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SPHENISCIDAE - Penguins1 (6:16)
APTENODYTES J.F. Miller, 1778 M - Aptenodytes patagonica J.F. Miller, 1778; type by monotypy  
Aptenodytes patagonicus 2  J.F. Miller, 1778 King Penguin
vFalkland Is., South Georgia I., Prince Edward Is., Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, Heard I., Macquarie I. >> subantarctic seas between 45 and 65 degrees S
Aptenodytes forsteri   G.R. Gray, 1844 Emperor Penguin
iAntarctica and surrounding seas
PYGOSCELIS Wagler, 1832 M - Aptenodytes papua J.R. Forster, 1781; type by monotypy  
Pygoscelis papua Gentoo Penguin
papua (J.R. Forster, 1781)3 Isla de los Estados, Falkland Is., South Georgia I., Iles Kerguelen, Heard I., Macquarie I. >> subantarctic seas to about 60 degrees S
ellsworthi Murphy, 1947 Antarctic Pen. east to South Sandwich Is. >> subantarctic seas
Pygoscelis adeliae   (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) Adelie Penguin
iAntarctica, Scotia Arc, South Sandwich Is. >> antarctic seas
Pygoscelis antarcticus   (J.R. Forster, 1781) Chinstrap Penguin
vAntarctic Pen., Scotia Arc, South Georgia I., Bouvetøya >> antarctic and subantarctic seas
EUDYPTES Vieillot, 1816 M - Aptenodytes chrysocome J.R. Forster, 1781; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 77).  4
Eudyptes chrysolophus Macaroni Penguin
chrysolophus (von Brandt, 1837) vAntarctic Pen. and extreme S South America to Scotia Arc, Falkland Is., South Georgia I., South Sandwich Is., Marion I., Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen >> subantarctic Atlantic and Indian Oceans
schlegeli Finsch, 18765 Macquarie I. >> subantarctic Australian and New Zealand seas
Eudyptes moseleyi 6,7  Mathews & Iredale, 1921 Northern Rockhopper Penguin
iTristan da Cunha Group, Gough I., Ile St. Paul, Ile Amsterdam, S Atlantic and S Indian Oceans >> S Australian seas
Eudyptes chrysocome Southern Rockhopper Penguin
chrysocome (J.R. Forster, 1781) Falkland Is.; islands off S Argentina and S Chile (Isla de los Estados, Islas Ildefonso, Isla Noir, Islas Diego Ramirez); S Atlantic Ocean
filholi F.W. Hutton, 18798 Prince Edward Is., Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, Heard I., Macquarie I., Campbell I., Auckland Is., Antipodes Is. >> subantarctic Australian and New Zealand seas
Eudyptes sclateri   Buller, 1888 Erect-crested Penguin
iAntipodes Is., Bounty Is., (formerly Campbell I. and Auckland Is.) >> S New Zealand and S Australian seas
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Fiordland Penguin
pachyrhynchus G.R. Gray, 1845 vCoast of SW South Island, Stewart I. and adjacent islands (New Zealand) >> New Zealand and S Australian seas
robustus Oliver, 19539,10 vSnares Is. (New Zealand) >> New Zealand and Tasman Seas
MEGADYPTES A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 M - Catarrhactes antipodes Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841; type by monotypy  11
Megadyptes antipodes   (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) Yellow-eyed Penguin
iSouth Island (Otago and Southland coasts), Stewart I., Codfish I., Auckland Is., Campbell I. (New Zealand) >> S New Zealand seas
EUDYPTULA Bonaparte, 1856 F - Aptenodytes minor J.R. Forster, 1781; type by monotypy  
Eudyptula minor12,13 Little Penguin
novaehollandiae (Stephens, 1826) Coastal SW to SE Australia, Tasmania >> adjacent seas14
iredalei Mathews, 191115 North Island (New Zealand) >> adjacent seas
minor (J.R. Forster, 1781) vW, NE and SE South Island, Stewart I. (New Zealand) >> adjacent seas
albosignata Finsch, 187416 vCoastal EC South Island (New Zealand)
chathamensis Kinsky & Falla, 1976 vChatham Is. >> adjacent seas
SPHENISCUS Brisson, 1760 M - Spheniscus Brisson; type by tautonymy = Diomedea demersa Linnaeus, 1758  
Spheniscus demersus 17  (Linnaeus, 1758) Jackass Penguin
vC Namibia to SE South Africa (coast and islands)
Spheniscus magellanicus 18  (J.R. Forster, 1781) Magellanic Penguin
vCoasts and islands of C Chile (Coquimbo) and C Argentina (Valdés Pen.) south to Cape Horn; Falkland Is.
