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PARIDAE - Tits and Chickadees1 (14:59)
CEPHALOPYRUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Aegithalus flammiceps E. Burton, 1836; type by monotypy   2
Cephalopyrus flammiceps Fire-capped Tit
flammiceps (E. Burton, 1836) Himalayan foothills from N Pakistan to W Nepal >> N and C India
olivaceus Rothschild, 1923 vSE Xizang, WC China, Himalayan foothills (east from C Nepal) >> E Myanmar, NW Thailand, N Laos
SYLVIPARUS E. Burton, 1836 M - Sylviparus modestus E. Burton, 1836; type by monotypy   
Sylviparus modestus Yellow-browed Tit
simlaensis E.C.S. Baker, 1917 vHimalayan foothills from Kashmir east to Uttarakhand
modestus E. Burton, 1836 vSC and SE China, Himalayan foothills (east from Nepal), mountains of N continental SE Asia
klossi Delacour & Jabouille, 1930 Mountains of SE Laos and SC Vietnam
MELANOCHLORA Lesson, 1839 F - Melanochlora sumatrana Lesson, 1839; type by monotypy = Parus flavocristatus Lafresnaye, 1837  
Melanochlora sultanea Sultan Tit
sultanea (Hodgson, 1837)3 vSW China (W and S Yunnan), Himalayan foothills (east from E Nepal), Myanmar (south to Tenasserim), N and W Thailand
flavocristata (Lafresnaye, 1837) vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra
seorsa Bangs, 1924 vHainan, SE China, NE and EC continental SE Asia
gayeti Delacour & Jabouille, 1925 SC Vietnam
PARDALIPARUS Selys-Longchamps, 1884 M - Parus elegans Lesson, 1831; type by subsequent designation (Richmond, 1902, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 704).
Pardaliparus venustulus   (Swinhoe, 1870) Yellow-bellied Tit
vChina (except NW, SW and NE)
Pardaliparus elegans4 Elegant Tit
edithae McGregor, 1907 Calayan, Camiguin Norte (Philippines)
montigenus Hachisuka, 1930 NW Luzon (Philippines)
gilliardi (Parkes, 1958) Bataan Pen. on W Luzon (Philippines)
elegans (Lesson, 1831) EC and S Luzon, Catanduanes, Mindoro, Panay (Philippines)
visayanus Hachisuka, 1930 vCebu (Philippines)
albescens McGregor, 1907 Masbate, Guimaras, Negros (Philippines)
mindanensis Mearns, 1905 vSamar, Leyte, Mindanao (Philippines)
suluensis Mearns, 1916 vSulu Arch. (except Bongao)
bongaoensis (Parkes, 1958) vBongao (Sulu Arch.)
Pardaliparus amabilis   (Sharpe, 1877) Palawan Tit
vBalabac, Palawan (Philippines)
PERIPARUS Selys-Longchamps, 1884 M - Parus ater Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation
Periparus ater Coal Tit
britannicus (Sharpe & Dresser, 1871) vBritish Isles
hibernicus (W. Ingram, 1910)5 vIreland [Ingram, 1910 #8448]
ater (Linnaeus, 1758) vEurope (except SW) to SW Asia and Siberia (east to Kamchatka), Russian Far East, Korea, N Mongolia, NE China
rossosibiricus (H. Johansen, 1952)6 vBaraba steppe, W Siberia
amurensis Buturlin, 19077 vAmur valley
insularis (Hellmayr, 1902) vS Kuril Is., Japan
vieirae (F. Nicholson, 1906) Spain, Portugal
sardus (O. Kleinschmidt, 1903) vCorsica, Sardinia
atlas (Meade-Waldo, 1901) Morocco
ledouci (Malherbe, 1845) N Algeria, NW Tunisia
cypriotes (Guillemard, 1888)8 Cyprus
moltchanovi (Menzbier, 1903) S Crimea
michalowskii (Bogdanov, 1879) Caucasus (except SW and E), C Transcaucasia
derjugini Sarudny & von Loudon, 1903 NE Turkey to SW Caucasus
phaeonotus (Blanford, 1873)9 vE Caucasus, SE Azerbaijan, N Iran, SW Turkmenistan
rufipectus (Severtsov, 1873) C and E Tien Shan Mts.
