)
schach Linnaeus, 1758 C and E China, Taiwan, Hainan, N Vietnam >> ?continental SE Asia
longicaudatus Ogilvie-Grant, 1902 vC and SE Thailand
bentet Horsfield, 1821 αC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas (except NE Borneo), Lesser Sundas (east to Kisar)
nasutus Scopoli, 1786 vNE Borneo, Philippines (except Sulu Arch.)
suluensis (Mearns, 1905) vSulu Arch.
stresemanni Mertens, 1923 Lower montane EC, NE and SE New Guinea (central cordillera west to Victor Emanuel Range; mountains of Huon Pen.)
Lanius tephronotus Grey-backed Shrike
lahulensis Koelz, 195027 vNW India
tephronotus (Vigors, 1831) vS and E Xizang, NC to SW China, Himalayas (east from Ladakh) >> NE India, Bangladesh, continental SE Asia (except SW)
Lanius validirostris Mountain Shrike
validirostris Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 vMountains of N Luzon (Philippines)
tertius Salomonsen, 1953 vMountains of Mindoro (Philippines)
hachisuka Ripley, 194928 Mountains of Mindanao (Philippines)
Lanius mackinnoni   Sharpe, 1891 Mackinnon's Shrike
iE Nigeria to Angola: NE DR Congo, Uganda, W Kenya and NW Tanzania
Lanius minor   J.F. Gmelin, 1788 Lesser Grey Shrike
vC and S Europe, SW and WC Asia >> SW Africa
Lanius ludovicianus Loggerhead Shrike
excubitorides Swainson, 183229 SW Canada and W USA (E Washington to North Dakota, California and Texas) >> south to W Mexico
migrans W. Palmer, 1898 SE Canada (S Ontario, S Québec), E USA (Nebraska to New York, NE Texas and N Louisiana) >> south to E Mexico
ludovicianus Linnaeus, 176630 vSE USA (east of Appalachian Mts., from North Carolina to S Louisiana and Florida)
anthonyi Mearns, 1898 Santa Rosa I., Santa Cruz I. and Santa Catalina I. (off S California)
mearnsi Ridgway, 1903 San Clemente I. (off S California)
grinnelli Oberholser, 1919 SW USA (S California) and NW Mexico (N Baja California)
mexicanus C.L. Brehm, 185431 vW and C Mexico (S Baja California; Sonora to Nuevo León and Oaxaca)
Lanius sphenocercus 32  Cabanis, 1873 Chinese Grey Shrike
vRussian Far East, N Mongolia, NC to NE China >> NE and E China
Lanius giganteus 33  Przevalski, 1887 Giant Grey Shrike
vE Xizang and WC China (SW Gansu and W Sichuan) >> E China
Lanius excubitor34,35 Great Grey Shrike
excubitor Linnaeus, 1758 N, C and E Europe, NW Siberia
homeyeri Cabanis, 187336 E Balkans, S Russia, SW Siberia >> SW and C Asia
koenigi E. Hartert, 1901 Canary Is.
algeriensis Lesson, 1839 vNW Africa
elegans Swainson, 1832 W Sahara east to N Chad, Libya, C and N Egypt, SW Israel
leucopygos Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 183337 S Sahara from Mali to W and C Sudan
aucheri Bonaparte, 185338 Coastal Sudan to NW Somalia; S Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Arabian Pen. (except SW), SW Iran
buryi Lorenz von Liburnau & Hellmayr, 1901 SW Arabian Pen.
uncinatus P.L. Sclater & Hartlaub, 188139 vSocotra
lahtora (Sykes, 1832) Pakistan, India (except NE and S), SW Nepal, W Bangladesh
pallidirostris Cassin, 185140 αvNE Iran and N Afghanistan to W Tien Shan Mts., Mongolia and NW China (N and E Xinjiang to Nei Mongol) >> NE Africa, Arabian Pen., SW Asia
Lanius borealis41 Northern Shrike
sibiricus Bogdanov, 1881 vC and E Siberia
mollis Eversmann, 185342 vAltai Mts., Sayan Mts., N Mongolia, S and E Tien Shan Mts., Dzhungarian Alatau Mts.
