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ORIOLIDAE - Orioles, Figbirds and allies1 (4:35)
PITOHUINAE
PITOHUI Lesson, 1831 M - Lanius kirhocephalus Lesson & Garnot, 1827; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1877, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 3, p. 283).   2,3,4
Pitohui kirhocephalus Variable Pitohui
cerviniventris (G.R. Gray, 1862) vWaigeo and fringing islands (Western Papuan Is.)
pallidus van Oort, 1907 vBatanta and fringing islands to Sagewin (Western Papuan Is.)
uropygialis (G.R. Gray, 1862)5 vMisool, Salawati, lowland NW New Guinea (W Doberai Pen.)
kirhocephalus (Lesson & Garnot, 1827)6 vLowland NW New Guinea (E Doberai Pen.)
decipiens (Salvadori, 1878) Lowland NW New Guinea (Bomberai Pen.)
adiensis Mees, 1964 vAdi I. (NW New Guinea)
dohertyi Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1903 Lowland NW New Guinea (W neck of Vogelkop, including Wondiwoi Pen.)
rubiensis (A.B. Meyer, 1884)7 vLowland NW New Guinea (SW neck of Vogelkop)
carolinae Junge, 1952 Lowland NW New Guinea (S neck of Vogelkop)
brunneivertex Rothschild, 1931 Lowland N New Guinea (E neck of Vogelkop)
jobiensis (A.B. Meyer, 1874) vYapen I. and Kurudu I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
meyeri Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1903 Lowland N New Guinea (R. Mamberamo drainage and N coast east to R. Sepik divide)
senex Stresemann, 1922 Lowland N New Guinea (W R. Sepik drainage and adjacent N coast)
brunneicaudus (A.B. Meyer, 1891) Lowland N and NE New Guinea (C and E R. Sepik drainage to Astrolabe Bay and upper R. Ramu)
nigripectus van Oort, 1909 Lowland SW New Guinea
aruensis (Sharpe, 1877) vAru Is. (off SW New Guinea)
brunneiceps (D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879) Lowland SC New Guinea (east to head of Gulf of Papua)
meridionalis (Sharpe, 1888) vLowland SE New Guinea (west to Goodenough Bay and E Gulf of Papua)
Pitohui dichrous 8  (Bonaparte, 1850) Hooded Pitohui
vLower montane New Guinea
SPHECOTHERINAE
SPHECOTHERES Vieillot, 1816 M - Sphecotheres viridis Vieillot, 1816; type by monotypy   9,10
Sphecotheres vieilloti Australasian Figbird
cucullatus (von Rosenberg, 1866)11 αvKai Is. (SE Moluccas)
salvadorii Sharpe, 1877 Lowland SE New Guinea (SC coast)
ashbyi Mathews, 191212 Coastal NW to NC Australia (Kimberley Division to Arnhem Land), Melville I.
flaviventris Gould, 1850 vN and NE Queensland, Torres Strait Is.