melanolophus (Vigors, 1831)10 vE Afghanistan, NW Pakistan, Himalayas (east to Uttarakhand)
aemodius (Blyth, 1845)11 αvSE and E Xizang, Himalayas (east from E Nepal), NE Myanmar
martensi (Eck, 1998) Himalayas of C Nepal (Kali Gandaki area) [Eck, 1998 #1479]
pekinensis (J. Verreaux, 1868)12 αvNC to E China (east of eckodedicatus)
eckodedicatus (J. Martens, Tietze & Sun Yue-hua, 2006) vSichuan [Martens, 2006 #6938]
kuatunensis (La Touche, 1923) vSE China (Fujian)
ptilosus (Ogilvie-Grant, 1912) vTaiwan
Periparus rufonuchalis   (Blyth, 1849) Rufous-naped Tit
vC Afghanistan and C Asia east to Tien Shan Mts., SW Xinjiang, NW Pakistan and Himalayan foothills (east to Himachal Pradesh)
Periparus rubidiventris Rufous-vented Tit
rubidiventris (Blyth, 1847) vHimalayan foothills from Himachal Pradesh to C Nepal
beavani (Jerdon, 1863) SE and E Xizang, WC (south to N Yunnan) and C China, Himalayan foothills (east from E Nepal), NE Myanmar
whistleri (Stresemann, 1931)13 W China
saramatii (Ripley, 1961) Mt. Saramati (NW Myanmar)
BAEOLOPHUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Parus bicolor Lin. Wils.; type by original designation = Parus bicolor Linnaeus, 1766
Baeolophus wollweberi Bridled Titmouse
vandevenderi (Rea, 1986)14 SW USA (C Arizona, SW New Mexico) [Phillips, 1986 #3071]
phillipsi (van Rossem, 1947) SW USA (SE Arizona) and NW Mexico (E Sonora, W Chihuahua, N Sinaloa, N Durango)
wollweberi (Bonaparte, 1850) C and S Mexico (Sinaloa, Durango and C Nuevo León to Michoacán and Puebla)
caliginosus (van Rossem, 1947) vSW Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca)
Baeolophus bicolor   (Linnaeus, 1766) Tufted Titmouse
SE Canada (S Ontario) and E USA (SE Minnesota to S Maine, E Texas and Florida)
Baeolophus atricristatus15 Black-crested Titmouse
sennetti Ridgway, 190416 S USA (C and S Texas) [Sennett, 1887 #3568]
paloduro J.S. Stevenson, 194017 S USA (N Texas, SW Oklahoma; SW Texas) and N Mexico (E Chihuahua, NW Coahuila)
atricristatus (Cassin, 1850) vSC USA (S Texas) and NE Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas to N Hidalgo and N Veracruz)
Baeolophus ridgwayi18 Juniper Titmouse
ridgwayi (Richmond, 1902)19 SW USA (S Idaho to W Oklahoma, SE Arizona and New Mexico; W Texas) and NW Mexico (NE Sonora)
zaleptus Oberholser, 1932 vW USA (SE Oregon, E California, W Nevada)
Baeolophus inornatus Oak Titmouse
inornatus (Gambel, 1845)20 vW USA (SW Oregon to SW and SC California)
affabilis G.B. Grinnell & Swarth, 192621 vSW USA (SW California) and NW Mexico (N Baja California)
mohavensis (A.H. Miller, 1946) vSW USA (Little San Bernardino Mts. in S California)
cineraceus (Ridgway, 1883) vNW Mexico (S Baja California)
LOPHOPHANES Kaup, 1829 M - Parus cristatus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1842, Appendix to a list of the Genera of Birds, p. 8).
Lophophanes dichrous Fulvous Tit
kangrae Whistler, 1932 Himalayas from Kashmir to Uttarakhand
dichrous (Blyth, 1845)22 αvSE Xizang, Himalayas east from Nepal
izzardi (Biswas, 1955)23 E Nepal and SE Xizang
dichroides Przevalski, 187624 αNE Xizang to NC and WC China (E Qinghai, Gansu and N Sichuan to S Shaanxi)
wellsi (E.C.S. Baker, 1917) E Xizang, SW China, NE Myanmar
Lophophanes cristatus Crested Tit
scoticus Prazák, 1897 vNC Scotland
abadiei (Jouard, 1929) W France
weigoldi (Tratz, 1914) S and W Iberia
cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) vN and E Europe (south to E Carpathian Mts.)
baschkirikus Snigirewski, 1931 vSW and C Ural Mts.