Spheniscus humboldti   Meyen, 1834 Humboldt Penguin
iCoasts and islands from N Peru (Isla Foca) to C Chile (Algarrobo)
Spheniscus mendiculus   Sundevall, 1871 Galapagos Penguin
iGalapagos Is. (mainly Fernandina and Isabela)

1 Sequence of genera follows Bertelli & Giannini (2005) [Bertelli, 2005 #293], Ksepka et al. (2006) [Ksepka, 2006 #9932] and Baker et al. (2006) [Baker, 2006 #9756].
2 Includes halli; see Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2485], but see also Martínez (1992) [Martínez, 1992 #13635].
3 Includes taeniata; see Stonehouse (1970) [Stonehouse, 1970 #3744].
4 Species sequence derived from Ksepka et al. (2006) [Ksepka, 2006 #9932] and Baker et al. (2006) [Baker, 2006 #9756].
5 Treated as a separate species by Martínez (1992) [Martínez, 1992 #13635], Banks et al. (2006) [Banks, 2006 #9761] and Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348], but see Baker (2006) [Baker, 2006 #9756] and Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602].
6 For treatment as a separate species from E. chrysocome see Jouventin (1982) [Jouventin, 1982 #13949], Jouventin et al. (2006) [Jouventin, 2006 #9918], and Banks et al. (2006) [Banks, 2006 #9759].
7 Falla & Mougin (1979) [Falla, 1979 #1536] footnoted an unused senior synonym.
8 Treated as a separate species from E. chrysocome by Banks et al. (2006) [Banks, 2006 #9761].
9 For treatment as a subspecies of E. pachyrhynchus see Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602].
10 The name Eudyptes atratus Finsch, 1875, has been suppressed as regards priority but not as regards homonymy; see Opinion 1056 (I.C.Z.N., 1976) [I.C.Z.N., 1976 #2055].
11 For recognition see Ksepka et al. (2006) [Ksepka, 2006 #9932] and Baker et al. (2006) [Baker, 2006 #9756].
12 Treatment of subspecies here attempts to reconcile the conflicting information from diverse morphological and molecular data in Kinsky & Falla (1976) [Kinsky, 1976 #13636], Meredith & Sin (1988) [Meredith, 1988 #13637], and Banks et al. (2002, 2008) [Banks, 2002 #200] [Banks, 2008 #11203].
13 The taxon named variabilis Kinsky & Falla, 1976 [Kinsky, 1976 #13636] appears to apply to intergrades between nominate minor and iredalei, with some gene flow albosignata as well. But see also Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
14 For possible occurrence in far south New Zealand; see Banks et al. (2002, 2008) [Banks, 2002 #200] [Banks, 2008 #11203].
15 Includes variabilis; see Meredith & Sin (1988) [Meredith, 1988 #13637] and Peucker et al. (2009) [Peucker, 2009 #11796].
16 For treatment as a subspecies of E. minor see Falla & Mougin (1979) [Falla, 1979 #1536].
17 Forms a superspecies with S. magellanicus and S. humboldti; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
18 Sister species considered to be S. demersus by Thumser & Karron (1995) [Thumser, 1995 #3834].
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