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STURNIDAE - Starlings and Mynas1 (34:114)
STURNINAE2,3
STURNUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758; type by Linnaean tautonymy   4
Sturnus vulgaris5,6 Common Starling/European Starling
faroensis Feilden, 1872 vFaroe Is.
zetlandicus E. Hartert, 1918 vOuter Hebrides, Shetland Is.
vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 vEurope (except SW and shore Black Sea) >> N Africa7
poltaratskyi Finsch, 1878 SE Russia, Siberia east to Yakutia (mid Lena basin) and Baikal, C Asia in N Kazakhstan, Mongolia, NE China >> SW Asia to NW India
tauricus Buturlin, 1904 vW and N shore of Black Sea and Sea of Azov, Asia Minor (except E) >> Middle East
caucasicus Lorenz, 1887 vN Caucasus area to lower R. Volga, E Transcaucasia to N, W, and SW Iran >> SW Asia
purpurascens Gould, 1868 E Turkey, N Iraq, W Transcaucasia >> Egypt, Middle East
granti E. Hartert, 19038 Azores
oppenheimi Neumann, 19159 SE Turkey, N Iraq >> Middle East
nobilior Hume, 1879 vNE Iran, S Turkmenistan, Afghanistan >> Pakistan, NW India
porphyronotus Sharpe, 1888 vC Asia east from E Uzbekistan, NW China in W Xinjiang, >> Pakistan, Nepal, N India
humii W.E. Brooks, 187610 N Pakistan, Kashmir >> N India
minor Hume, 1873 vC and S Pakistan
Sturnus unicolor   Temminck, 1820 Spotless Starling
iNW Africa, Iberia, S France, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
CREATOPHORA Lesson, 1847 F - Gracula carunculata J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by monotypy = Rallus cinereus Meuschen, 1787  
Creatophora cinerea   (Meuschen, 1787) Wattled Starling
vEthiopia to Angola and South Africa; vagrants in West Africa
PASTOR Temminck, 1815 M - Turdus roseus Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy11
Pastor roseus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Rosy Starling
vSE Europe to S Siberia, SW and C Asia, NW China in NW Xinjiang >> SW and S Asia to Sri Lanka, W mainland SE Asia
AGROPSAR E.W. Oates, 1889 M - Gracula sturnina Pallas, 1776; type by original designation and monotypy12
Agropsar sturninus 13  (Pallas, 1776) Purple-backed Starling/Daurian Starling
vBaikal to Russian Far East, N Korea, N Mongolia, NE China >> S China, mainland SE Asia (except NW), Sumatra, Java
Agropsar philippensis   (J.R. Forster, 1781) Chestnut-cheeked Starling
vS Sakhalin to N and C Japan >> Ryukyu Is., far-N Thai-Malay Pen., N Borneo, Philippines, N Sulawesi
GRACUPICA Lesson, 1831 F - Gracula melanoleuca Lesson, 1831; type by monotypy = Gracula nigricollis Paykull, 180714,15
Gracupica contra Asian Pied Starling
contra (Linnaeus, 1758) NE Pakistan, N, C and NE India, Bangladesh16
sordida (Ripley, 1950) vFar-NE India in SE Arunachal Pradesh and E Assam
superciliaris (Blyth, 1863) vSW Yunnan, far-NE India in Manipur, Myanmar except E
floweri (Sharpe, 1897) SE Yunnan, continental SE Asia from E Myanmar to NW Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and N Thai-Malay Pen.
jalla (Horsfield, 1821) S Sumatra, Java, Bali
Gracupica nigricollis   (Paykull, 1807) Black-collared Starling
vS and SE China, continental SE Asia (except W and S Myanmar), N Thai-Malay Pen.