mitratus (C.L. Brehm, 1831) vC Europe (south to NE Spain, Alps, Croatia and N Serbia)
bureschi (von Jordans, 1940)25 Albania to Bulgaria and Greece
SITTIPARUS Selys-Longchamps, 1884 M - Parus varius Temminck & Schlegel, 1845; type by original designation
Sittiparus semilarvatus White-fronted Tit
snowi (Parkes, 1971) NE Luzon (Philippines) [Parkes, 1971 #2925]
semilarvatus (Salvadori, 1865) vC and S Luzon (Philippines)
nehrkorni (W. Blasius, 1890) Mindanao (Philippines)
Sittiparus varius Varied Tit
varius (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)26 αvS Kuril Is., Japan, Korea, NE China (Liaoning)
sunsunpi (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1919)27 Tanega-shima, Yaku-shima (Osumi Is.)
namiyei (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1918) N Izu Is. (Japan)
owstoni (Ijima, 1893) S Izu Is. (Japan)
amamii N. Kuroda, Sr., 1922 Tokara Is., Amami Is., Okinawa Is. (Okinawa)
†? orii N. Kuroda, Sr., 1923 Daito Is. (Japan)
olivaceus N. Kuroda, Sr., 1923 vIriomote-jima (Yaeyama Is.)
castaneoventris (Gould, 1863)28 αvTaiwan
POECILE Kaup, 1829 M - Parus palustris Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1842, Appendix to a list of the Genera of Birds, p. 8).
Poecile superciliosus   Przevalski, 1876 White-browed Tit
vS and SE Xizang, WC and NC China (to N Qinghai and Gansu)
Poecile lugubris Sombre Tit
lugubris (Temminck, 1820) vHungary, N Greece
lugens (C.L. Brehm, 1855) C and S Greece
anatoliae (E. Hartert, 1905) Asia Minor
dubius (Hellmayr, 1901)29 vSW Iran
kirmanensis (Koelz, 1950) vS Iran
Poecile davidi   Berezovski & Bianchi, 1891 Père David's Tit
EC China (Gansu and W Sichuan east to Hubei)
Poecile palustris Marsh Tit
1 dresseri (Stejneger, 1886) C and S England, Wales, W France
1 palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) vMost of Europe from Spain to Scandinavia, east to C Poland, W Balkans and Greece
1 italicus (von Tschusi & Hellmayr, 1900) vFrench Alps, mainland Italy, Sicily
1 stagnatilis (C.L. Brehm, 1855)30 vE Europe to S Ural Mts. and NW Turkey
1 kabardensis (Buturlin, 1929)31 vCaucasus area, ? NE Turkey
2 brevirostris Taczanowski, 187232 vS and SE Siberia to Baikal and Russian Far East, extreme N Korea, N Mongolia, extreme NE China
2 ernsti (Yamashina, 1933)33 Sakhalin
2 hensoni (Stejneger, 1892) S Kuril Is., N Japan
2 jeholicus (O. Kleinschmidt & Weigold, 1922)34,35 vN Korea and NE China (south of brevirostris)
2 hellmayri Bianchi, 190336 αS Korea, C and E China
Poecile hyrcanus 37,38  Sarudny & von Loudon, 1905 Caspian Tit
vSE Azerbaijan, N Iran
Poecile hypermelaenus 39  Berezovski & Bianchi, 1891 Black-bibbed Tit
vSW to WC China, N and NW Myanmar
Poecile montanus40 Willow Tit
1 kleinschmidti (Hellmayr, 1900) British Isles
1 rhenanus (O. Kleinschmidt, 1900) vW Europe south to France and N Switzerland
1 montanus (Conrad, 1827)41 vAlps and Carpathian Mts. to Greece
1 salicarius (C.L. Brehm, 1831) vC Europe
1 borealis (Selys-Longchamps, 1843)42 vN and EC Europe, Siberia
1 uralensis (Grote, 1927) vSE Russia, W Siberia, N Kazakhstan
1 baicalensis Swinhoe, 187143 vMid-Siberia between the Yenisey and Kolyma valleys, south to the Altai Mts., Russian Far East, N Korea, N Mongolia and NE China
1 anadyrensis (Belopolski, 1932) vNE Siberia
1 kamtschatkensis Bonaparte, 1850 vKamchatka, N Kuril Is.