vieilloti Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 Coastal EC Australia
Sphecotheres viridis 13  Vieillot, 1816 Timor Figbird
vRoti to Timor (Lesser Sundas)
Sphecotheres hypoleucus   Finsch, 1898 Wetar Figbird
vWetar (Lesser Sundas)
TURNAGRINAE
TURNAGRA Lesson, 1837 F - Tanagra macularia Quoy & Gaimard, 1830; type by monotypy = Tanagra capensis Sparrman, 1787  14
†? Turnagra tanagra 15,16  (Schlegel, 1866) δ North Island Piopio
iNorth Island (New Zealand)
Turnagra capensis South Island Piopio
†? minor J.H. Fleming, 191517 vStephens I. (New Zealand)
†? capensis (Sparrman, 1787) vSouth Island (New Zealand)
ORIOLINAE
ORIOLUS Linnaeus, 1766 M - Oriolus galbula Linnaeus, 1766; type by tautonymy = Coracias oriolus Linnaeus, 1758  18
Oriolus sagittatus19,20 Olive-backed Oriole
magnirostris van Oort, 1910 vLowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region)
affinis Gould, 1848 vNW to NC Australia (east to S Gulf of Carpentaria)
grisescens Schodde & Mason, 1999 NE Australia (Cape York Pen.) [Schodde, 1999 #3524]
sagittatus (Latham, 1801)21,22 αvNE to SE Australia (NE Queensland to Victoria and SE South Australia)
Oriolus phaeochromus 23  G.R. Gray, 1861 α Dusky-brown Oriole
vHalmahera (N Moluccas)
Oriolus szalayi 24  (von Madarász, 1900) Brown Oriole
iWaigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool, all lowland to lower montane New Guinea
Oriolus melanotis Olive-brown Oriole
finschi E. Hartert, 1904 Wetar (Lesser Sundas)
melanotis (Bonaparte, 1850)25 vRoti to Timor (Lesser Sundas) [Bonaparte, 1850 #407]
Oriolus flavocinctus26 Green Oriole
migrator E. Hartert, 1904 Roma, Leti and Moa (Lesser Sundas)
muelleri (Bonaparte, 1850)27 Lowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region), Aru Is.
flavocinctus (P.P. King, 1826)28 vCoastal NW to NC Australia (Kimberley Division to Arnhem Land)
tiwi Schodde & Mason, 1999 Melville I. (Northern Territory) [Schodde, 1999 #3524]
flavotinctus Schodde & Mason, 1999 vNE Australia (Cape York Pen.) [Schodde, 1999 #3524]
kingi Mathews, 191229 NE Queensland
Oriolus forsteni 30  (Bonaparte, 1850) Grey-collared Oriole
iSeram (S Moluccas)
Oriolus bouroensis Black-eared Oriole
bouroensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830) vBuru (S Moluccas)
decipiens (P.L. Sclater, 1883)31 Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Oriolus xanthonotus32 Dark-throated Oriole
xanthonotus Horsfield, 1821 vExtreme SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Bangka I., Borneo (except N), Java
mentawi Chasen & Kloss, 1926 Mentawai Is. (off W Sumatra)
consobrinus Wardlaw Ramsay, 1880 N Borneo
persuasus Bangs, 1922 vPalawan (Philippines)
Oriolus steerii33 Philippine Oriole
samarensis Steere, 1890 vSamar, Leyte, E Mindanao (Philippines)
†? assimilis Tweeddale, 1878 vCebu (Philippines)
steerii Sharpe, 1877 Masbate and Negros (Philippines)
basilanicus Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 vBasilan, W Mindanao (Philippines)
cinereogenys Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Sulu Arch.
Oriolus albiloris 34,35,36  Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 White-lored Oriole
vWC and NE Luzon (Philippines)
Oriolus isabellae 37  Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 Isabela Oriole
iWC and NE Luzon (Philippines)
Oriolus hosii   Sharpe, 1892 Black Oriole
iUpland Borneo
Oriolus cruentus Black-and-crimson Oriole
malayanus Robinson & Kloss, 1923 vMountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
consanguineus (Wardlaw Ramsay, 1881) vMountains of Sumatra
cruentus (Wagler, 1827) vMountains of Java
vulneratus Sharpe, 1887 vMountains of Borneo
Oriolus traillii38 Maroon Oriole
traillii (Vigors, 1832) SW China, Himalayan foothills (east from Himachal Pradesh), NE India, mountains of W, N and SE continental SE Asia
robinsoni Delacour, 1927 Mountains of S Laos and C Vietnam
nigellicauda (Swinhoe, 1870) SE Yunnan, Hainan >> NE continental SE Asia and SE Thailand
ardens (Swinhoe, 1862) Taiwan
Oriolus mellianus 39  Stresemann, 1922 Silver Oriole
vSC China >> Thailand, SW Cambodia
Oriolus xanthornus Black-hooded Oriole
xanthornus (Linnaeus, 1758) Yunnan, Himalayan foothills (east from Himachal Pradesh), continental SE Asia (except NE), NW Thai-Malay Pen. >> Thai-Malay Pen, NE Sumatra (status ?)