STURNORNIS Legge, 1879 M - Sturnornis senex Legge, 1879; type by monotypy = Hetaerornis albofrontata E.L. Layard, 185417,18
Sturnornis albofrontatus 19  (E.L. Layard, 1854) White-faced Starling
vUplands of SW Sri Lanka [Layard, 1854 #2347]
LEUCOPSAR Stresemann, 1912 M - Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912; type by monotypy   
Leucopsar rothschildi   Stresemann, 1912 Bali Myna
iBali
FREGILUPUS Lesson, 1831 M - Upupa capensis J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by monotypy = Upupa varia Boddaert, 1783  20
†? Fregilupus varius 21  (Boddaert, 1783) Réunion Starling
vRéunion
STURNIA Lesson, 1837 F - Pastor elegans Lesson, 1834; type by original designation = Oriolus sinensis J.F. Gmelin, 178822
Sturnia sinensis   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) White-shouldered Starling
vS and SE China, NE continental SE Asia >> S Japan, Taiwan, Hainan, mainland SE Asia except NW
Sturnia pagodarum   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Brahminy Starling
NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan, S Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka23
Sturnia malabarica Chestnut-tailed Starling
blythii (Jerdon, 1845)24,25 αSW India [Jerdon, 1845 #2116]
malabarica (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vHimalayan foothills east from Uttarakhand, Ganges plain, NE India to Assam, Bangladesh >> W and S India, W continental SE Asia to far-N Thai-Malay Pen.
nemoricola Jerdon, 186226 SW to SC China in Yunnan and S Guizhou, far-NE India from SE Arunachal Pradesh to Manipur, N and E continental SE Asia >> S continental SE Asia, far-N Thai-Malay Pen.
Sturnia erythropygia White-headed Starling
andamanensis (Beavan, 1867)27 vAndamans
erythropygia Blyth, 1846 vCar Nicobar (Nicobars)
katchalensis Richmond, 1902 vKatchall (Nicobars)
SPODIOPSAR Sharpe, 1889 M - Sturnus sericeus J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 13, p. 40).28,29
Spodiopsar sericeus 30  (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) α Red-billed Starling
vWC to SC and S China including Hainan >> S China, E continental SE Asia
Spodiopsar cineraceus   (Temminck, 1835) White-cheeked Starling
vSE Baikal, C and S Sakhalin to Japan, Korea, NE Mongolia, NE China >> S and SE China, Taiwan, Hainan, NE Vietnam
ACRIDOTHERES Vieillot, 1816 M - Paradisea tristis Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 40).   31,32
Acridotheres tristis Common Myna
tristis (Linnaeus, 1766)33,34 vSE Iran, C Asia east to SC Kazakhstan, south and east through S Asia (except Sri Lanka), mainland SE Asia, E Sumatra, W Borneo35
melanosternus Legge, 1879 vSri Lanka
Acridotheres ginginianus   (Latham, 1790) Bank Myna
vS Asia except S India and Sri Lanka >> S India36
Acridotheres burmannicus37 Vinous-breasted Myna
burmannicus (Jerdon, 1862) vSW Yunnan, Myanmar except Tenasserim38
leucocephalus Giglioli & Salvadori, 1870 vContinental SE Asia (except Myanmar and NE), N Thai-Malay Pen.
Acridotheres melanopterus39,40 Black-winged Myna
melanopterus (Daudin, 1800) vW and C Java
tricolor (Horsfield, 1821) E Java
tertius (E. Hartert, 1896) vBali, Lombok
Acridotheres fuscus41 Jungle Myna
mahrattensis (Sykes, 1832) vW and S India
fuscus (Wagler, 1827) vN Pakistan, S Nepal, N India except far-NE42
fumidus Ripley, 1950 vFar-NE India from E Arunachal Pradesh to SE Assam
torquatus W.R. Davison, 189243 vFar-SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen. except far-S
Acridotheres cinereus 44  Bonaparte, 1850 Pale-bellied Myna
vSulawesi (except N and E)
Acridotheres javanicus 45  Cabanis, 1851 Javan Myna
vJava, Bali46
Acridotheres albocinctus   Godwin-Austen & Walden, 1875 Collared Myna
vW and N Yunnan, far-NE India in Manipur, Myanmar except S and SE
Acridotheres grandis 47  F. Moore, 1858 Great Myna
vSW China east to Guangxi, Bhutan, NE India east from West Bengal, SE Bangladesh, continental SE Asia, N Thai-Malay Pen.
