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CORVIDAE - Crows and Jays1,2 (22:126)
PLATYLOPHUS Swainson, 1832 M - Garrulus galericulatus Vieillot; type by original designation = Corvus galericulatus Cuvier, 1816  3
Platylophus galericulatus Crested Jay
malaccensis Cabanis, 18664 vExtreme SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen.
coronatus (Raffles, 1822) vSumatra, Borneo (except N)
lemprieri F. Nicholson, 1883 N Borneo
galericulatus (Cuvier, 1816)5 αvJava
PLATYSMURUS Reichenbach, 1850 M - Glaucopis leucopterus Temminck, 1824; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1877, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 3, p. 90).   
Platysmurus leucopterus Black Magpie
leucopterus (Temminck, 1824) vSE Myanmar (S Tenasserim), Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Bangka I.
aterrimus (Temminck, 1829)6 αvBorneo
TEMNURUS Lesson, 1831 M - Glaucopis temnura Temminck, 1825; type by tautonymy   7
Temnurus temnurus   (Temminck, 1825) Ratchet-tailed Treepie
vHainan, SE Myanmar (C Tenasserim) and W Thailand, C Laos, Vietnam and NE Cambodia
CRYPSIRINA Vieillot, 1816 F - Corvus varians Latham, 1801; type by monotypy = Corvus temia Daudin, 1800  
Crypsirina temia   (Daudin, 1800) Racquet-tailed Treepie
iS Yunnan, continental SE Asia (except N), Thai-Malay Pen. (except S), Java
Crypsirina cucullata   Jerdon, 1862 Hooded Treepie
vN, W and C Myanmar
DENDROCITTA Gould, 1833 F - Dendrocitta leucogastra Gould, 1833; type by monotypy   
Dendrocitta vagabunda Rufous Treepie
bristoli Paynter, 19618 Pakistan, NW India, SW Nepal
vagabunda (Latham, 1790) vHimalayan foothills (east from C Nepal), EC India, Bangladesh
behni Steinheimer, 2009 W and WC India [Steinheimer, 2009 #11611]
parvula Whistler & Kinnear, 1932 vSW India
pallida (Blyth, 1846)9 vSE India
sclateri E.C.S. Baker, 1922 SW, W and N Myanmar
kinneari E.C.S. Baker, 1922 SW Yunnan, C and E Myanmar, NW Thailand
saturatior Ticehurst, 1922 vSW continental SE Asia
sakeratensis Gyldenstolpe, 1920 vC and SE continental SE Asia
Dendrocitta formosae Grey Treepie
occidentalis Ticehurst, 1925 vHimalayan foothills from NE Pakistan to W Nepal
himalayana Jerdon, 186410 ΘvS Yunnan, Himalayan foothills (east from C Nepal), N and NE India, Bangladesh, N continental SE Asia to NW Vietnam [Jerdon, 1864 #5026]
sarkari Kinnear & Whistler, 193011 EC and S India
assimilis Hume, 1877 vWC and SW continental SE Asia
sinica Stresemann, 1913 vWC to E and SE China, NE Vietnam
sapiens (Deignan, 1955) WC Sichuan
formosae Swinhoe, 1863 Taiwan
insulae E. Hartert, 1910 Hainan
Dendrocitta occipitalis 12,13  (S. Müller, 1836) α Sumatran Treepie
vMountains of Sumatra
Dendrocitta cinerascens 14  Sharpe, 1879 Bornean Treepie
iMountains of Borneo
Dendrocitta leucogastra   Gould, 1833 White-bellied Treepie
vS India
Dendrocitta frontalis   Horsfield, 1840 Collared Treepie
vW Yunnan, Himalayan foothills (east from Bhutan), N Myanmar, NW Vietnam
Dendrocitta bayleii 15,16  Tytler, 1863 δ Andaman Treepie
iAndamans
PYRRHOCORAX Tunstall, 1771 M - Cornish Chough Tunstall; type by monotypy = Upupa pyrrhocorax Linnaeus, 1758  
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax Red-billed Chough
pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus, 1758) Locally in W British Isles, Ireland
erythroramphos (Vieillot, 1817)17 δW France; Iberia to Alps and Italy
barbarus Vaurie, 1954 vLa Palma (Canary Is.), NW Africa
docilis (S.G. Gmelin, 1774) vSE Europe and Caucasus east to Afghanistan and W Pakistan
centralis Stresemann, 1928 vPamir Mts. to Altai Mts., Mongolia, extreme NE China and Himalayas (N Pakistan to Himachal Pradesh)
himalayanus (Gould, 1862) vS and E Xizang, WC China (south to N Yunnan), Himalayas (Uttarakhand to Bhutan)
brachypus (Swinhoe, 1871) NC to E China (Ningxia to Shandong)
baileyi Rand & Vaurie, 1955 Highlands of N and C Ethiopia
Pyrrhocorax graculus Alpine Chough/Yellow-billed Chough
graculus (Linnaeus, 1766) Europe, N Africa, N Turkey, Caucasus area, N Iran
digitatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833 vS Turkey, Lebanon, SW Iran
forsythi Stoliczka, 187418 SE Siberia (Tuva Republic), mountains of C Asia east to Altai, S and E Xizang, Afghanistan and the Himalayas east to W Arunachal Pradesh
UROCISSA Cabanis, 1851 F - Cuculus sinensis auct. not of Linnaeus; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 63). = Corvus erythrorhynchus Boddaert, 1783  19
Urocissa ornata   (Wagler, 1829) Sri Lanka Blue Magpie
vSri Lanka
Urocissa caerulea   Gould, 1863 Taiwan Blue Magpie
vTaiwan
Urocissa flavirostris Yellow-billed Blue Magpie
cucullata Gould, 1861 vHimalayan foothills from N Pakistan to W Nepal
flavirostris (Blyth, 1846) vSE Xizang, W Yunnan, Himalayan foothills (east from E Nepal), N Myanmar
schaferi Sick, 1939 W Myanmar
robini Delacour & Jabouille, 1930 NW Vietnam
Urocissa erythroryncha Red-billed Blue Magpie
occipitalis (Blyth, 1846) vHimalayan foothills from Kashmir to E Nepal
magnirostris (Blyth, 1846) vS Assam (NE India), continental SE Asia (except extreme NW, SW and NE)
alticola Birckhead, 1938 W and N Yunnan, NE Myanmar
brevivexilla Swinhoe, 187420 αN China (S Gansu to S Liaoning)
erythroryncha (Boddaert, 1783)21 δvC, E and S China, Hainan, NE continental SE Asia
Urocissa whiteheadi White-winged Magpie
whiteheadi Ogilvie-Grant, 1899 Hainan
xanthomelana (Delacour, 1927) vSW China (S Sichuan and Guangxi), C Laos to N and C Vietnam
CISSA Boie, 1826 F - Coracias sinensis J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by monotypy = Coracias chinensis Boddaert, 1783  
Cissa chinensis Common Green Magpie
chinensis (Boddaert, 1783) vC China, Himalayan foothills (east from Uttarakhand), NE India, EC Bangladesh, continental SE Asia (except S)
klossi Delacour & Jabouille, 1924 C Laos, C Vietnam
margaritae Robinson & Kloss, 1919 SC and S Vietnam
robinsoni Ogilvie-Grant, 1906 Uplands of S Thai-Malay Pen.