maderaspatanus Franklin, 1831 vIndia (south from Ganges Plain)
ceylonensis Bonaparte, 185040 vSri Lanka
reubeni Abdulali, 197741 Andamans [Abdulali, 1977 #21]
tanakae N. Kuroda, Sr., 1925 Coastal NE Borneo
Oriolus brachyrynchus Western Black-headed Oriole
brachyrynchus Swainson, 183742 δvGuinea and Sierra Leone to W Togo
laetior Sharpe, 1897 vSW Nigeria to N Angola, east to Uganda and W Kenya
Oriolus crassirostris   Hartlaub, 1857 São Tomé Oriole
vSão Tomé
Oriolus chlorocephalus Green-headed Oriole
amani Benson, 194643 αSE Kenya, E Tanzania
chlorocephalus Shelley, 1896 vS Malawi, C Mozambique
speculifer Clancey, 196944 S Mozambique (Mt. Gorongoza) [Clancey, 1969 #838]
Oriolus monacha Abyssinian Black-headed Oriole/Ethiopian Oriole
monacha (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) N Eritrea, N Ethiopia
meneliki Blundell & Lovat, 1899 S Ethiopia
Oriolus larvatus45 Eastern Black-headed Oriole
rolleti Salvadori, 1864 South Sudan, Ethiopia to E DR Congo, N Tanzania
reichenowi von Zedlitz, 1916 S Somalia, E Kenya, E Tanzania
angolensis Neumann, 1905 vW Tanzania to Angola, Zimbabwe, N and E Botswana, N and NE South Africa
tibicen W. Lawson, 196246 SE Tanzania, Mozambique, S Malawi [Lawson, 1962 #2342]
larvatus M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 vExtreme S Mozambique, Swaziland, E and S South Africa
Oriolus percivali 47  Ogilvie-Grant, 1903 Mountain Oriole
iE DR Congo to Uganda, W and C Kenya and W Tanzania
Oriolus nigripennis 48  J. & E. Verreaux, 1855 Black-winged Oriole
vS Guinea and Sierra Leone to S South Sudan and NW Angola
Oriolus oriolus 49  (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian Golden Oriole
Europe, NW Africa, W and WC Asia >> C, E and S Africa
Oriolus kundoo 50  Sykes, 1832 Indian Golden Oriole
N and E Afghanistan, C Asia, W Pakistan, Himalayan foothills (east to Bhutan) >> S India, Sri Lanka
Oriolus auratus African Golden Oriole
auratus Vieillot, 1817 vSenegal and Guinea to W Ethiopia >> NE DR Congo, N Uganda
notatus W. Peters, 1868 vAngola and N Namibia to Zimbabwe, Malawi and C Mozambique >> Uganda and S Kenya
Oriolus chinensis51 Black-naped Oriole
diffusus Sharpe, 1877 vRussian Far East, Korea, China (except NW and W), NC and C continental SE Asia >> S Asia (except NW), mainland SE Asia
andamanensis Beavan, 1867 vAndamans
macrourus Blyth, 1846 vNicobars
maculatus Vieillot, 1817 vThai-Malay Pen. (introduced ?), Greater Sundas
broderipi Bonaparte, 185052,53 ΘLesser Sundas (east to Sumba and Alor) [Bonaparte, 1850 #407]
mundus Richmond, 1903 vSimeulue I. and Nias I. (off W Sumatra)
sipora Chasen & Kloss, 1926 Sipura I. (off W Sumatra)
richmondi Oberholser, 1912 Mentawai Is. (except Sipura I.) (off W Sumatra)
lamprochryseus Oberholser, 1917 vMasalembu Is. (Java Sea)
insularis Vorderman, 1893 vKangean Is. (Java Sea)
chinensis Linnaeus, 1766 vPalawan, Luzon, Mindoro and satellite islands (Philippines)
yamamurae N. Kuroda, Sr., 192754 Bohol, Negros, Panay, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao and Basilan and satellite islands (Philippines)
suluensis Sharpe, 1877 vSulu Arch.
