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POLIOPTILIDAE - Gnatcatchers1 (3:15)
MICROBATES P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873 M - Microbates torquatus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873; type by original designation and monotypy = Rhamphocaenus collaris von Pelzeln, 1868  
Microbates collaris Collared Gnatwren
paraguensis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1946 vE Venezuela (C Bolívar, S Monagas, S Delta Amacuro), Guyana
torquatus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 18732 vSurinam, French Guiana, N Brazil (N and C Amapá) [Sclater, 1873 #14493]
collaris (von Pelzeln, 1868) vS Venezuela (S Bolívar), E Colombia (E Vaupés), N Brazil (EC Amazonas, N Roraima)
colombianus Parkes, 19803 vS Colombia (W Putumayo, W Caquetá), NE Ecuador (upper Putumayo drainage) [Parkes, 1980 #2934]
perlatus Todd, 1927 vSE Colombia (S Amazonas), NE Peru, NW Brazil (W Amazonas N of upper R. Solimões)
Microbates cinereiventris Half-collared Gnatwren/Tawny-faced Gnatwren
semitorquatus (Lawrence, 1862) vCaribbean slope from Costa Rica to NW Colombia (Golfo de Urabá)
cinereiventris (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vPacific coast from SE Panama (Darién) to SW Ecuador
albapiculus Olson, 19804 N Colombia (N Antioquia) [Olson, 1980 #2837]
magdalenae Chapman, 1915 N Colombia (Magdalena valley)
unicus Olson, 19805 vC Colombia (Cundinamarca) [Olson, 1980 #2837]
hormotus Olson, 19806 vS Colombia (SE Nariño, W Putumayo) to N Peru (N Amazonas) [Olson, 1980 #2837]
peruvianus Chapman, 1923 vPeru (E of Andes from Amazonas to N Puno), W Bolivia
RAMPHOCAENUS Vieillot, 1818 M - Ramphocaenus melanurus Vieillot, 1819; type by subsequent monotypy (Vieillot, 1818, Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, 24, p. 112).   7
Ramphocaenus melanurus8 Long-billed Gnatwren
1 rufiventris (Bonaparte, 1838)9 vS Mexico (SC Veracruz) to C Panama; NW Colombia; W Ecuador and NW Peru (Tumbes)
1 ardeleo Van Tyne & Trautman, 1941 SE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.)
1 panamensis A.R. Phillips, 199110 vC and E Panama [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
1 griseodorsalis Chapman, 1912 vW Colombia (W Caldas to SC Valle)
2 sanctaemarthae P.L. Sclater, 186211 αCaribbean coast of N Colombia, NW Venezuela
2 trinitatis Lesson, 1839 W and NE Venezuela (W Apure to Sucre), E Colombia (to W Putumayo), NW Brazil; Trinidad
2 pallidus Todd, 1913 vN Colombia (Zulia valley), N Venezuela (Falcón to Miranda)
2 duidae J.T. Zimmer, 1937 S Venezuela, E Colombia, E Ecuador
2 badius J.T. Zimmer, 1937 vSE Ecuador, N Peru (C Amazonas)
2 amazonum Hellmayr, 1907 NE Peru (E bank of upper R. Ucayali) to NC Brazil (W Pará)
2 obscurus J.T. Zimmer, 1931 vE Peru (W bank of R. Ucayali to E Junín)
2 albiventris P.L. Sclater, 1883 vE Venezuela (Bolívar), the Guianas, NC Brazil (C Pará)
2 austerus J.T. Zimmer, 1937 vNE Brazil (coastal Pará, Maranhão)
2 melanurus Vieillot, 1819 vE Brazil (coastal Paraíba to Santa Catarina)
2 sticturus Hellmayr, 1902 vSC Brazil (NW Mato Grosso)
POLIOPTILA P.L. Sclater, 1855 F - Motacilla caerulea Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (S.F. Baird, 1864, Rev. Amer. Birds, 1, p. 67).   
Polioptila caerulea12 Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
caerulea (Linnaeus, 1766)13 vSE Canada, C and E USA (E Nebraska to C Texas, S Florida) >> to El Salvador
obscura Ridgway, 188314 vW USA (S Oregon, SW Wyoming) to NW Mexico (S Baja California) >> Mexico (to Jalisco)
perplexa A.R. Phillips, 199115 vNC Mexico (SE Coahuila, SW Nuevo León to NE San Luis Potosí) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
deppei van Rossem, 1934 E and SE Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas to Yucatán and N Chiapas)
comiteca A.R. Phillips, 199116 vC Mexico (Michoacán, Hidalgo) to NW Guatemala [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
nelsoni Ridgway, 1903 SW Mexico (Oaxaca)
cozumelae Griscom, 1926 Isla de Cozumel, off SE Mexico
caesiogaster Ridgway, 188717 Bahamas [Ridgway, 1887 #3278]
Polioptila lembeyei   (Gundlach, 1858) Cuban Gnatcatcher
iE Cuba
Polioptila californica 18,19  Brewster, 1881 California Gnatcatcher
SW USA (S California), NW Mexico (Baja California, Isla Santa Margarita, Isla San José, Isla Espíritu Santo)
Polioptila melanura Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
lucida van Rossem, 1931 vSE USA (S Nevada, C Arizona) to NW Mexico (NE Baja California, islands in Golfo de California)
melanura Lawrence, 185620 αvS USA (SW New Mexico, S Texas), Mexico (to WC Hidalgo)
curtata van Rossem, 1932 vNW Mexico (Isla Tiburón, off W Sonora)
Polioptila nigriceps21 Black-capped Gnatcatcher
restricta Brewster, 1889 vSW USA (SE Arizona), W Mexico (E Sonora, N Sinaloa)
nigriceps S.F. Baird, 1864 W Mexico (C Sinaloa to Colima)
Polioptila albiloris White-lored Gnatcatcher
vanrossemi Brodkorb, 1944 S Mexico (N Guerrero to S Chiapas)
albiventris Lawrence, 1885 vSE Mexico (coast of NW and NC Yucatán)
albiloris P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1860 vC Guatemala to NW Costa Rica
Polioptila plumbea22 Tropical Gnatcatcher
1 brodkorbi Parkes, 197923 SE Mexico (Veracruz, Yucatan Pen.) to N Costa Rica [Parkes, 1979 #2933]
1 superciliaris Lawrence, 1861 vNC Costa Rica to S Panama
1 cinericia Wetmore, 195724 vIsla de Coiba, off SW Panama
1 bilineata (Bonaparte, 1850)25 vCoastal NW Colombia to NW Peru (NW La Libertad)
2 daguae Chapman, 1915 WC Colombia (Cauca valley in Valle and Cauca)