minor Cabanis, 185122 αvUplands of Sumatra and Borneo
Cissa hypoleuca23 Indochinese Green Magpie
jini Delacour, 1930 SW China (S Sichuan and Guangxi)
concolor Delacour & Jabouille, 1928 N and NC Vietnam
chauleti Delacour, 1926 C Vietnam
hypoleuca Salvadori & Giglioli, 1885 vSE continental SE Asia east from E and SE Thailand
katsumatae Rothschild, 1903 Hainan
Cissa thalassina   (Temminck, 1826) Javan Green Magpie
vMountains of Java
Cissa jefferyi 24,25  Sharpe, 1888 Bornean Green Magpie
Mountains of Borneo
PERISOREUS Bonaparte, 1831 M - Corvus canadensis Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 37).   26
Perisoreus canadensis Gray Jay
1 pacificus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vNC to S Alaska
1 canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766)27 vNE Alaska, N Canada (Yukon to Québec, N Alberta and S Manitoba), N USA (south to NE Minnesota and N New England)
1 sanfordi Oberholser, 191428 Newfoundland, Nova Scotia [Oberholser, 1914 #15634]
1 albescens J.L. Peters, 1920 C Canada (SE Yukon to WC Manitoba) and NC USA (E Montana, NE Wyoming, South Dakota, NW Minnesota)
1 bicolor A.H. Miller, 1933 Rocky Mts. in SW Canada (SE British Columbia, SW Alberta) and NW USA (E Washington, E Oregon, C Idaho, W Montana)
1 capitalis S.F. Baird, 187429 vWC USA (C and E Idaho, W Wyoming, C Utah, W Colorado, EC Arizona, NC New Mexico)
2 griseus Ridgway, 189930 vSW Canada (SW British Columbia) and W USA (C Washington, C Oregon, NE California)
2 obscurus Ridgway, 1874 vCoastal W USA (NW Washington, W Oregon, NW California)
Perisoreus infaustus31 Siberian Jay
infaustus (Linnaeus, 1758)32 vFenno-Scandia, N, C and SE Russia and NW and SW Siberia
rogosowi Sushkin & Stegmann, 192933 NE Russia and N Siberia (east to W Lena basin)
opicus Bangs, 1913 vAltai Mts., Sayan Mts. and Tannu Ola Mts. (SC Siberia, Tuva Republic)
sibericus (Boddaert, 1783)34 vMid-Yenisey basin to Baikal area and N Mongolia
maritimus Buturlin, 191535 vE Russian Far East, Sakhalin, extreme N China (E Heilongjiang)
Perisoreus internigrans   (Thayer & Bangs, 1912) Sichuan Jay
iE Xizang and W China (SE Qinghai and W Gansu to N Sichuan)
CYANOPICA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Corvus cyanus Pallas, 1776; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 64).   36
Cyanopica cyanus Azure-winged Magpie
cooki Bonaparte, 185037 Spain, Portugal [Bonaparte, 1850 #407]
cyanus (Pallas, 1776)38,39 αE Siberia, Mongolia, N, C and E China, Korea
japonica Parrot, 1905 vN and C Honshu (Japan)
GARRULUS Brisson, 1760 M - Garrulus Brisson; type by tautonymy = Corvus glandarius Linnaeus, 1758  
Garrulus glandarius40 Eurasian Jay
rufitergum E. Hartert, 1903 Scotland, England, W France
hibernicus Witherby & E. Hartert, 1911 vIreland
glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) vN and C Europe east to Ural Mts. and south to the Pyrenees, the Alps, N Croatia, N Serbia, Romania
fasciatus (A.E. Brehm, 1857)41 vIberia
ichnusae O. Kleinschmidt, 1903 Sardinia
corsicanus Laubmann, 1912 vCorsica
albipectus O. Kleinschmidt, 192042 Mainland Italy, Sicily, W Croatia, W Albania, Ionian Is.
graecus Kleiner, 193943 vE Albania, S Serbia, W and C Bulgaria, mainland Greece
ferdinandi Keve-Kleiner, 194444,45 E Bulgaria, N European Turkey
cretorum R. Meinertzhagen, 1920 Crete
glaszneri von Madarász, 1902 Cyprus
cervicalis Bonaparte, 1853 vN and E Algeria, N Tunisia
whitakeri E. Hartert, 1903 N Morocco, NW Algeria
minor J. Verreaux, 1857 vC Morocco, Saharan Atlas Mts. of Algeria
atricapillus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1832 W Syria to Israel and W Jordan [Seebohm, 1883 #3564]
anatoliae Seebohm, 188346 Asia Minor (except NE), NW Syria, NE Iraq, W and SW Iran [Seebohm, 1883 #3564]
samios Kleiner, 193947 αSamos I. (Greece)
krynicki Kaleniczenko, 1839 NE Turkey, Caucasus area
iphigenia Sushkin & Ptuschenko, 1914 Crimea
hyrcanus Blanford, 1873 vSE Azerbaijan, N Iran
brandtii Eversmann, 184248 S and SE Siberia from Ural Mts. to Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., Hokkaido, Korea, Mongolia, N China
kansuensis Stresemann, 1928 vW China (Qinghai and Gansu to NW Sichuan)
pekingensis Reichenow, 1905 vN China (Shanxi, Hebei, S Liaoning)
sinensis Swinhoe, 1871 vC, S and E China, N Myanmar
taivanus Gould, 186349 αvTaiwan
bispecularis Vigors, 1831 vHimalayan foothills from N Pakistan to W Nepal
interstinctus E. Hartert, 191850 vSE Xizang, Himalayan foothills east from E Nepal
persaturatus E. Hartert, 191851 vNE India (S Assam)
oatesi Sharpe, 1896 NW and NC Myanmar
haringtoni Rippon, 1905 W Myanmar
leucotis Hume, 1874 vS Yunnan, continental SE Asia (except NW, NE and S)
japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 184752,53 αvJapan (except Hokkaido), Tsushima, Izu Is. (O-shima)
tokugawae Taka-Tsukasa, 1931 Sadoga-shima (Japan)
orii N. Kuroda, Sr., 1923 Yaku-shima (Osumi Is.)