sangirensis A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 189855 δvSangir (Sangir Is.)
formosus Cabanis, 187256 vSiau to Biaro (Sangir Is.), Mayu (N Moluccas)
celebensis (Walden, 1872)57 vSulawesi and satellites (except ranges of melanisticus, sangirensis, formosus and frontalis)
melanisticus A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1894 vTalaud Is.
frontalis Wallace, 1863 vBanggai Is. (except Peleng) and Sula Is.
stresemanni Neumann, 193958 Peleng (Banggai Is.)
boneratensis A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 189659 vFlores Sea islands
Oriolus tenuirostris60 Slender-billed Oriole
tenuirostris Blyth, 1846 vSW Yunnan, Bhutan, NE India (Nagaland), Myanmar (except N) and Laos >> Nepal, NE India, W and N Thailand, N Vietnam
invisus Riley, 1940 vS Vietnam

1 Generic composition and sequence of genera derive from the studies of Jønsson et al. (2008, 2010) [Jønsson, 2008 #10613], [Jønsson, 2010 #12386], Johansson et al. (2011) [Johansson, 2011 #13420], Jønsson et al. (2011) [Jønsson, 2011 #12727], and Zuccon & Ericson (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13486].
2 The seven species in the genus Pitohui as circumscribed in Mayr (1967) [Mayr, 1967 #2561] were screened and found polyphyletic by Dumbacher et al. (2008) [Dumbacher, 2008 #11709]. Just two species belong here. The others are pachycephalids or their close allies.
3 The need to place these two in the Oriolidae was demonstrated by Jønsson et al. (2008) [Jønsson, 2008 #10613] and corroborated by Zuccon & Ericson (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13486].
4 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
5 Includes tibialis; see Gyldenstolpe (1955) [Gyldenstolpe, 1955 #1848] and Mees (1965) [Mees, 1965 #2608].
6 The name salvadorii stated by Mayr (1941) [Mayr, 1941 #2550] to attach to a hybrid population between this subspecies and dohertyi. Later recognised by Mayr (1967) [Mayr, 1967 #2561] but here treated as an intergrade.
7 Includes stramineipectus based on being a probably synonym; see Mayr (1941, 1967) [Mayr, 1941 #2550], [Mayr, 1967 #2561].
8 Includes monticola; see Mayr (1967) [Mayr, 1967 #2561].
9 We follow Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809] in treating viridis and hypoleucus as separate species, but unite vieilloti and flaviventris following Ford (1975) [Ford, 1975 #15445] and Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
10 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
11 For date correction see Mees (1980) [Mees, 1980 #2624].
12 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
13 Forms a superspecies with S. hypoleucus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; who treated S. vieilloti a part of S. viridis. See also Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
14 For placement in the Oriolidae, see Johansson et al. (2011) [Johansson, 2011 #13420] and Zuccon & Ericson (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13486]. Treated as incertae sedis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
15 For treatment as a separate species from T. capensis; see Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
16 For correct date see Pieters & Dickinson (2005) [Pieters, 2005 #3077].
17 Recognition follows Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
18 Species sequence based on Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386]. Expanded sampling is needed to fully resolve certain problems (which we footnote). Unscreened species are interposed based on historical evaluations of their relationships.
19 May form a superspecies with O. melanotis, O. bouroensis, O. forsteni, O. phaeochromus and O. szalayi; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. However, molecular evidence in Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386] suggests O. bouroensis and O. forsteni form a separate superspecies.
20 Subspecies based on Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524], but see Keast (1956) [Keast, 1956 #15446].