2 anteocularis Hellmayr, 1900 vS Colombia (upper Magdalena valley, in Huila)
2 plumbiceps Lawrence, 1865 NE and E Colombia (Guajira to Meta), Venezuela (including Isla de Margarita)
2 innotata Hellmayr, 1901 vE Colombia (E Vichada, NE Guainía) to C Guyana, N Brazil (to NC Goiás)
2 plumbea (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSurinam, French Guiana, N Brazil (to Pará, Maranhão)
3 maior Hellmayr, 190026 vNW Peru (upper Marañón valley from Piura to La Libertad)
2 parvirostris Sharpe, 1885 vE Ecuador, N Peru (Loreto to N San Martín), NW Brazil
2 atricapilla (Swainson, 1831)27 αNE Brazil (C Maranhão, Pernambuco to N Minas Gerais)
Polioptila lactea   Sharpe, 1885 Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher
vSE Brazil (S Mato Grosso do Sul, Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay, NE Argentina
Polioptila guianensis28 Guianan Gnatcatcher
facilis J.T. Zimmer, 1942 vS Venezuela (S Amazonas), NW Brazil (N Amazonas)
guianensis Todd, 1920 vE Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (NE Amazonas to Amapá)
paraensis Todd, 1937 vBrazil (south of R. Amazon in C Amazonas, W Mato Grosso to Pará, Maranhão), N Bolivia
attenboroughi Whittaker, Aleixo, Whitney, B.T. Smith & Klicka, 201329 C Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Purus to R. Madeira) [Whittaker, 2013 #14827]
Polioptila clementsi   Whitney & Alvarez Alonso, 2005 Iquitos Gnatcatcher
NE Peru (near Iquitos, NC Loreto) [Whitney, 2005 #10112]
Polioptila schistaceigula   E. Hartert, 1898 Slate-throated Gnatcatcher
iE Panama to NW Ecuador
Polioptila dumicola30 Masked Gnatcatcher
1 berlepschi Hellmayr, 1901 E Brazil (S Maranhão, S Mato Grosso to S Minas Gerais)
2 saturata Todd, 1946 vHighlands of Bolivia (S Cochabamba, EC Santa Cruz)
2 dumicola (Vieillot, 1817) E Bolivia, Paraguay, S Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul), E Argentina, Uruguay

1 Paynter (1964) [Paynter, 1964 #2981] treated these birds in a subfamily of a broadly defined Muscicapidae, but A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] placed the subfamily in a broad family Sylviidae.
2 For recognition see Parkes (1980) [Parkes, 1980 #2934].
3 For recognition see Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222].
4 For recognition see Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222].
5 For recognition see Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222].
6 For recognition see Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222].
7 Cited by Paynter (1964) [Paynter, 1964 #2981] from volume 29 of the Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle but first introduced in volume 24.
8 Subspecies groups derived from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
9 Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072] treated rufiventris as a separate species with panamensis as a race.
10 For recognition and comments see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
11 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
12 Subspecies classification based on Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072] but see also Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222].
13 Includes mexicana; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
14 Includes amoenissima and gracilis; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]. But see also Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222].
15 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
16 For recognition see Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222].
17 For recognition see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
18 For treatment as separate species from P. melanura see Atwood (1988) [Atwood, 1988 #15691].
19 Includes margaritae, pontilis and atwoodi Mellink & Rea, 1994 [Mellink, 1994 #2653]; see Zink et al. (2000) [Zink, 2000 #14494]. But see Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222] who recognised four subspecies.
20 Date uncertain; adjusted here to agree with that used for Chordeiles gundlachii which was on the preceding page. Quite probable that these are from 1857 but no proof yet found.
21 For treatment as a separate species from P. albiloris; see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
22 Subspecies groups follow Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222] but some may deserve species rank; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
23 For recognition see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
24 Doubtfully distinct from subspecies superciliaris; Parkes (1979) [Parkes, 1979 #2933].
25 Given as 1851 by Paynter (1964) [Paynter, 1964 #2981] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
26 Recent authors seem to suggest that birds of the upper Marañón valley may be a distinct species. The origin of this idea appears to be Hellmayr (1934: 493-4 fn) [Hellmayr, 1934 #1945]. Although the name andina may have been given to a female of this taxon it is not the oldest name and there should be no cause to employ a name other than maior.
27 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
28 For treatment of the three taxa as separate species see Whitney & Alvarez Alonso (2005) [Whitney, 2005 #10112], Atwood & Lerman (2006) [Atwood, 2006 #12222] and Ridgely & Tudor (2009) [Ridgely, 2009 #12008]. Discovery of new taxon attenboroughi suggests re-evaluation is desirable.
29 Proposed as a species but awaiting evaluation by SACC.
30 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
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