Garrulus lanceolatus 54  Vigors, 1830 α Black-headed Jay
vNE Afghanistan, Himalayan foothills from NW Pakistan to C Nepal
Garrulus lidthi 55  Bonaparte, 1850 α Lidth's Jay
iAmami Is. (Japan)
ZAVATTARIORNIS Moltoni, 1938 M - Zavattariornis stresemanni Moltoni, 1938; type by monotypy   56
Zavattariornis stresemanni   Moltoni, 1938 Stresemann's Bush Crow
iS Ethiopia
PTILOSTOMUS Swainson, 1837 M - Ptilostomus senegalensis Swainson; type by monotypy = Corvus afer Linnaeus, 1766  
Ptilostomus afer   (Linnaeus, 1766) Piapiac
vSenegal to S Sudan and extreme SW Ethiopia, south to S Uganda
PODOCES J.G. Fischer, 1821 M - Podoces panderi J.G. Fischer, 1821; type by monotypy   
Podoces hendersoni   Hume, 1871 Mongolian Ground Jay/Henderson's Ground Jay
iSC Siberia (Tuva Republic), W and S Mongolia, NW to NC China
Podoces biddulphi   Hume, 1874 Xinjiang Ground Jay/Biddulph's Ground Jay
iTarim Basin (NW China)
Podoces panderi Turkestan Ground Jay/Pander's Ground Jay
panderi J.G. Fischer, 1821 Turkmenistan to SC Kazakhstan
ilensis Menzbier & Schnitnikov, 191557 vE Kazakhstan
Podoces pleskei   Sarudny, 1896 Pleske's Ground Jay
iC Iran, ? S Afghanistan, ? W Pakistan
PICA Brisson, 1760 F - Pica Brisson; type by tautonymy = Corvus pica Linnaeus, 1758  
Pica pica58,59 Eurasian Magpie
fennorum Lönnberg, 1927 N Fenno-Scandia and E Baltic to W and N Russia
pica (Linnaeus, 1758)60 S Scandinavia and British Isles to S and SE Europe, W and N Asia Minor and Caucasus area61
melanotos A.E. Brehm, 1857 Portugal, Spain
mauritanica Malherbe, 184562 δvNW Africa
asirensis Bates, G.L., 193663 vSW Saudi Arabia
bactriana Bonaparte, 185064,65 αvSE Turkey, Iran and Ural Mts. east through Transcaspia and S Siberia to W Pakistan, Himachal Pradesh, Xinjiang, Mongolia, N China (Nei Mongol) and Transbaikalia
camtschatica Stejneger, 1884 vNE Siberia (Anadyrland to Kamchatka)
serica Gould, 184566,67 δvRussian Far East, S Japan, Korea, China (except NW and WC) including Taiwan and Hainan, N and E continental SE Asia
bottanensis Delessert, 1840 vS and E Xizang, NW to WC China (Qinghai to W Sichuan), Himalayas (east from Sikkim)
Pica hudsonia 68  (J. Sabine, 1823) Black-billed Magpie
vCoastal S Alaska, SW Canada (SW Yukon to SW Ontario), W USA (south to EC California and C Kansas)
Pica nutalli 69  (Audubon, 1837) δ Yellow-billed Magpie
iSW USA (California west of Sierra Nevada)
NUCIFRAGA Brisson, 1760 F - Nucifraga Brisson; type by tautonymy = Corvus caryocatactes Linnaeus, 1758  
Nucifraga columbiana   (A. Wilson, 1811) Clark's Nutcracker
vSW Canada, W USA (south to California, Nevada and New Mexico), N Mexico (N Baja California; Nuevo León)
Nucifraga caryocatactes Eurasian Nutcracker
caryocatactes (Linnaeus, 1758) N, C and SE Europe to C Russia >> S Russia
macrorhynchos C.L. Brehm, 1823 N Fenno-Scandia and E Russia to Kamchatka and Sakhalin south to N Mongolia, NE China and Korea >> W Europe to C China
rothschildi E. Hartert, 1903 C Asia east from Kyrgyzstan and SE Kazakhstan, NW China (WC Xinjiang)
multipunctata Gould, 184970 vE Afghanistan, W and N Pakistan and Himalayas (Kashmir to Lahul)
hemispila Vigors, 1831 vHimalayas from W Himachal Pradesh to West Bengal
macella Thayer & Bangs, 1909 C China, Himalayas (east from Sikkim), N Myanmar
japonica E. Hartert, 1897 vS Kuril Is. and Japan
interdicta O. Kleinschmidt & Weigold, 1922 vNC to NE China (Shanxi and Henan to SW Liaoning)
owstoni C. Ingram, 1910 Taiwan
CORVUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758; type by Linnaean tautonymy   71
Corvus dauuricus   Pallas, 1776 Daurian Jackdaw
vBaikal to Altai Mts. and Russian Far East, E Xizang, N China, N Korea >> S Japan, S Korea, E and SE China
Corvus monedula72 Eurasian Jackdaw/Western Jackdaw
monedula Linnaeus, 1758 N and C Europe (Scandinavia to N Alps and Carpathian Mts.)
spermologus Vieillot, 1817 vW and S Europe east to Italy; Morocco, NW Algeria
soemmerringii J.G. Fischer, 1811 E and SE Europe east to SC Siberia, N Afghanistan and C Asia, W Mongolia, NW China (NW Xinjiang) and Himalayas (east to Kashmir) >> NE Africa, SW, C and E Asia, NW India
cirtensis (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1912) vNE Algeria
Corvus nasicus   Temminck, 1826 Cuban Crow
iCuba, Caicos Is. (North Caicos, Middle Caicos)
Corvus jamaicensis   J.F. Gmelin, 1788 Jamaican Crow
vJamaica
Corvus leucognaphalus 73  Daudin, 1800 White-necked Crow
vHispaniola, Puerto Rico
Corvus capensis Cape Crow
kordofanensis Laubmann, 191974 vE South Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia to Uganda, Kenya and N Tanzania
capensis M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 vAngola, W Zambia and Zimbabwe to South Africa
Corvus ossifragus   A. Wilson, 1812 Fish Crow
vE and SE USA (Maine to Florida, west to E Texas, extending N along rivers to Kansas, Missouri and Indiana)
Corvus sinaloae 75  L.I. Davis, 1958 Sinaloa Crow
iNW Mexico (S Sonora to SW Nayarit)
Corvus imparatus 76  J.L. Peters, 1929 Tamaulipas Crow
vNE Mexico (E Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, N Veracruz)
Corvus palmarum 77  Württemburg, 1835 Hispaniolan Palm Crow
Hispaniola
Corvus minutus 78  Gundlach, 1852 Cuban Palm Crow
vW and C Cuba
Corvus hawaiiensis 79  Peale, 1848 Hawaiian Crow
vHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
Corvus frugilegus80 Rook
frugilegus Linnaeus, 1758 vEurope, W and C Asia east to Tien Shan and N Altai Mts. >> N Africa, SW Asia81
pastinator Gould, 1845 NE Siberia (S Yakutia) south to Russian Far East, Korea, Mongolia, N, C and E China >> S Japan, S Korea, E and S China
Corvus crassirostris   Rüppell, 1836 Thick-billed Raven
vEritrea, Ethiopia
Corvus albicollis   Latham, 1790 White-necked Raven
vE DR Congo, C Uganda and NC Kenya to Zimbabwe and E and S South Africa
Corvus corax82 Common Raven
canariensis E. Hartert & O. Kleinschmidt, 190183 vCanary Is.
tingitanus Irby, 1874 vN Africa
hispanus E. Hartert & O. Kleinschmidt, 190184 vIberia and Balearic Is.
corax Linnaeus, 1758 N, C and SE Europe, W Siberia to Yenisey basin, N Kazakhstan, NE Turkey and Caucasus area to N Iran
varius Brünnich, 1764 vIceland, Faroe Is.
laurencei Hume, 187385,86 δExtreme SE Europe to W and C Asia, NW China (Xinjiang), Afghanistan, Pakistan, NW India
tibetanus Hodgson, 1849 vKarakoram Range to Tien Shan Mts., Himalayas east to Arunachal Pradesh, Xizang, NW China (Qinghai and Gansu)
kamtschaticus Dybowski, 1883 vE and NE Siberia south to Russian Far East and S Kuril Is., N and W Mongolia, NE China >> N Japan, Aleutian Is., SW Alaska
principalis Ridgway, 1887 vAlaska, Canada, Greenland, N USA (south to coastal Oregon; Minnesota, Wisconsin, N Michigan; Maine to N Georgia)
sinuatus Wagler, 1829 vSW Canada (British Columbia), W USA (Idaho to Great Plains, SW mountains), Mexico to NC Nicaragua
clarionensis Rothschild & E. Hartert, 190287 vSW USA (California, S Nevada, W Arizona), NW Mexico (Isla Clarión; Baja California)
Corvus cryptoleucus 88  Couch, 1854 Chihuahuan Raven
vC and SC USA (Nebraska and Arizona to Texas), N and C Mexico (to Guanajuato and Hidalgo) >> south to SW Mexico (Michoacán)
Corvus ruficollis 89  Lesson, 1831 α Brown-necked Raven
vCape Verde is. and Sahara to Socotra and Sinai, deserts of SW and WC Asia from Arabia, Iran and W Pakistan to W Xinjiang and Kazakhstan
Corvus edithae 90  Lort Phillips, 1895 Dwarf Raven/Somali Crow
Eritrea, E Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia and N Kenya
Corvus albus   Statius Muller, 1776 Pied Crow
vNW Mauritania to Eritrea and Somalia, south to South Africa; Madagascar
Corvus rhipidurus Fan-tailed Raven
stanleyi Roselaar, 1993 Sinai, Israel and Jordan through Arabian Pen. to Yemen and S Oman [Roselaar, 1993 #3381]
rhipidurus E. Hartert, 1918 Niger to Sudan, Ethiopia and N Somalia, south to N and C Kenya and E Uganda
Corvus brachyrhynchos91 American Crow
hesperis Ridgway, 188792 vSW Canada (British Columbia), W USA (N Idaho to California) and NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
hargravei A.R. Phillips, 194293 SW USA (Great Basin)
brachyrhynchos C.L. Brehm, 1822 C and E Canada (SW Northwest Territories to Newfoundland), C and E USA (south to NW Florida and Gulf coast)94
pascuus Coues, 1899 vSE USA (Florida Pen.)