Acridotheres cristatellus Crested Myna
cristatellus (Linnaeus, 1758)48,49 αvSC, S and E China [Linnaeus, 1758 #4355]50
brevipennis E. Hartert, 1910 vHainan, E continental SE Asia
formosanus (E. Hartert, 1912) vTaiwan
ONYCHOGNATHUS Hartlaub, 1849 M - Onychognathus fulgidus Hartlaub, 1849; type by monotypy   51
Onychognathus tenuirostris Slender-billed Starling
tenuirostris (Rüppell, 1836) vEritrea, Ethiopia,
theresae R. Meinertzhagen, 1937 Sierra Leone and Guinea to Uganda; Bioko
Onychognathus nabouroup 52  (Daudin, 1800) Pale-winged Starling
iSW Angola, Namibia, W and S South Africa
Onychognathus morio53 Red-winged Starling
modicus Bates, G.L., 1932 vSenegal to W Mali
neumanni (Alexander, 1908) E DR Congo to Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, N Malawi
rueppellii (J. Verreaux, 1856)54 αEthiopia, SE Sudan
shelleyi (E. Hartert, 1891)55 Kenya to E Zambia, W Mozambique, Zimbabwe
morio (Linnaeus, 1766) SE Botswana, E and S South Africa
Onychognathus fulgidus Chestnut-winged Starling
fulgidus Hartlaub, 1849 vGabon to NW Angola
hartlaubii Hartlaub, 185856,57 Guinea to Uganda
intermedius E. Hartert, 1895 vSE South Sudan, Uganda to E DR Congo, W Kenya [Hartert, 1895 #1902]
Onychognathus walleri Waller's Starling
preussi Reichenow, 1892 Bioko; SE Nigeria, Cameroon
elgonensis (Sharpe, 1891) vSE Sudan, Uganda to E DR Congo, W Kenya
walleri (Shelley, 1880) C Kenya, Tanzania, NE Zambia, N Malawi
Onychognathus albirostris   (Rüppell, 1836) White-billed Starling
vE Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon to Central African Republic and SW Sudan
Onychognathus tristramii 58  (P.L. Sclater, 1858) Tristram's Starling
iSinai, Israel and Jordan, W and SW Arabia to S Oman
Onychognathus salvadorii   (Sharpe, 1891) Bristle-crowned Starling
iMauritania and Senegal to W Mali
Onychognathus frater   (P.L. Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881) Socotra Starling
iSocotra
Onychognathus blythii   (Hartlaub, 1859) Somali Starling
iEthiopia, Eritrea to N Somalia, Socotra
SAROGLOSSA Hodgson, 1844 F - Lamprotornis spilopterus Vigors, 1831; type by original designation and monotypy   
Saroglossa spilopterus 59  (Vigors, 1831) δ Spot-winged Starling
Himalayan foothills from Himachal Pradesh to Nepal >> NE India, Bangladesh, Myanmar (except W and SE), W and N Thailand
NEOCICHLA Sharpe, 1876 F - Crateropus gutturalis Bocage, 1871; type by original designation   
Neocichla gutturalis Babbling Starling
gutturalis (Bocage, 1871) vS Angola
angusta Friedmann, 1930 vE Zambia, S Tanzania, N Malawi
GRAFISIA Bates, G.L., 1926 F - Spreo torquatus Reichenow, 1909; type by original designation   
Grafisia torquata   (Reichenow, 1909) White-collared Starling
vCameroon and Central African Republic to N DR Congo, N PR Congo, N Gabon
SPECULIPASTOR Reichenow, 1879 M - Speculipastor bicolor Reichenow, 1879; type by original designation   
Speculipastor bicolor   Reichenow, 1879 Magpie Starling
iN and C Somalia, S Ethiopia, N Kenya, NE Uganda >> SE Kenya
