Back to families

MIMIDAE - Mockingbirds and Thrashers1 (10:34)
MELANOTIS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Turdus melanotis Temminck, 1830; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Orpheus caerulescens Swainson, 1827  
Melanotis caerulescens2 Blue Mockingbird
caerulescens (Swainson, 1827) W and C Mexico (SE Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Oaxaca, and SW Tamaulipas to Puebla)
longirostris Nelson, 1898 vIslas Marías (off W Mexico)
Melanotis hypoleucus   Hartlaub, 1852 Blue-and-white Mockingbird
vHighlands of SE Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, W Honduras, N El Salvador
MELANOPTILA P.L. Sclater, 1858 F - Melanoptila glabrirostris P.L. Sclater, 1858; type by monotypy   
Melanoptila glabrirostris   P.L. Sclater, 1858 Black Catbird
vSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen. south to S Campeche, Isla de Cozumel), N Belize, N Guatemala
DUMETELLA S.D.W. = C.T. Wood, 1837 F - Turdus felivox Vieillot, 1807; type by monotypy = Muscicapa carolinensis Linnaeus, 1766  3
Dumetella carolinensis 4  (Linnaeus, 1766) Gray Catbird
vS Canada, C, E and SE USA, Bermuda >> S USA, Central America to Panama and N Colombia, West Indies
RAMPHOCINCLUS Lafresnaye, 1843 M - Turdus brachyurus Vieillot, 1818; type by original designation   
Ramphocinclus brachyurus White-breasted Thrasher
brachyurus (Vieillot, 1818) vMartinique (C Lesser Antilles)
sanctaeluciae Cory, 18875 St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
ALLENIA Cory, 1891 F - Turdus montanus Lafresnaye, 1844; type by monotypy = Muscicapa fusca Statius Muller, 1776  
Allenia fusca6 Scaly-breasted Thrasher
hypenema (Buden, 1993) vN Lesser Antilles (St. Martin and Saba to Guadeloupe) [Buden, 1993 #568]
vincenti (Kratter & Garrido, 1996) St. Vincent (Lesser Antilles) [Kratter, 1996 #2281]
†? atlantica (Buden, 1993)7 δvBarbados (Lesser Antilles) [Buden, 1993 #568]
schwartzi (Buden, 1993) St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles) [Buden, 1993 #568]
fusca (Statius Muller, 1776) vC and S Lesser Antilles (Dominica, Martinique; Grenada)
MARGAROPS P.L. Sclater, 1859 M - Turdus densirostris Vieillot, 1818; type by original designation   
Margarops fuscatus Pearly-eyed Thrasher
fuscatus (Vieillot, 1808) vS Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Is., Isla Beata (off S Hispaniola), Isla Mona and Puerto Rico to Antigua
klinikowskii Garrido & Remsen, 1996 St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles) [Garrido, 1996 #1675]
densirostris (Vieillot, 1818) vLesser Antilles (Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique)
bonairensis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1948 vBonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
CINCLOCERTHIA G.R. Gray, 1840 F - Stenorhynchus ruficauda Gould, 1836; type by monotypy   
Cinclocerthia ruficauda Brown Trembler
pavida Ridgway, 19048 vSt. Kitts (Lesser Antilles)
tremula (Lafresnaye, 1843)9 vN Lesser Antilles (Saba and Barbuda to Guadeloupe, excl St Kitts)
ruficauda (Gould, 1836) Dominica (Lesser Antilles)
tenebrosa Ridgway, 1904 vSt. Vincent and Grenada (Lesser Antilles)
Cinclocerthia gutturalis10 Gray Trembler
gutturalis (Lafresnaye, 1843)11 vMartinique (Lesser Antilles)
macrorhyncha P.L. Sclater, 1866 vSt. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
MIMUS Boie, 1826 M - Turdus polyglottos Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy   
Mimus thenca 12  (G.I. Molina, 1782) Chilean Mockingbird
