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REGULIDAE - Goldcrests and Firecrest (or Kinglets)1 (1:6)
REGULUS Cuvier, 1800 M - Le roitelet Cuvier; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Motacilla regulus Linnaeus, 1758  2
Regulus calendula Ruby-crowned Kinglet
calendula (Linnaeus, 1766)3 NW Alaska, N Canada, WC, SW and NE USA >> C and S USA, Mexico, Guatemala
grinnelli W. Palmer, 1897 S Alaska, SW Canada (British Columbia)
†? obscurus Ridgway, 1876 vNW Mexico (Guadalupe I., off Baja California)
Regulus satrapa Golden-crowned Kinglet
satrapa M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 S Canada (NE Alberta to Newfoundland), E USA (New England through Appalachian Mts. to Tennessee)
olivaceus S.F. Baird, 1864 vSE Alaska, SW Canada (W British Columbia), W USA (coastal Washington and Oregon) >> to S California
apache Jenks, 19364 Interior Alaska, W Canada (S Yukon) through Cascade Range and Rocky Mts. to SW USA >> to N Mexico
aztecus Lawrence, 1887 vMountains of SC Mexico (Jalisco to Puebla and S Hidalgo, C Guerrero, NC Oaxaca)
clarus Dearborn, 19075 vMountains of S Mexico (SE Chiapas) and S Guatemala
Regulus goodfellowi   Ogilvie-Grant, 1906 Flamecrest
iTaiwan
Regulus regulus Goldcrest
inermis Murphy & Chapin, 1929 vW and C Azores
azoricus Seebohm, 1883 vSão Miguel (E Azores)
sanctaemariae Vaurie, 1954 Santa Maria (E Azores)
teneriffae Seebohm, 18836 Tenerife, La Gomera (W Canary Is.)
ellenthalerae Päckert, Dietzen, J. Martens, Wink & Kvist, 2006 La Palma, El Hierro (Canary Is.) [Päckert, 2006 #7394]
regulus (Linnaeus, 1758)7 Europe and W Siberia >> Mediterranean islands
interni E. Hartert, 1906 Corsica, Sardinia
buturlini von Loudon, 1911 Asia Minor, Crimea, Caucasus area >> N Iran
hyrcanus Sarudny, 1910 vN Iran
coatsi Sushkin, 1904 SC Siberia to Altai and Baikal area
japonensis Blakiston, 1862 vSE Siberia from Baikal to Sakhalin, Russian Far East, S Kuril Is., Japan, N Korea, NE China
tristis Pleske, 1892 vTien Shan Mts. >> SW Asia
himalayensis Bonaparte, 1856 vNE Afghanistan, Himalayas from N Pakistan to C Nepal
sikkimensis R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 1926 vNC China in NE Qinghai and SW Gansu; Himalayas east from E Nepal
yunnanensis Rippon, 1906 vSE Xizang, WC to C China in N Yunnan, Sichuan, S Shaanxi and Guizhou >> N Myanmar
Regulus madeirensis   Harcourt, 1851 Madeira Firecrest
vMadeira
Regulus ignicapilla8 Eurasian Firecrest
ignicapilla (Temminck, 1820) C and S Europe, Asia Minor
balearicus von Jordans, 19239 αvBalearic Is., NW Africa [von Jordans, 1923 #10927]
tauricus Red'kin, 2001 vCrimea [Red'kin, 2001 #3227]
caucasicus Stepanyan, 1998 vW Caucasus [Stepanyan, 1998 #3726]

1 For reasons to treat this at family level see references in A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
2 Species sequence follows Päckert et al. (2009) [Päckert, 2009 #11875].
3 Watson et al. (1986) [Watson, 1986 #4449] included arizonensis as a synonym and dated it from 1964. The name in fact dates from 1966 see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
4 Tentatively includes amoenus; see Martens & Päckert (2006) [Martens, 2006 #12221].
5 Doubtfully distinct from aztecus; see Martens & Päckert (2006) [Martens, 2006 #12221].
6 For transfer from R. ignicapilla in Watson et al. (1986) [Watson, 1986 #4449] (within the family Sylviidae) to this species see Päckert et al. (2003, 2006, 2009) [Päckert, 2003 #2985], [Päckert, 2006 #7394], [Päckert, 2009 #11875].
7 Includes anglorum and interni; see Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961].
8 Treatment follows Cramp et al. (1992) [Cramp, 1992 #1088], but madeirensis has been assigned specific rank see Päckert et al. (2001) [Päckert, 2001 #2984].
9 Dated 1924 by Watson et al. (1986); however, this was described the year before in Falco.
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