PHOLIA Reichenow, 1900 F - Pholia hirundinea Reichenow, 1900; type by monotypy = Pholidauges sharpii F.J. Jackson, 1898  
Pholia sharpii   (F.J. Jackson, 1898) Sharpe's Starling
E DR Congo to S Ethiopia, south to S Tanzania, NE Zambia
POEOPTERA Bonaparte, 1854 F - Poeoptera lugubris Bonaparte, 1854; type by monotypy   
Poeoptera stuhlmanni 60  (Reichenow, 1893) Stuhlmann's Starling
iSW Ethiopia, SE South Sudan, W Kenya, W Uganda to E DR Congo
Poeoptera kenricki61 Kenrick's Starling
kenricki Shelley, 1894 N and E Tanzania
dubia (Richmond, 1897)62 vS Kenya [Richmond, 1897 #15384]
Poeoptera lugubris 63  Bonaparte, 1854 Narrow-tailed Starling
vSierra Leone to Ghana; Nigeria to W Uganda and N Angola; Bioko
Poeoptera femoralis 64  (Richmond, 1897) Abbott's Starling
vS Kenya, N Tanzania
LAMPROTORNIS Temminck, 1820 M - Turdus caudatus Statius Muller, 1776; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 13, p. 154).   65
Lamprotornis hildebrandti   (Cabanis, 1878) Hildebrandt's Starling
iS Kenya, N Tanzania
Lamprotornis shelleyi 66  (Sharpe, 1890) Shelley's Starling
iSE South Sudan, S Ethiopia, N Somalia >> E Kenya, S Somalia
Lamprotornis australis 67  (A. Smith, 1836) Burchell's Starling
vSE Angola, SW Zambia to C Namibia, Botswana, N and NE South Africa
Lamprotornis caudatus 68  (Statius Muller, 1776) Long-tailed Glossy Starling
vMauritania and Senegal to S Sudan, W South Sudan
Lamprotornis purpuroptera69 Rüppell's Glossy Starling
aeneocephalus von Heuglin, 1863 vSE Sudan, N Eritrea, N Ethiopia
purpuroptera Rüppell, 1845 South Sudan and S Ethiopia to E DR Congo, Kenya and W Tanzania
Lamprotornis mevesii Meves's Long-tailed Starling
benguelensis Shelley, 190670 vW Angola [Shelley, 1906 #3602]
violacior Clancey, 1973 vSW Angola, NW Namibia [Clancey, 1973 #866]
mevesii (Wahlberg, 1856) S and E Zambia and S Malawi to NW Mozambique, N and E Botswana, NE South Africa (N Limpopo)
Lamprotornis unicolor   (Shelley, 1881) Ashy Starling
iTanzania
Lamprotornis ornatus   (Daudin, 1800) Principe Glossy Starling
vPríncipe
Lamprotornis splendidus Splendid Glossy Starling
chrysonotis Swainson, 1837 vSenegal to Togo
splendidus (Vieillot, 1822) vBenin and Nigeria to Ethiopia, south to Angola and W Tanzania
lessoni (Pucheran, 1858) αBioko
bailundensis (Neumann, 1920) vS Angola, SE DR Congo, N Zambia
Lamprotornis regius 71  (Reichenow, 1879) Golden-breasted Starling
vS Ethiopia, S Somalia, Kenya, NE Tanzania
Lamprotornis superbus 72,73  Rüppell, 1845 Superb Starling
vS South Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia to Tanzania
Lamprotornis pulcher 74,75  (Statius Muller, 1776) Chestnut-bellied Starling
vS Mauritania, Senegal to S and E Sudan, N Ethiopia, Eritrea
Lamprotornis bicolor 76  (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) African Pied Starling
South Africa, Lesotho
Lamprotornis albicapillus White-crowned Starling
albicapillus (Blyth, 1855)77 αS Ethiopia, N and C Somalia, NE Kenya [Blyth, 1855 #5895]
horrensis (Keith, 1964)78 δvN Kenya [Keith, 1964 #2177]
Lamprotornis fischeri   (Reichenow, 1884) Fischer's Starling