1 sachalinensis (Lönnberg, 1908) vSakhalin to N Japan (Hokkaido)
1 restrictus (Hellmayr, 1900)44 vHonshu (Japan)
2 songarus (Severtsov, 1873) vE Kazakhstan, C and E Tien Shan Mts., NW China (NW Xinjiang)
2 affinis Przevalski, 1876 vNC China (E Qinghai to SW Shaanxi)
2 stoetzneri (O. Kleinschmidt, 1921) NE China (Shanxi and SE Nei Mongol to Hebei)
Poecile weigoldicus 45  (O. Kleinschmidt, 1921) Sichuan Tit
vE Xizang, WC China (W Sichuan and extreme N Yunnan)
Poecile carolinensis Carolina Chickadee
atricapilloides (Lunk, 1952) SC USA (S Kansas, Oklahoma, N and C Texas)
agilis (Sennett, 1888) vSC USA (SE Oklahoma, SC and E Texas, SW Arkansas, W Louisiana)
carolinensis (Audubon, 1834) vSE USA (N and E Arkansas to SE Virginia, E Louisiana and C Florida)
extimus (Todd & Sutton, 1936) vEC USA (S Missouri to New Jersey, NW Tennessee and NW North Carolina)
Poecile atricapillus Black-capped Chickadee
turneri (Ridgway, 1884) NW USA (WC and S Alaska), NW Canada (NW British Columbia)
occidentalis (S.F. Baird, 1858) vCoastal SW Canada (SW British Columbia), NW USA (coastal Washington to NW California)
fortuitus (Dawson, 1909)46,47 vInland SW Canada (British Columbia) and NW USA (south to NW Idaho)
septentrionalis (Harris, 1846) vW and C Canada (N Manitoba, N Ontario) to C USA (south to N New Mexico and S Kansas)
bartletti (Aldrich & Nutt, 1939) E Canada (Newfoundland, Miquelon I.)
atricapillus (Linnaeus, 1766) E Canada (SE Manitoba to Nova Scotia), E USA (south to EC Kansas, C Ohio, New Jersey, North Carolina)
nevadensis (Linsdale, 1938) vW USA (SE Oregon, SW Idaho, NE Nevada, NC Utah)
garrinus (Behle, 1951)48 WC USA (C and E Idaho and SC Montana to SE Utah and N New Mexico)
practicus (Oberholser, 1937) vE USA (Appalachian Mts.)
Poecile gambeli49 Mountain Chickadee
baileyae (G.B. Grinnell, 1908)50 W Canada (S Yukon, British Columbia), W USA (Washington to California) and NW Mexico (N Baja California)
inyoensis (G.B. Grinnell, 1918) vW USA (SE Oregon and SW Idaho to EC California and NW Arizona)
gambeli (Ridgway, 1886) WC USA (C Montana to New Mexico and W Texas)
atratus (G.B. Grinnell & Swarth, 1926) vMountains of NW Mexico (N Baja California)
Poecile sclateri Mexican Chickadee
eidos (J.L. Peters, 1927) SW USA (SE Arizona, SW New Mexico) and NW Mexico (E Sonora and W Chihuahua to NW Durango)
garzai (A.R. Phillips, 1986)51 NE Mexico (S Coahuila, SW Nuevo León) [Phillips, 1986 #3071]
sclateri (O. Kleinschmidt, 1897) Highlands of C Mexico (Zacatecas to Veracruz)
rayi (A.H. Miller & R.W. Storer, 1950) Highlands of S Mexico (S Jalisco to C Oaxaca)
Poecile cinctus Siberian Tit/Gray-headed Chickadee
lapponicus (Lundahl, 1848) vLappland, N Russia
cinctus (Boddaert, 1783) vNE Russia and Siberia (east to W Anadyrland and south to Baikal area)
sayanus Sushkin, 190452 αvAltai Mts. to S Baikal area and NE Mongolia
lathami (Stephens, 1817) NW USA (W, C and N Alaska), NW Canada (N Yukon, NW Northwest Territories)
Poecile hudsonicus53 Boreal Chickadee
stoneyi (Ridgway, 1887) NW USA (NC Alaska), NW Canada (N Yukon, NW Northwest Territories) [Ridgway, 1887 #3278]
columbianus (Rhoads, 1893)54 vS Alaska, W Canada, NW USA (N Washington)
hudsonicus (J.R. Forster, 1772) vC Alaska, NW to E Canada (Yukon to Labrador and Newfoundland)
littoralis (H. Bryant, 1865) vSE Canada (S Québec to Prince Edward I. and Nova Scotia), NE USA (New York to Maine)
farleyi (W.E. Godfrey, 1951)55 SC Canada (NE British Columbia to C Manitoba) [Godfrey, 1951 #11935]
Poecile rufescens Chestnut-backed Chickadee
rufescens (J.K. Townsend, 1837)56 S Alaska, SW Canada (British Columbia), W USA (Washington to NW Montana and coastal N California)
neglectus (Ridgway, 1879) vCoastal C California (SW Marin County)
barlowi (G.B. Grinnell, 1900) Coastal WC California (San Francisco Bay to Santa Barbara County)
CYANISTES Kaup, 1829 M - Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1842, Appendix to a list of the Genera of Birds, p. 8).