iW Atacama to Los Ríos (C Chile)
Mimus patagonicus   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Patagonian Mockingbird
vN Argentina (Jujuy) S to S Argentina, S Chile >> NE Argentina (Córdoba to Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires)
Mimus saturninus Chalk-browed Mockingbird
saturninus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vS Surinam and lower Amazon in Pará (N Brazil)
arenaceus Chapman, 1890 vNE Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte to E Bahia)
frater Hellmayr, 1903 N Bolivia and C Brazil (E to Ceará and Rio de Janeiro, S to Mato Grosso do Sul and Santa Catarina)
modulator (Gould, 1836) SE Bolivia and Paraguay S to C Argentina (Santa Fé), S Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay
Mimus dorsalis   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Brown-backed Mockingbird
vAndes of Bolivia (S from La Paz), NW Argentina (S to Salta)
Mimus triurus 13  (Vieillot, 1818) White-banded Mockingbird
vW Bolivia, W Paraguay and Argentina S to Río Negro >> E Bolivia, S Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina (Buenos Aires)
Mimus longicaudatus Long-tailed Mockingbird
platensis Chapman, 1924 vIsla La Plata (off W Ecuador)
albogriseus Lesson, 1844 vSW Ecuador, N Peru (Piura)
longicaudatus von Tschudi, 1844 vW Peru
maranonicus Carriker, 193314 vNC Peru (Marañón valley)
Mimus polyglottos15 Northern Mockingbird
polyglottos (Linnaeus, 1758)16 S Canada, USA S to S Mexico17
orpheus (Linnaeus, 1758) Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Is., Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Virgin Is
Mimus gilvus18 Tropical Mockingbird
1 gracilis Cabanis, 185119 αvS Mexico (E Veracruz, E Oaxaca, Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador
1 leucophaeus Ridgway, 1888 vSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen., Isla de Cozumel)
1 antillarum Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1915 Lesser Antilles (S from Antigua)
1 tobagensis Dalmas, 1900 vTrinidad and Tobago
1 rostratus Ridgway, 1884 vAruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, islands off N Venezuela (east to Isla Blanquilla)
1 tolimensis Ridgway, 1904 vE El Salvador to C Panama (Colón); W and C Colombia to N Ecuador (Loja)
1 melanopterus Lawrence, 1849 vN and E Colombia, Venezuela (including Isla de Margarita), Guyana, N Brazil (Roraima)
1 gilvus (Vieillot, 1808) vSurinam, French Guiana
2 antelius Oberholser, 1919 vCoastal N and E Brazil (S to Rio de Janeiro)
3 magnirostris Cory, 188720 vIsla San Andrés (W Caribbean)
Mimus graysoni 21  (Lawrence, 1871) Socorro Mockingbird
Isla Socorro (W of Mexico)
Mimus gundlachii Bahama Mockingbird
gundlachii Cabanis, 1855 Bahamas, cays off N Cuba, Turks and Caicos Is.
hillii March, 186422 αS Jamaica
Mimus trifasciatus 23,24,25  (Gould, 1837) Floreana Mockingbird
vGardner-near-Floreana, Campéon (Galapagos Is.)
Mimus parvulus26 Galapagos Mockingbird
parvulus (Gould, 1837) vIsabela, Fernandina, Daphne, Santa Cruz (Galapagos Is.)
barringtoni (Rothschild, 1898)27 Santa Fé (Galapagos Is.)
personatus (Ridgway, 1890) vPinta, Marchena, Santiago and Rábida (Galapagos Is.)
wenmani (Swarth, 1931) Wenman (Galapagos Is.)
hulli (Rothschild, 1898) Culpepper (Galapagos Is.)
bauri (Ridgway, 1894)28 Genovesa (Galapagos Is.)
Mimus macdonaldi   (Ridgway, 1890) Hood Island Mockingbird
Española, Gardner-near Española (Galapagos Is.)
Mimus melanotis   (Gould, 1837) Chatham Island Mockingbird
vSan Cristóbal (Galapagos Is.)