iSE Ethiopia, S Somalia, Kenya, N Tanzania
Lamprotornis acuticaudus Sharp-tailed Starling
acuticaudus (Bocage, 1869) αC Angola, Zambia, SE DR Congo
ecki Clancey, 1980 S Angola, NE Namibia [Clancey, 1980 #907]
Lamprotornis chloropterus Lesser Blue-eared Starling
chloropterus Swainson, 183879 vSenegal to Eritrea, Uganda, NW Kenya
elisabeth (Stresemann, 1924)80 SE Kenya, Tanzania to Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
Lamprotornis purpureus Purple Starling
purpureus (Statius Muller, 1776) vSenegal, S Mali to Nigeria
amethystinus (von Heuglin, 1863) vN Cameroon to S Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya
Lamprotornis chalcurus Bronze-tailed Starling
chalcurus von Nordmann, 1835 vSenegal to Nigeria, N Cameroon
emini (Neumann, 1920) Central African Republic to SW Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya
Lamprotornis nitens Cape Starling
nitens (Linnaeus, 1766) S PR Congo to W Angola
phoenicopterus Swainson, 1838 vNamibia to SW Zambia, Zimbabwe, N and C South Africa, S Mozambique
culminator (Clancey & Holliday, 1951) E and SE South Africa
Lamprotornis chalybaeus Greater Blue-eared Starling
chalybaeus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 182881 vMauritania and Senegal to S Sudan
cyaniventris Blyth, 185582 αvEritrea, Ethiopia, NW Somalia to C and W Kenya, E Uganda, E DR Congo
sycobius (Hartlaub, 1859) vSW Uganda, SE Kenya, Tanzania to N and E Zambia, Malawi, W Mozambique
nordmanni (E. Hartert & Neumann, 1914) S Angola, S Zambia to N and E Botswana, NE South Africa, S Mozambique
Lamprotornis iris   (Oustalet, 1879) Emerald Starling
iGuinea to Ivory Coast
HARTLAUBIUS Bonaparte, 1853 M - Turdus madagascariensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation = Turdus auratus Statius Muller, 177683
Hartlaubius auratus   (Statius Muller, 1776) Madagascar Starling
vMadagascar
CINNYRICINCLUS Lesson, 1840 M - Turdus leucogaster J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 66). = Turdus leucogaster Boddaert, 1783  
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster Amethyst Starling/Violet-backed Starling
leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783)84 Senegal to S Ethiopia, N DR Congo, NW Uganda
arabicus C.H.B. Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1942 vSW Arabia, E Sudan, Eritrea to NW Somalia, N Ethiopia
verreauxi (Bocage, 1870) Kenya to Angola, C Namibia, N and E South Africa
HYLOPSAR von Boetticher, 1940 M - Lamprocolius purpureiceps J. & E. Verreaux, 1851; type by original designation85
Hylopsar purpureiceps 86  (J. & E. Verreaux, 1851) Purple-headed Starling
Benin, S Nigeria to PR Congo, N Angola (Cabinda) and Uganda
Hylopsar cupreocauda   (Hartlaub, 1857) Copper-tailed Starling
Guinea and Sierra Leone to Ghana
NOTOPHOLIA Roberts, 1922 F - Lamprotornis melanogaster Swainson, 1838; type by original designation = Lamprotornis corruscus von Nordmann, 183587
Notopholia corusca Black-bellied Starling
corusca (von Nordmann, 1835)88,89 δvCoastal lowlands, S Somalia to S South Africa
vaughani (Bannerman, 1926) Pemba I.