Cyanistes caeruleus Blue Tit
obscurus (Prazák, 1894) vBritish Isles
caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758) vN, C, and E Europe south to N Spain, Italy, N Greece, W and N Asia Minor
ogliastrae (E. Hartert, 1905) S Iberia, Corsica, Sardinia
balearicus (von Jordans, 1913) vMallorca (Balearic Is.)
calamensis (Parrot, 1908)57 vS Greece, Cyclades Is., Crete, Rhodes
orientalis Sarudny & von Loudon, 1905 vSE Russia
satunini Sarudny, 1908 Crimea, Caucasus area, E Turkey, NW Iran
raddei Sarudny, 1908 N Iran
persicus (Blanford, 1873) vSW Iran
Cyanistes teneriffae58 Canary Islands Tit
palmensis (Meade-Waldo, 1889) vLa Palma (Canary Is.)
ombriosus (Meade-Waldo, 1890) vEl Hierro (Canary Is.)
teneriffae (Lesson, 1831) Tenerife, La Gomera (Canary Is.)
hedwigii (Dietzen, Garcia-del-Rey, Castro & Wink, 2008)59 Gran Canaria (Canary Is.) [Dietzen, 2008 #11708]
degener (E. Hartert, 1901) Fuerteventura, Lanzarote (Canary Is.)
ultramarinus (Bonaparte, 1841) vNW Africa
cyrenaicae (E. Hartert, 1922) NE Libya
Cyanistes cyanus60 Azure Tit
1 cyanus (Pallas, 1770) Belarus, W and C Russia to C Ural Mts.
1 hyperrhiphaeus Dementiev & Heptner, 193261,62 δvSW Ural Mts., SW Siberia, N Kazakhstan
1 yenisseensis Buturlin, 1911 vS Siberia (east of hyperrhiphaeus) to Baikal and Russian Far East, N Mongolia, extreme NE China
1 tianschanicus Menzbier, 1884 vC Tien Shan Mts. east to Tarim basin (C Xinjiang, NW China)
1 koktalensis Portenko, 195463 vSE Kazakhstan around Balkhash
2 carruthersi (E. Hartert, 1917)64 E Uzbekistan
2 flavipectus (Severtsov, 1873)65 NE Iran to W Tien Shan Mts., Alai Range and Pamir Mts., C and NE Afghanistan and N Pakistan
3 berezowskii Pleske, 1893 NC China (NE Qinghai)
PSEUDOPODOCES Sarudny & von Loudon, 1902 M - Podoces humilis Hume, 1871; type by original designation and monotypy   66
Pseudopodoces humilis   (Hume, 1871) Groundpecker/Ground Tit
vSW and N Xizang, NW and WC China (S Xinjiang and Gansu to W Sichuan), Himalayas (N Kashmir, N Nepal and Sikkim)
PARUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Parus major Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 23).   
Parus monticolus Green-backed Tit
monticolus Vigors, 1831 S Xizang, Himalayas from N Pakistan to W Nepal
yunnanensis La Touche, 1922 vWC (north to Gansu) and SW China, Himalayas (east from Nepal), NE India, C Laos, NW Vietnam
legendrei Delacour, 1927 Mountains of SC Vietnam (Da Lat Plateau)
insperatus Swinhoe, 1866 vMountains of S Taiwan
Parus major67 Great Tit
newtoni Prazák, 1894 British Isles
major Linnaeus, 1758 vEurope east to C Siberia and south to N Spain, N Italy and the Balkans, Asia Minor, N and E Kazakhstan
kapustini Portenko, 1954 NW China and SE Kazakhstan east to E Siberia
bargaensis Yamashina, 193968 vManchuria
corsus O. Kleinschmidt, 1903 vPortugal, S Spain, Corsica
mallorcae von Jordans, 191369 Balearic Is.
ecki von Jordans, 197070 Sardinia
aphrodite von Madarász, 1901 S Italy, S Greece, Aegean Is., Cyprus
niethammeri von Jordans, 197071 Crete
karelini Sarudny, 1910 SE Azerbaijan, NW Iran
blanfordi Prazák, 1894 NC and SW Iran
intermedius Sarudny, 189072 vNE Iran
terraesanctae E. Hartert, 1910 Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Syria
excelsus Buvry, 1857 vNW Africa
Parus bokharensis Turkestan Tit
bokharensis M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 vPlains of Turkmenistan and N Afghanistan to Uzbekistan and SC Kazakhstan
turkestanicus Sarudny & von Loudon, 1905 vTien Shan Mts. and W Xinjiang
ferghanensis Buturlin, 1912 vPamir-Alai to W Tien Shan Mts.