bianchii E. Hartert, 1907 Sakhalin, S Kuril Is. >> N Japan
borealis Vieillot, 180843 vAlaska, NW, NC and NE Canada (Yukon to Labrador) >> S Alaska, SW and SE Canada and N USA
Lanius meridionalis 44  Temminck, 1820 Iberian Grey Shrike
vS France, Iberia
Lanius excubitoroides45,46 Grey-backed Fiscal
excubitoroides Prévost & Des Murs, 184747 δMali; Lake Chad basin; SW and S Sudan to N and E Uganda; WC Kenya (Rift Valley)
intercedens Neumann, 1905 C Ethiopia to W Kenya
boehmi Reichenow, 1902 E DR Congo to SW Uganda, W and N Tanzania and SW Kenya
Lanius cabanisi   E. Hartert, 1906 Long-tailed Fiscal
iS Somalia, Kenya, E and S Tanzania
Lanius dorsalis   Cabanis, 1878 Taita Fiscal
vS Ethiopia, S Somalia, Kenya, NE Tanzania
Lanius somalicus   Hartlaub, 1859 Somali Fiscal
vE and S Ethiopia, Somalia, N Kenya
Lanius collaris Southern Fiscal
marwitzi Reichenow, 190148 EC to SC Tanzania
aridicolus Clancey, 195549 SW Angola, NW and W Namibia
subcoronatus A. Smith, 1841 vE Namibia, Botswana, SW Zimbabwe, N South Africa
collaris Linnaeus, 176650 vS Namibia, South Africa (except N borders), C and E Zimbabwe
Lanius humeralis51 Northern Fiscal
smithii (Fraser, 1843) Guinea and Sierra Leone to W Uganda and NW Tanzania
humeralis Stanley, 1814 vEthiopia, Lake Victoria basin to S Tanzania
capelli (Bocage, 1879) S PR Congo, Angola and N Namibia to SW Uganda, SE DR Congo, Zambia and Malawi
Lanius newtoni   Bocage, 1891 Newton's Fiscal/São Tomé Fiscal
iSão Tomé
Lanius senator Woodchat Shrike
senator Linnaeus, 175852 Europe (except W Mediterranean islands) east to Italy and Greece, NW Asia Minor, N Africa >> W and NC Africa
badius Hartlaub, 1854 vBalearic Is., Corsica, Sardinia >> W and NC Africa
niloticus (Bonaparte, 1853) vSC Turkey and Levant to Transcaucasia and Iran >> NE Africa
Lanius nubicus   M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 Masked Shrike
vSE Europe and Turkey to Iran and Jordan, ? S Turkmenistan >> NE Africa

1 Published molecular evidence for this family is rather incomplete.
2 For recognition see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
3 Includes chapini see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188]; and caliginosa see Nikolaus (1987) [Nikolaus, 1987 #2775].
4 Previously treated in the genus Corvinella, as in Rand (1960) [Rand, 1960 #3195] and Harris & Franklin (2000) [Harris, 2000 #1896]. We follow Fry et al. (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1632] in using this monotypic genus.
5 Includes angolensis see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
6 We follow Lefranc & Worfolk (1997) [Lefranc, 1997 #2363] and Fry et al. (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1632] in placing this genus in this family.
7 Original spelling; no umlaut nor internal evidence permits emendation.
8 Considered to form a superspecies with E. ruppelli; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
9 Sequence of species as in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]; adjusted for taxa raised to species rank and in respect of the gray shrikes in Olsson et al. (2010) [Olsson, 2010 #12305].
10 Page 39 appeared in 1845, not 1847 as given by Rand (1960) [Rand, 1960 #3195]; see Holthuis & Sadai (1970) [Holthuis, 1970 #1986].
11 Considered to form a superspecies with L. collurio, L. phoenicuroides and L. isabellinus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
12 Recognised here but considered by some only to be intergradient between nominate cristatus and lucionensis, see Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
13 Correct original spelling. Spelling lucioniensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
14 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
15 Includes juxtus; see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089]; and pallidifrons; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
16 Also includes kobylini; see Lefranc & Worfolk (1997) [Lefranc, 1997 #2363]; but see Roselaar (1995) [Roselaar, 1995 #3385].
17 For separation from L. isabellinus; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] and Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
18 For treatment as a separate species from L. collurio see Voous (1977) [Voous, 1977 #4062] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
19 Formerly speculigerus Taczanowski, 1874. See Pearson (2000) [Pearson, 2000 #2991] and Pearson et al. (2012) [Pearson, 2012 #14180] for correct nomenclature.