RHABDORNITHINAE90
RHABDORNIS Reichenbach, 1853 M - Meliphaga mysticalis Temminck, 1825; type by monotypy   
Rhabdornis mystacalis Stripe-headed Rhabdornis
mystacalis (Temminck, 1825)91,92 vLuzon, Masbate, Panay, Negros (Philippines)
minor Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 vSamar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao, Basilan (Philippines)
Rhabdornis inornatus Stripe-breasted Rhabdornis
grandis Salomonsen, 195393,94 αvN and C Luzon (Philippines)
inornatus Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 vSamar (Philippines)
leytensis Parkes, 1973 vBiliran, Leyte (Philippines) [Parkes, 1973 #2926]
rabori Rand, 1950 Negros (Philippines)
alaris Rand, 194895 vMindanao (Philippines)
MAINATINAE96
BASILORNIS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Pastor corythaix Wagler, 1827; type by monotypy   97
Basilornis celebensis   G.R. Gray, 1861 Sulawesi Myna
vSulawesi and NE and SE satellites
Basilornis galeatus   A.B. Meyer, 1894 Helmeted Myna
vBanggai and Sula Is. (E Sulawesi)
Basilornis corythaix 98  (Wagler, 1827) Long-crested Myna
iSeram (S Moluccas)
GOODFELLOWIA E. Hartert, 1903 F - Goodfellowia miranda E. Hartert, 1903; type by monotypy99
Goodfellowia miranda   E. Hartert, 1903 Apo Myna
vMountains of C and S Mindanao (Philippines)
STREPTOCITTA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Corvus caledonicus Latham, 1801; type by monotypy = Pica albicollis Vieillot, 1818  100
Streptocitta albicollis101 White-necked Myna
torquata (Temminck, 1828) vSulawesi (except SW and SE), and NE satellites
albicollis (Vieillot, 1818) vSW and SE Sulawesi and SE satellites
Streptocitta albertinae 102  (Schlegel, 1865) α Bare-eyed Myna
iSula Is. (E Sulawesi)
SARCOPS Walden, 1875 M - Gracula calva Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy   103
Sarcops calvus Coleto
calvus (Linnaeus, 1766) vPhilippines south to Mindoro
melanonotus Ogilvie-Grant, 1906104 δvC and S Philippines as far as Basilan
lowii Sharpe, 1877 Sulu Arch.
MINO Lesson, 1827 M - Mino dumontii Lesson, 1827; type by monotypy   
Mino dumontii 105  (Lesson, 1827) Yellow-faced Myna
iWaigeo, Batanta, Salawati, lowland New Guinea, Yapen I., Aru Is.
Mino kreffti106 Long-tailed Myna
giliau Stresemann, 1922107 New Britain, Umboi (Bismarck Arch.)
kreffti (P.L. Sclater, 1869) New Ireland, New Hanover (Bismarck Arch.), main islands in N and C Solomons
sanfordi E. Hartert, 1929 Malaita, Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
Mino anais Golden Myna
anais (Lesson, 1839) Salawati, lowland NW New Guinea (Doberai Pen.)
orientalis (Schlegel, 1871) vLowland NW and N New Guinea (Bomberai Pen., Cenderawasih Bay to Astrolabe Bay), Yapen I.
robertsonii D'Albertis, 1877 Lowland SW, SC and SE New Guinea (SE neck of Vogelkop to Papuan Pen.)
GRACULA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Gracula religiosa Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 39).   
Gracula ptilogenys   Blyth, 1846 Sri Lanka Myna
iSri Lanka
Gracula religiosa108 Hill Myna
1 indica (Cuvier, 1829)109 vSW India, Sri Lanka
2 peninsularis Whistler & Kinnear, 1933110 vEC India in Orissa
2 intermedia A. Hay, 1845111 αvSW and S China in S Yunnan, Guangxi and Hainan, Himalayan foothills east from Uttarakhand, NE India, E Bangladesh, continental SE Asia, far-N Thai-Malay Pen.