Parus cinereus Cinereous Tit
1 wladiwostokensis O. Kleinschmidt, 191373 vRussian Far East (east from Amur valley)
1 artatus Thayer & Bangs, 190974 vNC, NE and EC China
1 minor Temminck & Schlegel, 184875 vS Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., Japan (south to Kyushu)
1 amamiensis O. Kleinschmidt, 1922 vAmami-O-shima, Toku-no-shima (Amami Is.)
1 okinawae E. Hartert, 1905 Okinawa (Okinawa Is.)
1 nigriloris Hellmayr, 1900 vIriomote-jima, Ishigaki-jima (Yaeyama Is.)
1 dageletensis N. Kuroda, Sr. & Mori, 1920 vUllung-do (off E Korea)
1 tibetanus E. Hartert, 1905 vSE and E Xizang, Himalayas (Sikkim to W Arunachal Pradesh), N Myanmar
1 subtibetanus O. Kleinschmidt & Weigold, 192276 vN Yunnan
1 commixtus Swinhoe, 1868 vS and E China (including Taiwan), NE Vietnam
1 nubicolus Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 N continental SE Asia from E Myanmar to NW Vietnam
2 hainanus E. Hartert, 1905 vHainan
2 decolorans Koelz, 1939 NE Afghanistan, NW Pakistan
2 ziaratensis Whistler, 1929 vC and S Afghanistan, W Pakistan
2 caschmirensis E. Hartert, 1905 vHimalayas from N Pakistan to Uttarakhand
2 planorum E. Hartert, 190577 αvHimalayas (Uttarakhand to Sikkim), NE India, Bangladesh, W and C Myanmar
2 stupae Koelz, 1939 W, C and SE India
2 mahrattarum E. Hartert, 1905 SW India, Sri Lanka
2 vauriei Ripley, 1950 NE India (E Arunachal Pradesh)
2 templorum Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 S continental SE Asia (east from W Thailand)
2 ambiguus (Raffles, 1822) vCoastal C and S (except extreme S) Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra
2 sarawacensis H.H. Slater, 1885 vCoastal W Borneo
2 cinereus Vieillot, 1818 vJava, Bali, Lesser Sundas (east to Alor)
MACHLOLOPHUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Parus spilonotus Blyth; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 37). = Parus spilonotus Bonaparte, 1850
Machlolophus nuchalis   (Jerdon, 1845) White-naped Tit
vW and SC India
Machlolophus holsti 78  (Seebohm, 1894) Yellow Tit
Taiwan
Machlolophus xanthogenys79 Black-lored Tit
1 xanthogenys (Vigors, 1831) Himalayan foothills from NE Pakistan to E Nepal
2 aplonotus (Blyth, 1847)80 vC India
2 travancoreensis Whistler & Kinnear, 1932 vSW India (Western Ghats)
Machlolophus spilonotus Yellow-cheeked Tit
spilonotus (Bonaparte, 1850) SE Xizang, Himalayan foothills (east from E Nepal), Myanmar (except S and E)
subviridis (Blyth, 1855) vW Yunnan, S Assam, E Myanmar, N Thailand
rex (David, 1874) WC (from S Sichuan) to SW, S and SE China, NE and EC continental SE Asia
basileus Delacour, 1932 Mountains of S Laos and SC Vietnam
MELANIPARUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Parus niger Vieillot, 1818; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 38).