20 This population previously mistakenly treated as nominate isabellinus, but see Pearson (2000) [Pearson, 2000 #2991] and Pearson et al. (2012) [Pearson, 2012 #14180].
21 Given as 1834 by Rand (1960) [Rand, 1960 #3195], but see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542] and Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
22 The name nigriceps is considered to apply to a swarm of subspecies intergrades in NC India and should not be synonymised with any one subspecies, see Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
23 Includes jaxartensis; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] and Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089]. Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332] considered nigriceps had been applied to a hybrid between this and tricolor.
24 Includes jaxartensis; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] and Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
25 Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332] considered nigriceps had been applied to a hybrid between this and tricolor.
26 For recognition of kathiawarensis see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
27 Considered by some to be intergradient with L. schach, but this is unproven and there is no evidence of current interbreeding, see Yosef (2008) [Yosef, 2008 #12255], Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
28 Including quartus see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
29 Includes gambeli and sonoriensis; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
30 Includes miamensis; see Yosef (1996) [Yosef, 1996 #14352] and Craig (2008) [Craig, 2008 #14353]; but see also Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
31 Includes nelsoni see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
32 For monotypic treatment see Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
33 For treatment at species rank see Olsson et al. (2010) [Olsson, 2010 #12305] and Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
34 Revised circumscription of this species follows Gonzalez et al. (2008) [Gonzalez, 2008 #13397], Klassert et al. (2008) [Klassert, 2008 #11232] and Olsson et al. (2010) [Olsson, 2010 #12305]. See also Yosef (2008) [Yosef, 2008 #12255] for placement of several forms in L. meridionalis. But see Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
35 For treatment as a broad species with two subspecies groups (excubitor and meridionalis); see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
36 Includes leucopterus Severtsov, 1875 (preoccupied by leucopterus von Heuglin, 1871) and przewalskii; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
37 Includes jebelmarrae, see Rand (1960) [Rand, 1960 #3195] and Yosef (2008) [Yosef, 2008 #12255]. This may however represent an intermediate with aucheri, and for alternative view of its status see Nikolaus (1984) [Nikolaus, 1984 #15307].
38 Includes theresae; see Vaurie (1955) [Vaurie, 1955 #8333] and Rand (1960) [Rand, 1960 #3195]; but see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
39 Although morphologically very similar to aucheri, see Kirwan (2007) [Kirwan, 2007 #10614]; molecular evidence suggests this deserves species rank, see Olsson et al. (2010) [Olsson, 2010 #12305].
40 For date of publication see Coues (1880) [Coues, 1880 #9539].
41 For separation from L. excubitor see Gonzalez et al. (2008) [Gonzalez, 2008 #13397], Klassert et al. (2008) [Klassert, 2008 #11232] and Olsson et al. (2010) [Olsson, 2010 #12305].
42 Includes funereus; see Hartert (1907) [Hartert, 1907 #4647].
43 Includes invictus; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071] and Cade & Atkinson (2002) [Cade, 2002 #14351]; for recognition see Tryjanowski (2008) [Tryjanowski, 2008 #14354].
44 Tentatively accepted as a monotypic species based on morphology combined with evidence that taxa previously attached to it belong elsewhere. But see Olsson et al. (2010) [Olsson, 2010 #12305] and Panov (2011) [Panov, 2011 #15308].
45 Considered to form a superspecies with L. cabanisi; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
46 The spelling excubitorius was advocated by David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #12111]; however, the original spelling excubitoroides can be sustained as the conflicting homonym was excubitorides at a time when a one letter difference did not, as now, suffice to prevent homonymy. The original spelling has appropriately returned to use.
47 The spelling excubitorius, considered to date from 1851 (Sherborn & Woodward, 1901) [Sherborn, 1901 #3607], and proposed as a nomen novum, is a synonym and was appropriate for use when a one-letter difference did not allow an escape from homonymy.
48 We follow Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] in retaining this as a subspecies of L. collaris; Fuchs et al. (2011) [Fuchs, 2011 #13199] did not find support for separation.
49 For recognition see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
50 Implicitly includes pyrrhostictus and predator; see Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
51 For recognition as a separate species from L. collaris see Fuchs et al. (2011) [Fuchs, 2011 #13199].
52 For inclusion of rutilans Temminck, 1839 [Temminck, 1839 #10189] see Vaurie (1955) [Vaurie, 1955 #8333] and Rand (1960) [Rand, 1960 #3195]. But see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
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