2 andamanensis (Beavan, 1867)112 vAndamans and Nicobars
2 religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 vThai-Malay Pen. (except far-N), Sumatra and E satellites, Bawean and Kangean Is. (Java Sea), Java, Bali, Borneo113
3 robusta Salvadori, 1887 vBanyak Is. and Nias I. (NW Sumatra)
2 batuensis Finsch, 1899 vBatu and Mentawai Is. (W Sumatra)
4 enganensis Salvadori, 1892114 vEnggano I. (SW Sumatra)
2 palawanensis (Sharpe, 1890) vBalabac, Palawan and satellites (Philippines)
2 venerata Bonaparte, 1850115,116 vSumbawa east to Alor (Lesser Sundas)
AMPELICEPS Blyth, 1842 M - Ampeliceps coronatus Blyth, 1842; type by monotypy   
Ampeliceps coronatus   Blyth, 1842 Golden-crested Myna
vSW Yunnan, SE Assam, continental SE Asia (except NW and NE) >> N Thai-Malay Pen.
ENODES Temminck, 1839 M - Lamprotornis erythrophris Temminck, 1824; type by monotypy   
Enodes erythrophris 117  (Temminck, 1824) Fiery-browed Myna
vMts. of Sulawesi
SCISSIROSTRUM Lafresnaye, 1845 N - Scissirostrum pagei Lafresnaye, 1845; type by monotypy = Lanius dubius Latham, 1801  
Scissirostrum dubium 118,119  (Latham, 1801) α Finch-billed Myna/Grosbeak Starling
vSulawesi and N, E and SE satellites
APLONIS Gould, 1836 F - Aplonis fusca Gould, 1836; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 40).   120,121
Aplonis metallica Metallic Starling
circumscripta (A.B. Meyer, 1884) vDamar and Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
metallica (Temminck, 1824) vSula Is. (E Sulawesi), Moluccas, lowland New Guinea and satellite islands (incl. Aru Is.), NE Queensland
nitida (G.R. Gray, 1858) vNew Britain and New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.), Solomons
purpureiceps (Salvadori, 1878) Admiralty Is. (Bismarck Arch.)
inornata (Salvadori, 1880)122 αvBiak I., Numfoor I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
Aplonis mystacea   (Ogilvie-Grant, 1911) Yellow-eyed Starling
vLowland SW to SC New Guinea (head of Cenderawasih Bay to R. Fly drainage)
Aplonis cantoroides 123  (G.R. Gray, 1862) Singing Starling
iLowland New Guinea and satellite islands, Bismarck Arch., Solomons (to Rennell)
Aplonis crassa   (P.L. Sclater, 1883) Tanimbar Starling
vTanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Aplonis feadensis124 Atoll Starling
heureka Meise, 1929 Islets in W Bismarck Arch. (Ninigo Group and Hermit Is.)
feadensis (E.P. Ramsay, 1882) vIslets off NW Solomons
Aplonis insularis   Mayr, 1931 Rennell Starling
vRennell (S Solomons)
Aplonis magna125 Long-tailed Starling
magna (Schlegel, 1871) vBiak I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
brevicauda (van Oort, 1908) Numfoor I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
Aplonis brunneicapillus   (Danis, 1938) White-eyed Starling
iBougainville, Choiseul, Rendova, Guadalcanal (Solomons)
Aplonis grandis126 Brown-winged Starling
grandis (Salvadori, 1881) vN and C Solomons
malaitae Mayr, 1931 Malaita (SE Solomons)
macrura Mayr, 1931 vGuadalcanal (SE Solomons)
Aplonis dichroa   (Tristram, 1895) Makira Starling
vSan Cristobal (SE Solomons)
Aplonis zelandica Rusty-winged Starling
maxwellii H.O. Forbes, 1900 Ndeni (Santa Cruz Is.)
zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830) vVanikoro (Santa Cruz Is.)
rufipennis E.L. Layard, 1881 vBanks Is. to Efaté (Vanuatu)
Aplonis striata Striated Starling
striata (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vNew Caledonia
atronitens G.R. Gray, 1859 Loyalty Is.