Melaniparus rufiventris Rufous-bellied Tit
rufiventris (Bocage, 1877) vW and S DR Congo to C Angola and C Zambia
masukuensis (Shelley, 1900) vSE DR Congo, E Zambia, Malawi
diligens (Clancey, 1979) NE Namibia, S Angola, SW Zambia [Clancey, 1979 #901]
pallidiventris (Reichenow, 1885)81 vTanzania, N Mozambique, SE Malawi
stenotopicus (Clancey, 1989) vE Zimbabwe, W Mozambique [Clancey, 1989 #943]
Melaniparus albiventris   (Shelley, 1881) White-bellied Tit
vCameroon; S South Sudan to W and S Kenya and N and C Tanzania
Melaniparus carpi 82  (J.D. Macdonald & B.P. Hall, 1957) Carp's Tit
SW Angola, N Namibia
Melaniparus niger Southern Black Tit
xanthostomus (Shelley, 1892) vSE Angola to Zambia, south to NE South Africa and C Mozambique
niger (Vieillot, 1818) vExtreme SE Mozambique to SE South Africa (Eastern Cape)
Melaniparus leucomelas Northern Black Tit/White-winged Tit
leucomelas (Rüppell, 1840) Highlands of C and SE Ethiopia
insignis (Cabanis, 1880) vS Gabon and S PR Congo to Zambia, Tanzania and N Mozambique
Melaniparus guineensis 83  (Shelley, 1900) White-shouldered Black Tit
vSenegal to South Sudan, SW Ethiopia, NE DR Congo, Uganda and W Kenya
Melaniparus funereus Dusky Tit
funereus J. & E. Verreaux, 185584 αvGuinea to Gabon, DR Congo and W Kenya
gabela (Traylor, 1961) W Angola
Melaniparus griseiventris   (Reichenow, 1882) Miombo Tit
vW Tanzania to Zimbabwe and NE Angola
Melaniparus fasciiventer Stripe-breasted Tit
fasciiventer (Reichenow, 1893) E DR Congo, SW Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
tanganjicae (Reichenow, 1909) E DR Congo (Itombwe Highlands)
kaboboensis (Prigogine, 1957)85 αvE DR Congo (Mt. Kabobo)
Melaniparus thruppi86 Acacia Tit
thruppi (Shelley, 1885) Ethiopia, N Somalia
barakae (F.J. Jackson, 1899) E Uganda, Kenya, NE Tanzania
Melaniparus fringillinus   (G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884) Red-throated Tit
vS Kenya, N and C Tanzania
Melaniparus leuconotus   (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) White-backed Black Tit
vEthiopia
Melaniparus afer Grey Tit
arens (Clancey, 1963) SE South Africa (Eastern Cape to W Free State), Lesotho
afer (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vSW Namibia, SW South Africa (Western Cape to S Northern Cape)
Melaniparus cinerascens Ashy Tit
benguelae (B.P. Hall & Traylor, 1959) SW Angola, NW Namibia
cinerascens (Vieillot, 1818) Namibia (except NW), Botswana, Zimbabwe, N and WC South Africa
orphnus (Clancey, 1958) vEC South Africa (C and E Free State to Gauteng)

1 Sequence of genera and of species based on Johansson et al. (2013) [Johansson, 2013 #14913].
2 For reassignment of this genus from the Remizidae see Johansson et al. (2013) [Johansson, 2013 #14913]. But see Tietze & Borthakur (2012) [Tietze, 2012 #14700].
3 For date precedence of this name over flavocristata Lafresnaye see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9466] and Dickinson (2009) [Dickinson, 2009 #11609].
4 Considered to form a superspecies with P. amabilis and P. venustulus; by Parkes (1958) [Parkes, 1958 #7361].
5 For details of publication in the Daily Mail three days before the article by Ogilvie-Grant see Dickinson & Milne (2008) [Dickinson, 2008 #12162].
6 For recognition see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
7 For recognition see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
8 Dresser supplied the name used and may have supplied the description but that is not in quotation marks; citing the author as that of the article best complies with Art. 50.1.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
9 Includes gaddi and chorassanicus; see Kirwan & Grieve (2010) [Kirwan, 2010 #12360].
10 For placement of this taxon in this species see Martens et al. (2006) [Martens, 2006 #6938].
11 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9466].
12 Published two years before the paper by Père David that has usually been considered the source.
13 For recognition see Martens et al. (2006) [Martens, 2006 #6938].
14 For recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
15 For treatment as a separate species from B. bicolor see Banks et al. (2002) [Banks, 2002 #201].
16 The prior name castaneifrons brought into use by Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071] is considered likely to have been given to a hybrid population, see Patten & Smith-Patten (2008) [Patten, 2008 #14375].
17 Includes dysleptus; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
18 For treatment as separate species from B. inornatus, see Cicero (1996) [Cicero, 1996 #771].
19 Includes plumbescens; see Cicero (1996) [Cicero, 1996 #771].
20 Includes sequestratus and kernensis; see Cicero (1996) [Cicero, 1996 #771].
21 Includes transpositus; see Cicero (1996) [Cicero, 1996 #771].
22 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9466].
23 For recognition see Martens & Eck (1995) [Martens, 1995 #2504] and Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
24 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9466].
25 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
26 For date correction see Morioka et al. (2005) [Morioka, 2005 #7217].
27 Includes yakushimensis see Morioka in Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875].
28 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
29 The name persicus Prazak was a secondary homonym and having been replaced before 1961 is permanently unavailable, see the Art. 59.3 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
30 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
31 This name was used by Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089] although Vaurie (1957, 1959) [Vaurie, 1957 #3956]; [Vaurie, 1959 #3961] and Snow (1967) [Snow, 1967 #3671] had used the name brandtii. The type of brandtii, once in ZISP, is now lost. Bogdanov's description, however, is incompatible with the species P. palustris and the name is best considered indeterminate.