Corvus caurinus   S.F. Baird, 1858 Northwestern Crow
vS Alaska, W Canada (coast and islands), NW Washington
Corvus corone95 Carrion Crow
corone Linnaeus, 1758 SW and W Europe >> N Africa
cornix Linnaeus, 1758 N and E Europe and W Siberia south to N Balkans, N Ukraine and Ob' basin >> W and S Europe, SW Asia
sharpii E.W. Oates, 188996 Corsica, Italy, Balkans, SE Europe, Turkey, Levant, Caucasus, Iran through N Kazakhstan to NW Altai Mts. and S Siberia >> NE Africa, SW Asia, Pakistan, NW India
pallescens (von Madarász, 1904)97 Crete, Cyprus, ? S Turkey
capellanus P.L. Sclater, 187798 αC and S Iraq, SW Iran
orientalis Eversmann, 1841 vC and E Siberia to Kamchatka, south to Japan, Korea, C Asia to C China, Afghanistan, N Pakistan >> S China
Corvus pectoralis 99  Gould, 1836 Collared Crow
vC, E and S China, N Vietnam
Corvus florensis   Büttikofer, 1894 α Flores Crow
vFlores (Lesser Sundas)
Corvus typicus 100  (Bonaparte, 1853) Piping Crow
vSulawesi (except N), Muna I., Buton I.
†? Corvus unicolor 101  (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1900) Banggai Crow
iBanggai Is.
Corvus enca102 Slender-billed Crow
enca (Horsfield, 1821)103 αMentawai Is. (off W Sumatra), Java, Bali104
celebensis Stresemann, 1936 vSulawesi and inner satellites, Talaud Is.; Bonerate I. (in Flores Sea)
mangoli Vaurie, 1958105 Sula Is., ? Banggai Is.
pusillus Tweeddale, 1878 vBalabac, Palawan, Mindoro (Philippines)
sierramadrensis Rand & Rabor, 1961 vLuzon (Philippines)
samarensis Steere, 1890 vSamar and Mindanao (Philippines)
Corvus compilator 106  Richmond, 1903 Sunda Crow
S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Simeulue I., Nias I., Borneo
Corvus validus 107,108  Bonaparte, 1850 Long-billed Crow
vMorotai, Halmahera, Kayoa, Kasiruta, Bacan, Obi (N Moluccas)
Corvus moneduloides 109  Lesson, 1831 α New Caledonian Crow
iNew Caledonia110
Corvus meeki 111  Rothschild, 1904 Bougainville Crow
Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is. (N Solomons)
Corvus woodfordi   (Ogilvie-Grant, 1887) White-billed Crow
Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Guadalcanal (C and SE Solomons)
Corvus violaceus 112,113  Bonaparte, 1850 Violet Crow
vS Moluccas
Corvus fuscicapillus Brown-headed Crow
megarhynchus Bernstein, 1864 vWaigeo and Gam (Western Papuan Is.)
fuscicapillus G.R. Gray, 1859 Lowland N New Guinea (locally from lower R. Mamberamo to Yos Sudarso Bay), Aru Is.
Corvus tristis   Lesson & Garnot, 1827 Grey Crow
vBatanta, Salawati, lowland New Guinea, Yapen I., D'Entrecasteaux Arch.
Corvus insularis 114  Heinroth, 1903 Bismarck Crow
vNew Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover and satellite islands (Bismarck Arch.)
Corvus orru Australian Crow/Torresian Crow
latirostris A.B. Meyer, 1884 vBabar, Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
orru Bonaparte, 1850115 αN Moluccas, lowland New Guinea and surrounding islands
cecilae Mathews, 1912116 δAustralia north of 30 degrees S
Corvus bennetti   North, 1901 Little Crow
iInland Australia
Corvus mellori 117,118  Mathews, 1912 Little Raven
iSE Australia, King I. (off NW Tasmania)
Corvus tasmanicus119,120 Forest Raven
1 boreus I. Rowley, 1970121 vNE New South Wales [Rowley, 1970 #3403]
2 tasmanicus Mathews, 1912 vSE South Australia, S Victoria, Tasmania
Corvus coronoides Australian Raven
coronoides Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 EC, E and SE Australia
perplexus Mathews, 1912122 vSW and SC Australia
Corvus splendens123 House Crow
zugmayeri Laubmann, 1913 Pakistan, NW India
splendens Vieillot, 1817 Nepal, Bhutan, India (except NW and SW), Bangladesh, SW Myanmar124
protegatus von Madarász, 1904 vSri Lanka
maledivicus Reichenow, 1904 vMaldives
insolens Hume, 1874 SE Xizang, S Yunnan, W continental SE Asia (except SW Myanmar)
Corvus macrorhynchos125 Large-billed Crow/Jungle Crow
levaillantii Lesson, 1831126,127 αSE Nepal, NE India, Bangladesh, Andamans, continental SE Asia (except NE)
culminatus Sykes, 1832128 vSW Nepal, India (except NE), Sri Lanka
intermedius Adams, 1859 vS Xizang, Afghanistan, N and W Pakistan, Himalayas (east to N Nepal)
tibetosinensis O. Kleinschmidt & Weigold, 1922 vE and SE Xizang, W China (Qinghai to N Yunnan), N Bhutan, NE Myanmar
colonorum Swinhoe, 1864129 E, C and S China including Taiwan and Hainan, NE continental SE Asia
mandshuricus Buturlin, 1913130 δvRussian Far East, N Sakhalin, Korea, NE China (south-west to Hebei)
japonensis Bonaparte, 1850131 vC and S Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., Japan
connectens Stresemann, 1916 N Ryukyu Is. (Japan)
osai Ogawa, 1905 S Ryukyu Is. (Japan)
macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827 Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Lesser Sundas (east to Timor and Kisar)
Corvus philippinus   (Bonaparte, 1853) Philippine Crow
vPhilippines
Corvus kubaryi   Reichenow, 1885 Mariana Crow
iRota (Northern Mariana Is.); Guam
CYANOLYCA Cabanis, 1851 F - Cyanocorax armillatus G.R. Gray, 1845; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 62).   132,133
Cyanolyca mirabilis 134  Nelson, 1903 White-throated Jay
vMountains of SW Mexico (Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, Sierra de Miahuatlán and Sierra de Yucuyacua in Oaxaca)
Cyanolyca nanus 135,136  (Du Bus, 1847) δ Dwarf Jay
iMountains of E Mexico (Veracruz and adjacent Puebla and Oaxaca)
Cyanolyca pumilo   (Strickland, 1849) Black-throated Jay
iMountains of extreme SE Mexico (SE Chiapas), Guatemala, W and C Honduras, N El Salvador and NW Nicaragua
Cyanolyca argentigula Silvery-throated Jay
albior Pitelka, 1951 vMountains of C Costa Rica (Cordillera Central)
argentigula (Lawrence, 1875) Mountains of S Costa Rica (Cordillera de Talamanca) and W Panama (W Chiriquí)
Cyanolyca pulchra 137  (Lawrence, 1876) Beautiful Jay
vW Andes of Colombia (extreme S Chocó) and W slope of Andes of Ecuador (south to Pichincha)
Cyanolyca cucullata Azure-hooded Jay
mitrata Ridgway, 1899 vE Mexico (extreme SE San Luis Potosí and Veracruz to EC Oaxaca)
guatemalae Pitelka, 1951138 S Mexico (Chiapas) and N Guatemala
hondurensis Pitelka, 1951 vW Honduras
cucullata (Ridgway, 1885) vCaribbean slope of Costa Rica and Panama (extending locally across to Pacific slope)
Cyanolyca armillata139 Black-collared Jay
meridana (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) vNW Venezuela (Trujillo, Mérida, NW Táchira)
armillata (G.R. Gray, 1845) vAndes of SW Venezuela (S Táchira), E Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca)
quindiuna (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) C Andes of Colombia (Quindío to Nariño), Andes of N Ecuador (Carchi, W Napo)
Cyanolyca turcosa 140  (Bonaparte, 1853) Turquoise Jay
vAndes of SW Colombia (Nariño) to N Peru (E Piura and NW Cajamarca)
Cyanolyca viridicyanus141 White-collared Jay
jolyaea (Bonaparte, 1852)142 δvE slope of Andes of N and C Peru (Amazonas to Junín)
cyanolaema Hellmayr, 1917 vE slope of Andes of S Peru (Cuzco and Puno)