OREOSCOPTES S.F. Baird, 1858 M - Orpheus montanus J.K. Townsend, 1837; type by monotypy   29
Oreoscoptes montanus   (J.K. Townsend, 1837) Sage Thrasher
vSW Canada, W and SW USA (S to E California, C Arizona, NW New Mexico) >> Baja California, C Mexico
TOXOSTOMA Wagler, 1831 N - Toxostoma vetula Wagler, 1831; type by monotypy = Orpheus curvirostris Swainson, 1827  
Toxostoma curvirostre30 Curve-billed Thrasher
1 palmeri (Coues, 1872)31 SW USA (S Arizona, SW New Mexico), NW Mexico (S to C Sonora; Islas Tiburón, San Esteban)
1 maculatum (Nelson, 1900) vS Sonora, N Sinaloa, SW Chihuahua (NW Mexico)
1 occidentale (Ridgway, 1882) vSinaloa S to Jalisco (WC Mexico)
2 celsum R.T. Moore, 194132 vS USA (SE Colorado, SW Kansas to SE Arizona and W Texas), NC Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila to Zacatecas)
2 curvirostre (Swainson, 1827) vC and SC Mexico (Zacatecas to Oaxaca)
2 oberholseri Law, 1928 S Texas, NE Mexico (S to SE Tamaulipas)
Toxostoma ocellatum Ocellated Thrasher
ocellatum (P.L. Sclater, 1862) vSC Mexico (Guanajuato to C Oaxaca)
villai A.R. Phillips, 198633 S Mexico [Phillips, 1986 #3071]
Toxostoma rufum34 Brown Thrasher
rufum (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE Canada (SE Ontario to Nova Scotia), NC and E USA S to E Texas and Florida
longicauda (S.F. Baird, 1858) SC Canada (E Alberta to SW Ontario), C and S USA (S to Colorado and Kansas)
Toxostoma longirostre Long-billed Thrasher
sennetti (Ridgway, 1888) SC Texas, NE Mexico (S to Tamaulipas)
longirostre (Lafresnaye, 1838) vE Mexico (S Tamaulipas S to Puebla and Veracruz)
Toxostoma guttatum   (Ridgway, 1885) Cozumel Thrasher
vIsla de Cozumel, off Yucatan Pen.
Toxostoma bendirei 35  (Coues, 1873) Bendire's Thrasher
iSW USA (SE California, Arizona, W New Mexico) >> NW Mexico (Sonora)
Toxostoma cinereum36 Gray Thrasher
mearnsi (Anthony, 1895) N Baja California
cinereum (Xántus de Vesey, 1860) vS Baja California
Toxostoma redivivum37,38 California Thrasher
sonomae G.B. Grinnell, 1915 SW USA (N California)
redivivum (Gambel, 1845) vSW USA (S California) and NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
Toxostoma crissale39 Crissal Thrasher
coloradense van Rossem, 1946 vSW USA (Colorado desert of SE California and SW Arizona), NW Mexico (NE Baja California, NW Sonora)
crissale Henry, 185840 vSW USA (SW Utah S to SE California, New Mexico, W Texas), NC Mexico (NE Baja California, N Coahuila)
dumosum R.T. Moore, 1941 vE Durango and S Coahuila S to Hidalgo (NC Mexico)
Toxostoma lecontei Le Conte's Thrasher
1 lecontei Lawrence, 1851 SW USA (S California, S Nevada, SW Utah) to NW Mexico (NE Baja California, NW Sonora)
1 macmillanorum A.R. Phillips, 196641,42 SW USA (San Joaquin valley, C California) [Phillips, 1966 #3065]
2 arenicola (Anthony, 1897)43 Coast of W Baja California

1 Sequence of genera and species derived from Lovette et al. (2012) [Lovette, 2012 #14483].
2 Considered to form a superspecies including M. hypoleucus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
3 For elucidation of these initials see Olson (1989) [Olson, 1989 #2851].
4 Includes meridianus Burleigh, 1960 [Burleigh, 1960 #580]; see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
5 Considered a separate species by Ridgway (1907) [Ridgway, 1907 #14921].
6 See Buden (1993) [Buden, 1993 #568] for a revision; however, Hunt et al. (2001) [Hunt, 2001 #2044] provided evidence for maintaining Allenia, not submerging it in Margarops.