32 Includes crassirostris and altaicus but see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
33 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
34 For recognition see Eck (1980) [Eck, 1980 #1477].
35 Authorship corrected to reflect dual authorship.
36 Cover carries the date April 1903.
37 For treatment as a separate species from P. lugubris; see Loskot (1977, 1987) [Loskot, 1977 #6879], [Loskot, 1987 #6886]; corroborated by Johansson et al. (2013) [Johansson, 2013 #14913].
38 Includes talischensis Stepanyan, 1974 [Stepanyan, 1974 #3715]; see Eck (1980) [Eck, 1980 #1477].
39 For recognition see Eck (1980) [Eck, 1980 #1477] and Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465]; three apparently disjunct local populations.
40 Subspecies groups follow Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961]. See also Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465] who extracted P. weigoldicus. The songarus group may not be monophyletic, see Salzburger et al. (2002) [Salzburger, 2002 #4431].
41 For reasons not to use 'von Baldenstein' as part of the author's name see Conti (1947) [Conti, 1947 #6022].
42 Includes lonnbergi; see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
43 Includes shulpini but see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
44 Includes abei Mishima, 1961 [Mishima, 1961 #4413] see Orn. Soc. Japan (1974) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 1974 #2874].
45 For recognition see Salzburger et al. (2002) [Salzburger, 2002 #4431] and Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
46 For recognition see Foote et al. (2010) [Foote, 2010 #14376].
47 Description phrase is in the first person singular.
48 For recognition see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071] and Harrap (1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894].
49 Considered to form a superspecies with P. sclateri by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
50 Includes abbreviatus; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
51 For recognition see Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
52 Publication date January 26, 1904.
53 Considered to form a superspecies with P. cinctus and P. rufescens by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
54 Includes cascadensis; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
55 For recognition see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
56 Includes levyi Burleigh, 1968 [Burleigh, 1968 #14380].
57 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
58 For treatment as a separate species from C. caeruleus, see Salzburger et al. (2002) [Salzburger, 2002 #3467] and Illera et al. (2011) [Illera, 2011 #12861].
59 Original spelling hedwigii; no internal information permits emendation as proposed by Manegold (2012) [Manegold, 2012 #13713].
60 Treated as two species forming a superspecies by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. Treatment here follows Päckert & Martens (2008) [Päckert, 2008 #10936]. Subspecies groups based on Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961].
61 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
62 Correct original spelling. Spelling hyperriphaeus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
63 The spelling kotkalensis in Snow (1967) [Snow, 1967 #3671] was an ISS.
64 For renewed recognition see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
65 Treated as a separate species by Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], who recognised a subspecies carruthersi, and by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]; but see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465] and Päckert & Martens (2008) [Päckert, 2008 #10936].
66 For transfer from the Corvidae see James et al. (2003) [James, 2003 #2105].
67 For an extensive discussion see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465]. See also Päckert & Martens (2008) [Päckert, 2008 #10936]. Based on these authors we accept three species (including P. bokharensis which is the closer to P. major of the other two). The findings of Johansson et al. (2013) [Johansson, 2013 #14913] suggest one species may be better, but more subspecies need sampling.
68 For recognition see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
69 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
70 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
71 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
72 Sometimes considered as better placed in P. cinereus; but see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
73 For recognition see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
74 For recognition see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
75 Includes kagoshimae; see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
76 For recognition see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
77 The name Parus nipalensis Hodgson, 1837, is preoccupied; see Dickinson (2009b) [Dickinson, 2009 #11610]. The substitute name is the next most senior synonym that is available.
78 Harrap (1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894] erred in implying that the type species was M. holsti; which had not been discovered when the genus was erected.
79 Considered to form a superspecies with M. spilonotus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
80 For treatment as a separate species, with travancoreensis as a subspecies, see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]. But see Eck & Martens (2006) [Eck, 2006 #9465].
81 For treatment within this species see Wiggins (2000) [Wiggins, 2000 #4217].
82 For treatment as a separate species from M. niger, see Johansson et al. (2013) [Johansson, 2013 #14913].
83 For treatment as a separate species from M. leucomelas, see Johansson et al. (2013) [Johansson, 2013 #14913].
84 Mistakenly dated 1885 by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
85 Original publication examined; not 1956 as given by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
86 For treatment as a separate species from M. afer see Wiggins (2000) [Wiggins, 2000 #4217].
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