viridicyanus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) E slope of Andes in NW Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba)
GYMNORHINUS zu Wied, 1841 M - Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus zu Wied, 1841; type by monotypy   
Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus   zu Wied, 1841 Pinyon Jay
vW USA (C Oregon to W Nebraska, S California and C New Mexico) and NW Mexico (N Baja California)
APHELOCOMA Cabanis, 1851 F - Garrulus californicus Vigors, 1839; type by subsequent designation (S.F. Baird, 1858, in Rep. Explor. & Surv. Railroad M. Pac., 9, p. 584).   143
Aphelocoma unicolor Unicolored Jay
guerrerensis Nelson, 1903 vSW Mexico (WC Guerrero)
concolor (Cassin, 1848) E Mexico (E Hidalgo, WC Veracruz, Puebla)
oaxacae Pitelka, 1946 S Mexico (NC Oaxaca)
unicolor (Du Bus, 1847) S Mexico (NC and SE Chiapas), highlands of S Guatemala
griscomi van Rossem, 1928 N El Salvador, W and C Honduras
Aphelocoma ultramarina Transvolcanic Jay
colimae Nelson, 1899 SW Mexico (SC Jalisco and NE Colima)
ultramarina (Bonaparte, 1825) vSC Mexico (SE Jalisco and NW Michoacán east to WC Veracruz)
Aphelocoma wollweberi144 Mexican Jay
1 arizonae (Ridgway, 1874)145 SW USA (SE Arizona, SW New Mexico), N Mexico (N Sonora, NW Chihuahua)
1 wollweberi Kaup, 1855146,147 αNW Mexico (SE Sonora and SW Chihuahua to W Zacatecas and N Jalisco)
2 couchii (S.F. Baird, 1858)148 S USA (Chisos Mts. in SW Texas), NE Mexico (E Coahuila, S Nuevo León, W Tamaulipas, N San Luis Potosí)
3 potosina Nelson, 1899 vEC Mexico (San Luis Potosí to C Hidalgo)
Aphelocoma coerulescens 149  (Bosc, 1795) δ Florida Scrub Jay
iSE USA (Florida Pen.)
Aphelocoma woodhouseii Woodhouse's Scrub Jay
1 suttoni (A.R. Phillips, 1966)150,151 αWC USA (Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, W Texas) [Phillips, 1966 #3065]
1 nevadae Pitelka, 1945 SW USA (N Nevada to SW New Mexico), N Mexico (NE Sonora and NW Chihuahua)
1 woodhouseii (S.F. Baird, 1858) WC USA (S Wyoming to N Arizona)
1 texana Ridgway, 1902 vS USA (Edwards Plateau in WC Texas)
1 grisea Nelson, 1899 vNW Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua, Zacatecas, Jalisco and Guanajuato)
1 cyanotis Ridgway, 1887 vEC Mexico (S Coahuila to Tlaxcala)
2 sumichrasti (Ridgway, 1874)152 S Mexico (Distrito Federal, WC and S Veracruz, Puebla, NC Oaxaca)
2 remota Griscom, 1934 vS Mexico (C and E Guerrero, SW Oaxaca)
Aphelocoma insularis   Henshaw, 1886 Island Scrub Jay
vSanta Cruz I. (off S California)
Aphelocoma californica153,154 California Scrub Jay
californica (Vigors, 1839)155 vW USA (S Washington to C California)
cana Pitelka, 1951 vSW USA (Eagle Mountain in SE California)
obscura Anthony, 1889 vSW USA (SW California) and NW Mexico (N Baja California)
hypoleuca Ridgway, 1887 vNW Mexico (C and S Baja California)
CYANOCITTA Strickland, 1845 F - Corvus cristatus Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation   
Cyanocitta cristata156 Blue Jay
bromia Oberholser, 1921 vS Canada (E British Columbia to Newfoundland), N USA (E Montana to SC Virginia) >> SE USA (Texas to NE Georgia)
cristata (Linnaeus, 1758)157 vE USA (S Missouri to SW Virginia, south to SE Texas and C Florida)
cyanotephra Sutton, 1935 C USA (SE Wyoming, Nebraska, E Colorado, W Kansas, Oklahoma, N Texas)
semplei Todd, 1928 SE USA (S Florida)
Cyanocitta stelleri Steller's Jay
stelleri (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) S Alaska, W British Columbia, W Washington, NW Oregon
carlottae Osgood, 1901 W Canada (Queen Charlotte Is.)
frontalis (Ridgway, 1873) vW USA (C Oregon, E California, WC Nevada)
carbonacea G.B. Grinnell, 1900 vW USA (C coastal California)
annectens (S.F. Baird, 1874) W Canada (interior British Columbia, SW Alberta) and NW USA (E Washington to NW Wyoming)
macrolopha S.F. Baird, 1854 vW USA (SW South Dakota to Nevada, Arizona, Nebraska and W Texas) and N Mexico (N Sonora, N Chihuahua)
diademata (Bonaparte, 1850)158 vW Mexico (SE Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Nayarit and Jalisco)
phillipsi Browning, 1993159 C Mexico (SC San Luis Potosí, Guanajuato, Hidalgo) [Browning, 1993 #545]
azteca Ridgway, 1899 vC Mexico (México, Distrito Federal, Morelos, W Puebla, WC Veracruz)
coronata (Swainson, 1827)160 vEC and S Mexico (SE San Luis Potosí to N Puebla; Guerrero; Chiapas) and Guatemala
purpurea Aldrich, 1944 vSW Mexico (N and C Michoacán)
restricta A.R. Phillips, 1966161 vS Mexico (Oaxaca) [Phillips, 1966 #3066]
suavis W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925 vHighlands of C Honduras, N El Salvador and NW Nicaragua
CYANOCORAX Boie, 1826 M - Corvus pileatus Temminck, 1821; type by monotypy = Pica chrysops Vieillot, 1818  162
Cyanocorax violaceus Violaceous Jay
pallidus J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1944 vN Venezuela (N and NE Anzoátegui)
violaceus Du Bus, 1847 vSW and EC Venezuela, SW Guyana, E and SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, NW Bolivia and W Amazonian Brazil
Cyanocorax cyanomelas   (Vieillot, 1818) Purplish Jay
iSE Peru, N and E Bolivia, Paraguay, SW Brazil (S Rondônia to SW Goiás), N Argentina, NW Uruguay
Cyanocorax cristatellus   (Temminck, 1823) Curl-crested Jay
vE Brazil (S Pará and S Piauí to S to Mato Grosso do Sul and NE Paraná), EC and NE Paraguay, E Bolivia
Cyanocorax caeruleus   (Vieillot, 1818) Azure Jay
vSE Brazil (SE São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina, NE Uruguay
Cyanocorax morio Brown Jay
palliatus (van Rossem, 1934) vS USA (SE Texas), NE Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas to Veracruz)
morio (Wagler, 1829)163 SE Mexico (C Veracruz to SW Campeche and N Chiapas), Belize, N Guatemala and N Honduras to W Panama
vociferus (S. Cabot, 1843) vSE Mexico (NE Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo)
Cyanocorax colliei 164  (Vigors, 1829) Black-throated Magpie Jay
W Mexico (S Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Jalisco and Colima)
Cyanocorax formosus165 White-throated Magpie Jay
formosus (Swainson, 1827) vS Mexico (S Jalisco, Michoacán and Puebla to SW Oaxaca)
azureus (Nelson, 1897) vPacific slope of SE Mexico (SE Oaxaca and Chiapas) and W Guatemala
pompatus (Bangs, 1914) vSE Mexico (interior of E Oaxaca and of Chiapas), Guatemala (Motagua valley), El Salvador, S Honduras, NW Costa Rica
Cyanocorax yncas166 Green Jay
1 glaucescens (Ridgway, 1900)167 S USA (S Texas) and NE Mexico (W Nuevo León, Tamaulipas)
1 luxuosus (Lesson, 1839) vNE Mexico (E San Luis Potosí to NE Puebla and C Veracruz)
1 speciosus (Nelson, 1900) vW Mexico (NW Nayarit to S Jalisco)
1 vividus (Ridgway, 1900) vSW Mexico (Colima to SC Oaxaca)
1 maya (van Rossem, 1934)168 SE Mexico (Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, N and C Quintana Roo, Isla de Cozumel)
1 confusus A.R. Phillips, 1966169,170 vS Mexico (S Chiapas) and SW Guatemala [Phillips, 1966 #3066]
1 centralis (van Rossem, 1934) vSE Mexico (E Tabasco, adjacent Chiapas, S Quintana Roo), N Guatemala, Belize, NW Honduras
2 galeatus (Ridgway, 1900) vW Andes (south to Valle), C Andes and W slope of E Andes of Colombia