7 Misspelled atlanticus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
8 Sometimes considered indistinguishable from C. r. tremula; e.g. by Storer (1989) [Storer, 1989 #14484] and Hunt et al. (2001) [Hunt, 2001 #2044].
9 For a suggestion this may deserve treatment as a separate species see Cody (2005) [Cody, 2005 #12215].
10 For separation from C. ruficauda see Storer (1989) [Storer, 1989 #14484]; thus treated as allospecies by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
11 Includes Necropsar leguati Forbes, 1898 [Forbes, 1898 #9492]; see Olson et al. (2005) [Olson, 2005 #9406]. See Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78].
12 Suggested superspecies relationship with M. longicaudatus, see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cody (2005) [Cody, 2005 #12215], contradicted by molecular evidence, see Lovette et al. (2012) [Lovette, 2012 #14483].
13 Suggested superspecies comprising this and M. dorsalis supported by molecular evidence; see Lovette et al. (2012) [Lovette, 2012 #14483].
14 Diagnosability questioned by Cody (2005) [Cody, 2005 #12215].
15 Traditonally considered the sister to M. gilvus, but is nested within that species; see Lovette et al. (2012) [Lovette, 2012 #14483], who, however, recommended further study before changing the current species-level taxonomy.
16 Includes leucopterus; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
17 Introduced to Bahamas and Hawaiian Is.
18 Subspecies groups based on Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
19 For reasons to use 1851 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287]; revision to 1853 pending, see Mlíkovský (2010) [Mlíkovský, 2012 #14050].
20 Sometimes treated as a distinct species, e.g. by Brewer (2001) [Brewer, 2001 #481]; but see Lovette et al. (2012) [Lovette, 2012 #14483].
21 Formerly placed in the monotypic genus Mimodes; but see Barber et al. (2004) [Barber, 2004 #209] and Lovette et al. (2012) [Lovette, 2012 #14483].
22 For date correction see entry for the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
23 M. trifasciatus and M. parvulus were previously treated as one species under the former of these names, e.g. by Davis & Miller (1960) [Davis, 1960 #1129]; should they be again tread as one species that nomenclature should be restored.
24 Separation of this and the species M. macdonaldi and M. melanotis was proposed by Swarth (1931) [Swarth, 1931 #14486] and, since Davis & Miller (1960) [Davis, 1960 #1129], adopted by Harris (1968) [Harris, 1968 #14487].
25 Forms a superspecies with M. parvulus, M. macdonaldi and M. melanotis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
26 This and the other Mimus spp. from the Galapagos were formerly placed in the genus Nesomimus, but see Arbogast et al. (2006) [Arbogast, 2006 #9750] and Lovette et al. (2012) [Lovette, 2012 #14483].
27 Dual original spellings. Selection of barringtoni flows from emendation under Art. 32.5.1.1. of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
28 For evidence of mixed origin see Nietlisbach (2013) [Nietlisbach, 2013 #15133].
29 Dual original spellings. For First Reviser selection see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
30 For attribution of subspecies to groups see Zink & Blackwell-Rego (2000) [Zink, 2000 #4331]. See also Rojas-Soto et al. (2007) [Rojas-Soto, 2007 #10051].
31 Includes insularum; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071] and Rojas-Soto et al. (2007) [Rojas-Soto, 2007 #10051].
32 Doubtfully distinct; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
33 Tentatively accepted; see Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
34 Considered to form a superspecies with T. longirostre and T. guttatum; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
35 Includes candidum and rubricatum; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
36 May form a superspecies with T. bendirei; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
37 Forms a superspecies with T. crissale; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
38 Variation in this species may be clinal; see Sgariglia & Burns (2003) [Sgariglia, 2003 #3579].
39 The name dorsale Henry, 1858, has been suppressed in favour of crissale; see Opinion 1249, I.C.Z.N. (1983) [I.C.Z.N., 1983 #2056].
40 The original citation for dorsalis in Davis & Miller (1960) [Davis, 1960 #1129] applies also to crissale. Includes trinitatis; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
41 For recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
42 For correct date see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
43 For suggested treatment as a separate species see Zink et al. (1997) [Zink, 1997 #14485]; see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] for subspecies groups.
Top