21 Name conserved; see Opinion 2240 (I.C.Z.N., 2009) [I.C.Z.N., 2009 #12281].
22 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
23 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
24 The journal publication occurred in 1901, but an author's preprint was dated November 1, 1900 (Richmond, 1992) [Richmond, 1992 #8978].
25 Formerly, e.g. as in Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809], O. viridifuscus (Heine, 1859), but Iredale (1956) [Iredale, 1956 #2071] replaced this with Bonaparte's prior name; see Mees (1965) [Mees, 1965 #2608].
26 Treated as polytypic by Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809]. Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] added Australian subspecies. But see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2626].
27 Dated 1851 by Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
28 For correction of authorship; see Mees (1964) [Mees, 1964 #2607].
29 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
30 Dated 1851 by Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
31 For a suggestion that this may be a different species see Rheindt & Hutchinson (2007) [Rheindt, 2007 #10835].
32 Considered to form a superspecies with O. steerii by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; this may include O. albiloris.
33 For reasons for split of O. steerii from O. xanthonotus; see Dickinson (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1387]. Subspecific names corrected in Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361] were restored by Dickinson & Kennedy (2000) [Dickinson, 2000 #1367].
34 Treated as a species by Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809], Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386] and Collar (2011) [Collar, 2011 #12810]. But see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361] and Kennedy et al. (2000) [Kennedy, 2000 #2203].
35 Faintly streaked underparts have caused its identification with O. steerii of which it is probably an allospecies. Both this and sympatric O. isabellae appear to nest within O. steerii, see Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386] which probably needs to be split but all related forms need screening.
36 For treatment as a separate species from O. steerii see Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809] and Walther & Jones (2008) [Walther, 2008 #12254]; but see also Kennedy et al. (2000) [Kennedy, 2000 #2203].
37 For treatment as conspecific with sympatric O. albiloris; see Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386]; screening needs repeating with several verified specimens of both forms.
38 Considered to form a superspecies with O. mellianus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
39 This has sometimes been treated as a subspecies of O. traillii.
40 Dated 1851 by Greenway (1962) [Greenway, 1962 #1809], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
41 A replacement name for andamanensis Abdulali, 1967 [Abdulali, 1967 #18]; preoccupied by Oriolus andamanensis Tytler, 1867.
42 Correct original spelling. Spelling brachyrhynchus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
43 Specified date shown was Dec. 31, 1946.
44 The description by Clancey (1969) [Clancey, 1969 #838] was published on April 11, 1969. The paper by Wolters & Clancey (1969) [Wolters, 1969 #4256], probably intended to appear first and including the type designation, appeared on August 20.
45 Considered to form a superspecies with O. percivali by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; but not supported by findings of Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386].
46 The replacement name additus Lawson, 1969 [Lawson, 1969 #2344] was based on supposed preoccupation by Oriolus Galbula tibicen Brehm, 1866 but this was a nomen nudum.
47 For treatment as a separate species from O. larvatus; see Prigogine (1978) [Prigogine, 1978 #15739].
48 For monotypic treatment see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188]; thus includes alleni.
49 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with O. auratus; this would include recently separated O. kundoo.
50 For treatment as a separate species see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]. Corroborated from molecular evidence by Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386].
51 Molecular evidence from just three of the subspecies suggests that this complex comprises at least three species; see Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386].
52 Correct original spelling. Spelling broderipii in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
53 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1391].
54 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
55 Correct original spelling. Spelling sanghirensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
56 Includes saani; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
57 Includes macassariensis; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
58 For recognition see Eck (1976) [Eck, 1976 #1476] and Dickinson (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1387]. But see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
59 Includes oscillans; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
60 Both O.t.tenuriostris and O.c.diffusus have been reported summering in N Laos, but proof of sympatric breeding there or in SW Yunnan is lacking. Treatment as two species remains hypothetical. Not screened by Jønsson et al. (2010) [Jønsson, 2010 #12386].
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