2 cyanodorsalis A.J.C. Dubois, 1874171 vAndes of NW Venezuela (Zulia; S Lara to Barinas), E slope of E Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca)
2 guatimalensis (Bonaparte, 1850)172 vN Venezuela (Falcón to N Monagas; locally in NE Guárico and Anzoátegui)
2 yncas (Boddaert, 1783) Andes of SW Colombia (Cauca and Nariño) and E slope of Andes of Ecuador to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
2 longirostris (Carriker, 1933) vN Peru (upper Marañón valley)
Cyanocorax mystacalis 173  (de Sparre, 1835) White-tailed Jay
vSW Ecuador and NW Peru (south to W La Libertad)
Cyanocorax dickeyi   R.T. Moore, 1935 Tufted Jay
iW Mexico (SE Sinaloa, SW Durango, NE Nayarit)
Cyanocorax affinis Black-chested Jay
zeledoni Ridgway, 1899 SE Costa Rica and Panama
affinis von Pelzeln, 1856 vN Colombia (south to Valle and Huila) and NW Venezuela (Zulia and Táchira to Falcón)
Cyanocorax heilprini Azure-naped Jay
heilprini Gentry, 1885 E Colombia, S Venezuela (W Amazonas), extreme NW Brazil (NW Amazonas)
hafferi Cohn-Haft, M.A. Santos, Jr., Fernandes & Ribas, 2013174 WC Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Purus to R. Madeira) [Cohn-Haft, 2013 #14828]
Cyanocorax cyanopogon 175,176  (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821) White-naped Jay
iE Brazil (Maranhão to Paraíba, south to SE Pará, E Mato Grosso and Bahia; Espírito Santo)
Cyanocorax chrysops Plush-crested Jay
diesingii von Pelzeln, 1856 N Brazil (right bank of lower R. Madeira and S side of R. Amazon on lower R. Tapajós)
insperatus O.M. de O. Pinto & de Camargo, 1961 vNC Brazil (Serra do Cachimbo in SW Pará) [Pinto, 1961 #3088]
chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) E Bolivia, C and SE Brazil (Mato Grosso to Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, NE Argentina, NW Uruguay
tucumanus Cabanis, 1883 vNW Argentina (Salta to La Rioja)
Cyanocorax cayanus   (Linnaeus, 1766) Cayenne Jay
vE Venezuela (N and E Bolívar and S Delta Amacuro), Guianas, N Brazil (Roraima, NE Amazonas, NW Pará, N Amapá)
Cyanocorax melanocyaneus Bushy-crested Jay
melanocyaneus (Hartlaub, 1844)177 δvHighlands of SC Guatemala and W El Salvador
chavezi (W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925) Highlands of Honduras, N and EC El Salvador and NW Nicaragua
Cyanocorax yucatanicus178 Yucatan Jay
yucatanicus (A.J.C. Dubois, 1875)179 δvSE Mexico (Yucatán, Campeche and Quintana Roo), N Guatemala (Petén), N Belize
rivularis (Brodkorb, 1940) vSE Mexico (Tabasco, SW Campeche)
Cyanocorax sanblasianus180 San Blas Jay
nelsoni (Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1919) SW Mexico (Nayarit to W Guerrero)
sanblasianus (Lafresnaye, 1842)181 δvSW Mexico (coastal C Guerrero)
Cyanocorax beecheii 182  (Vigors, 1829) α Purplish-backed Jay
iCoastal NW Mexico (S Sonora to N Nayarit)

1 The sequence of genera derives from fig. 5 in Ericson et al. (2005) [Ericson, 2005 #1509]. However, Platylophus, which may not be a corvid can be retained as basal to the family pending further study, see Jønsson et al. (2011) [Jønsson, 2011 #12727].
2 Genus Pseudopodoces has been transferred to the Paridae following James et al. (2003) [James, 2003 #2105].
3 The level of support for a genetic link with Lanius, see Aggerbeck et al. (2014) [Aggerbeck, 2014 #15380] leaves open an option for monotypic family status; however Jønsson et al. (2011) [Jønsson, 2011 #12727] found Platylophus at the base of the Corvidea and corroboration from a wider analysis of laniids is needed.
4 For placement of ardesiacus in the synonymy of nominate galericulatus see Steinheimer (2009) [Steinheimer, 2009 #11611].
5 Dated 1817 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321], but see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542].
6 The section of text containing this name seems best dated from Livr. 80 in 1829 (see Dickinson, 2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1369].
7 For dates of parts of this publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
8 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
9 Includes vernayi see Steinheimer (2009) [Steinheimer, 2009 #11611].
10 Includes himalayensis Blyth, 1865 which is a junior synonym; see Deignan (1963) [Deignan, 1963 #1245] for use of himalayana.
11 Not recognised by Biswas (1964) [Biswas, 1964 #5851]; but see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
12 Considered, before the separation of D. cinerascens, to form a superspecies with D. formosae by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; thus their superspecies would include that.
13 For correct date of publication see Richmond (1926) [Richmond, 1926 #3268].
14 For treatment as a separate species from D. occipitalis see Smythies (1999) [Smythies, 1999 #3667] and references therein.
15 Correct spelling under Article 32.5.1.1 (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]. See The Ibis, 1863 p. xiv. 'Errata et Emendanda', and David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #12111].
16 The description on p. 119 given by Blyth was in quotation marks and clearly attributed to Tytler.
17 Correct original spelling. Spelling erythrorhampos in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
18 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
19 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
20 For date correction see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
21 Correct original spelling (notwithstanding gender agreement). Spelling erythrorhyncha in Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] was an unjustified emendation, followed by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
22 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
23 For restoration of treatment as a separate species from C. thalassina see Goodwin (1976) [Goodwin, 1976 #1737] and Dickinson et al. (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1394].
24 For treatment as a separate species from C. thalassina; see van Balen et al. (2013) [van Balen, 2013 #14695].
25 Correct original spelling. Spelling jeffreyi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
26 Species sequence follows Ericson et al. (2005) [Ericson, 2005 #1509].
27 Includes arcus; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071], and nigricapillus see Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
28 For recognition see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071] and Strickland & Ouellet (2011) [Strickland, 2011 #14317]. Not recognised by Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
29 For correction to authorship see Banks & Browning (1979) [Banks, 1979 #190].
30 Treated as a synonym of obscurus by Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
31 Considered to form a superspecies with P. canadensis and P. internigrans by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
32 Includes ruthenus; see Stepanyan (1990, 2003) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], [Stepanyan, 2003 #4769].
33 Includes ostjakorum see Stepanyan (1990, 2003) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], [Stepanyan, 2003 #4769]. Reference to Dementiev & Gladkov (1969) [Dementiev, 1969 #4608] suggests that these authors acted as First Revisers in giving precedence to rogosowi over the simultaneously published ostjakorum in their Russian original in 1954.
34 Includes caudatus, yakutensis and varnak; see Stepanyan (1990, 2003) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], [Stepanyan, 2003 #4769]. Subspecies caudatus recognised by Madge (2009) [Madge, 2009 #15637].
35 Includes sakhalinensis; see Stepanyan (1990, 2003) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], [Stepanyan, 2003 #4769].
36 This name first appeared in Bonaparte's Conspectus not where cited by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321].
37 For treatment as a separate species from C. cyanus see Fok et al. (2002) [Fok, 2002 #1575].
38 Includes pallescens; see Stepanyan (1990: 400) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. Also includes koreensis, stegmanni, jeholica, swinhoei, interposita and kansuensis; see Kryukov et al. (2004) [Kryukov, 2004 #2288].
39 This name first appeared in Bonaparte's Conspectus.
40 Treatments differ. We combine those of Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091] and Roselaar (1995) [Roselaar, 1995 #3385], for their areas, with that of Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961] further east, with complementary footnotes here. Populations in the Aegean require the publication of revisionary work not reflected here.
41 Includes lusitanicus as here we follow Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961].
42 Implicitly includes jordansi Keve, 1966 [Keve, 1966 #2212]; see Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961]. This was recognised in Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
43 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
44 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
45 Correct date of publication December 1944 see Table 23 in Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
46 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091] and Roselaar (1995) [Roselaar, 1995 #3385]. Here provisionally includes rhodius, zervasi and susianae Keve, 1973 [Keve, 1973 #2214] see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]; the name hansguentheri Keve, 1967 [Keve, 1967 #2213], was given to intergrading birds. Revision needed, but hampered by lost types.
47 For dates of volumes of this publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
48 The name sewerzowii was applied to a small intergrading population just west of the Ural Mts. In addition bambergi is treated as a synonym, see Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961].
49 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
50 Includes azureitinctus see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
51 Not recognised by Madge (2009) [Madge, 2009 #15637] but see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005, 2012) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749], [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479].
52 Includes namiyei; see Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961] and hiugaensis see Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875].
53 Plate 43 appeared in 1847 see Holthuis & Sakai (1970) [Holthuis, 1970 #1986]; Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] gave 1848.
54 For corrected date and source see McAllan & Bruce (2002) [McAllan, 2002 #2584].
55 Dated 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
56 Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] treated this with the Sturnidae but see Ericson et al. (2005) [Ericson, 2005 #1509].
57 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990, 2003) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], [Stepanyan, 2003 #4769]. Not recognised by Madge (2009) [Madge, 2009 #15637].
58 Considered, when including P. hudsoni, to form a superspecies with P. nutalli, see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. Lee Sang-im et al. (2003) [Lee Sang-im, 2003 #2361] suggested they all be treated as a single species.
59 For evidence suggesting this comprises two or more Palaearctic species see Ebels (2003) [Ebels, 2003 #1469] and Haring et al. (2007, 2012) [Haring, 2007 #9739], [Haring, 2012 #14693]. More comprehensive taxon sampling is required.
60 Includes galliae see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
61 Introduced (serica) to Japan (Kyushu).
62 Correct original spelling. Spelling mauretanica in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
63 Treated as a separate species by Madge (2009) [Madge, 2009 #15637].
64 Includes hemileucoptera and leucoptera; see Stepanyan (1990, 2003) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], [Stepanyan, 2003 #4769].
65 Dated 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
66 Correct original spelling. Spelling sericea in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
67 Madge (2009) [Madge, 2009 #15637] recognised anderssoni assigning it a large part of the range Stepanyan assigned to bactriana and with a type locality on the extreme eastern edge of the range Madge assigned it.
68 For separation of this from P. pica see Banks et al. (2000) [Banks, 2000 #10].
69 Original spelling; no internal information permits emendation.
70 For treatment as a separate species from N. caryocatactes; see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] and Madge (2009) [Madge, 2009 #15637]. Corroboration required and taxon sampling urged.
71 Species sequence follows Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
72 Considered to form a superspecies with C. dauuricus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
73 Considered to form a superspecies with C. nasicus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
74 For recognition see Urban (2000) [Urban, 2000 #3902].
75 For treatment as a separate species from C. imparatus; see Hardy (1990) [Hardy, 1990 #15100].
76 Considered to form a superspecies with C. sinaloae by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. This may include C. ossifragus; see Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
77 Although treated as two species by Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694] considered to be merely weakly differentiated subspecies by Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
78 For suggestion this be treated a separate species from C. palmarum see Garrido et al. (1997) [Garrido, 1997 #1677]; but see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Banks et al. (2000) [Banks, 2000 #10]. However, see also Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
79 For reasons to use this name in place of Corvus tropicus see Banks (1983) [Banks, 1983 #191].
80 For apparent significant genetic difference between the two subspecies see Haring et al. (2007, 2012) [Haring, 2007 #9739], [Haring, 2012 #14693] and Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694]. Morphological differences seem less great and proposals to split this species require more debate.
81 Introduced to New Zealand.
82 Seemingly paraphyletic with respect to C. cryptoleucus; see Omland et al. (2000) [Omland, 2000 #2867], Feldman & Omland (2005) [Feldman, 2005 #1547] and Omland et al. (2006) [Omland, 2006 #9998].
83 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]; however, diagnosibility from tingitanus requires corroboration.
84 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
85 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]. The name subcorax has been used for this population, but wrongly so as its type is identifiable with C. ruficollis, see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
86 Correct original spelling. Spelling laurenci in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
87 For recognition see A.M. Rea in Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
88 Includes reai A.R. Phillips, 1986 [Phillips, 1986 #3071]; see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
89 For dates of parts of this publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
90 For restoration to species rank see Ash & Atkins (2009) [Ash, 2009 #12726]. See also Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
91 Considered to form a superspecies with C. caurinus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
92 Includes paulus; see Rea in Phillips, 1986 [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
93 Recognised by Rea in Phillips, 1986 [Phillips, 1986 #3071], but not by Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
94 Introduced to Bermuda.
95 Parkin et al. (2003) [Parkin, 2003 #9567] proposed treating this complex as two species with nominate corone and far distant orientalis combined. This is counterintuitive but a three species treatment deserves consideration. See also see Haring et al. (2007, 2012) [Haring, 2007 #9739], [Haring, 2012 #14693], Haas et al. (2009) [Haas, 2009 #14984] and Wolf et al. (2010) [Wolf, 2010 #12037].
96 Includes sardonius; see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]; implicitly also includes italicus Trischitta, 1939 [Trischitta, 1939 #3880].
97 Includes egipticus Keve, 1972 [Keve, 1972 #15740] see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
98 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
99 The name Corvus torquatus Lesson, 1831, given by Blake & Amadon (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] is preoccupied by C. monedula torquata Bechstein, 1791.
100 Considered to form a superspecies with C. unicolor by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. Supported by molecular evidence, see Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
101 Perhaps only a subspecies of C. enca see Vaurie (1958) [Vaurie, 1958 #3958]. But see Mallo et al. (2010) [Mallo, 2010 #12611].
102 Dickinson et al. (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1394] concluded that if a species C. violaceus were to be carved out of the broad species C. enca the Philippine forms should also be separated. The results of Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694] support that, but a fuller study is desirable so only subspecies groups are accepted.
103 For date correction see Raphael (1970) [Raphael, 1970 #3206].
104 It is improbable that the Mentawai Is. to the west of Sumatra are home to the same form as is found in Java, as compilator is interposed between them. Van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920] suggested the Simeuluë birds may also need naming.
105 For continued recognition see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
106 Various studies have shown that C. enca must comprise two or more species and the results of Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694] suggest that a first step at recognition of this is required. Separation of this large, deep voiced taxon is preferred over separating C. e. pusillus with a significant probability that Palawan bird does not belong to the same species as those found in the main islands of the Philippines.
107 For suggestion this might be a species distinct from C. enca; see Goodwin (1976) [Goodwin, 1976 #1737]; for corroboration from molecular findings see Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
108 Dated 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
109 For dates of parts of this publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
110 Introduced to Loyalty Is. (Maré).
111 For treatment as a separate species from C. woodfordi see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Debus (2009) [Debus, 2009 #15636]; but see Mayr & Diamond (2001) [Mayr, 2001 #10562]. Corroborated by molecular evidence in Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
112 For treatment as a separate species from C. enca, see Madge & Burn (1993) [Madge, 1993 #5133]. Corroborated by molecular evidence of Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694].
113 Dated 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
114 For treatment as a separate species from C. orru; see Debus (2009) [Debus, 2009 #15636] and Dutson et al. (2011) [Dutson, 2011 #13196]. Corroborated by molecular data in Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694]. But see Mayr & Diamond (2001) [Mayr, 2001 #10562].
115 Given as 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296] whom we follow.
116 Correct original spelling. Spelling ceciliae in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
117 For treatment as a separate species from C. coronoides see Rowley (1970) [Rowley, 1970 #3403] and Goodwin (1976) [Goodwin, 1976 #1737].
118 Considered to form a superspecies with C. tasmanicus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
119 For treatment as a separate species from C. coronoides see Rowley (1970) [Rowley, 1970 #3403] and Goodwin (1976) [Goodwin, 1976 #1737].
120 Treated as two species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] within a superspecies including C. mellori.
121 Includes novaanglica 'Rowley' Goodwin, 1976 [Goodwin, 1976 #1737]; Goodwin believed that Rowley had published this name (apparently based on a draft of Rowley's paper). Correct spelling would have been novaanglicus.
122 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524]. Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694] proposed recognising this as a separate species but did not sample intergradient material from SC Australia.
123 Haring et al. (2012) [Haring, 2012 #14693] found a deep divergence between insolens and protegatus but further taxon sampling is needed is this is to be taken further.
124 Introduced to Arabian Pen., S Israel, Iran, S Thai-Malay Pen., E Egypt, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa, Mauritius and Seychelles.
125 Dickinson et al. (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1394] and Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] based on morphology and voice believed that this taxon comprises multiple species. Unfortunately incomplete taxon sampling so far provides firm support only for separating C. philippinus (see Jønsson et al. (2012) [Jønsson, 2012 #14694]), leaving the confusing situation in t
126 Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] accepted this as a species and recognised andamanensis as a subspecies.
127 For dates of parts of this publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
128 Rasmussen & Anderton (2005, 2012) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749], [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479] considered the three Indian forms levaillantii, culiminatus and japonensis to belong to separate species.
129 Includes hainanus and mengtszensis; see Cheng (1987) [Cheng, 1987 #739].
130 Correct original spelling. Spelling mandschuricus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
131 Dated 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
132 Our sequence of genera for New World jays follows Bonaccorso & Peterson (2007) [Bonaccorso, 2007 #9769].
133 Species sequence follows Bonaccorso (2009) [Bonaccorso, 2009 #11819].
134 Includes hardyi A.R. Phillips, 1966 [Phillips, 1966 #3066]; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
135 Spelled nana in Dickinson (2003); but the original nanus is a noun and not variable.
136 Bonaccorso (2009) [Bonaccorso, 2009 #11819] suggested this may form a superspecies with C. mirabilis, C. pumilo and C. argentigula.
137 Considered to form a superspecies with C. cucullata by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
138 For recognition see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
139 For treatment as a separate species from C. viridicyanus, see Zimmer (1953) [Zimmer, 1953 #9686] and Goodwin (1976) [Goodwin, 1976 #1737].
140 For treatment as a separate species from C. viridicyanus, see Zimmer (1953) [Zimmer, 1953 #9686] and Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676].
141 Considered to form a superspecies with C. armillata and C. turcosa by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
142 Correct original spelling. Spelling joylaea in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
143 The sequence of species follows McCormack et al. (2011) [McCormack, 2011 #12634].
144 For treatment as a separate species from A. ultramarina, see McCormack et al. (2008, 2011) [McCormack, 2008 #10814], [McCormack, 2011 #12634] and Chesser et al. (2011) [Chesser, 2011 #12822]. Subspecies groups follow Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
145 For correct authorship see Banks & Browning (1979) [Banks, 1979 #190].
146 Includes gracilis, see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071] and McCormack & Brown (2008) [McCormack, 2008 #14310], but see Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
147 The 'Extra Heft' for the 1854 volume apparently has a title page dated 1855.
148 May merit species rank, see evidence in McCormack et al. (2011) [McCormack, 2011 #12634].
149 Considered to form a superspecies with A. insularis and A. californica by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
150 Includes mesolega Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
151 For correction of date of publication see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
152 For correct authorship see Banks & Browning (1979) [Banks, 1979 #190].
153 For treatment of A. insularis and A. californica as separate species, see Monroe et al. (1995) [Monroe, 1995 #15089] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
154 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]; but treatment as two, or potentially three, species follows McCormack et al. (2011) [McCormack, 2011 #12634]. See also Delaney et al. (2008) [Delaney, 2008 #13355].
155 Includes immanis, caurina and oocleptica see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071]. See Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306] for recognition of all these.
156 Although the four traditional subspecies are listed here, they are unlikely to represent diagnosable units but rather points on a cline, as noted by Mengel (1965) [Mengel, 1965 #14311].
157 Includes burleighi Bond, 1962 [Bond, 1962 #433]; see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
158 Dated 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
159 For recognition see Greene et al. (1998) [Greene, 1998 #14370].
160 Includes teotepecensis and ridgwayi see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071]. For their recognition, along with lazula, previously a synonym of ridgwayi, see Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
161 For recognition Browning (1993) [Browning, 1993 #545], but not by Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
162 We follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] in submerging Cissilopha herein; and also place Calocitta and Psilorhinus in here following Bonaccorso et al. (2010) [Bonaccorso, 2010 #12101], basing the species sequence on their findings.
163 Includes cyanogenys; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
164 For treatment as a separate species from C. formosus see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
165 Considered to form a superspecies with C. colliei by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
166 Subspecies groups derived from A.O.U., (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
167 For recognition see Gayou (1995) [Gayou, 1995 #14308].
168 Includes cozumelae; see Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321]. But see Marzluff (2009) [Marzluff, 2009 #14306].
169 Includes persimilis A.R. Phillips, 1966 [Phillips, 1966 #3066]; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
170 For recognition see Gayou (1995) [Gayou, 1995 #14308].
171 Includes andicola Hellmayr & Seilern (1912) [Hellmayr, 1912 #1943]; see Hellmayr (1934) [Hellmayr, 1934 #1945]. But see Zimmer (1953) [Zimmer, 1953 #9686] and Phelps & Phelps (1963) [Phelps, 1963 #3050].
172 Dated 1851 by Blake & Vaurie (1962) [Blake, 1962 #321] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
173 For correction of authorship see Dickinson (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9464].
174 Proposed as a new species. Treatment at that rank awaits S.A.C.C. approval.
175 For treatment as a separate species from C. chrysops, see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676].
176 Includes C. chrysops interpositus; see Hardy (1969) [Hardy, 1969 #15088].
177 Spelled melanocyanea in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533], but adjectival and variable.
178 For treatment as a separate species from C. sanblasianus, see e.g. Hellmayr (1934) [Hellmayr, 1934 #1945], and A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
179 Spelled yucatanica in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533], but adjectival and variable.
180 Considered to form a superspecies with C. yucatanicus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
181 Spelled sanblasiana in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533], but adjectival and variable.
182 Published January 1829; see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
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