Aplonis santovestris   Harrisson & A.J. Marshall, 1937 Mountain Starling
iMountains of Espíritu Santo (Vanuatu)
Aplonis panayensis Asian Glossy Starling
affinis (Blyth, 1846) vNE India in SE Assam, C and E Bangladesh, SW, S and SE Myanmar including Tenasserim
tytleri (Hume, 1873) Coco Is. (Myanmar), Andamans, Nicobars (Car Nicobar)
albiris Abdulali, 1967127 C and S Nicobars >> extreme N Sumatra [Abdulali, 1967 #17]
strigata (Horsfield, 1821)128 αvThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and E satellites, Java, N Borneo
altirostris (Salvadori, 1887) vNW satellites of Sumatra (Simeulue, Banyak Is., Nias)
pachistorhina (Oberholser, 1912)129 vBatu and Mentawai Is. (W Sumatra)
enganensis (Salvadori, 1892) vEnggano I. (SW Sumatra)
heterochlora (Oberholser, 1917) vSE satellites of Thai-Malay Pen.; Riau Arch., Lingga Arch., Natuna Is., Anamba Is. (Indonesia)
eustathis (Oberholser, 1926) Borneo except N
alipodis (Oberholser, 1926) Maratua I. (off E Borneo)
gusti Stresemann, 1913 Bali
sanghirensis (Salvadori, 1876) vSangir and Talaud Is. (N Sulawesi)
panayensis (Scopoli, 1786)130 αvPhilippines, Sulawesi except E
Aplonis mysolensis Moluccan Starling
mysolensis (G.R. Gray, 1862)131 vMoluccas except far-SE, Western Papuan Is.
sulaensis (Sharpe, 1890)132 vE Sulawesi including Banggai and Sula Is.
Aplonis minor Short-tailed Starling
minor (Bonaparte, 1850)133,134 vSulawesi (except N) and satellites, Flores Sea islands, Lesser Sundas east to Roma and Moa >> Bali, Java
todayensis (Mearns, 1905)135 vUplands of Mindanao (Philippines)
Aplonis opaca Micronesian Starling
aenea Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina, 1931 vAsuncion, Agrihan, Pagan, Alamagan (Northern Mariana Is.)
guami Momiyama, 1922 Saipan, Tinian, Rota (Northern Mariana Is.); Guam
orii Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina, 1931 Babeldaob to Angaur (Palau)
kurodai Momiyama, 1920 Yap (Caroline Is.)
ponapensis Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina, 1931 vPohnpei (Caroline Is.)
opaca (von Kittlitz, 1833) vKosrae (Caroline Is.)
anga Momiyama, 1922 Chuuk (Caroline Is.)
Aplonis pelzelni   Finsch, 1876 Pohnpei Starling
iPohnpei (Caroline Is.)
Aplonis tabuensis Polynesian Starling
pachyrhampha Mayr, 1942 δvTinakula, Swallow Is. (Santa Cruz Is.)
tucopiae Mayr, 1942 Tikopia (Santa Cruz Is.)
rotumae Mayr, 1942 Rotuma (Fiji)
vitiensis E.L. Layard, 1876 vFiji except Ono-i-Lau, Vatoa (Lau Group)
tabuensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vC, S Tonga; Vatoa, Ono-i-Lau (Lau Group, Fiji)
fortunae E.L. Layard, 1876 Futuna, Alofi, Uvea (Wallis and Futuna Is.)
tenebrosa Mayr, 1942 vNiuatoputapu, Tafahi (Tonga)
nesiotes Mayr, 1942 Niuafo'ou (Tonga)
brevirostris (Peale, 1848) vSavai'i, Upolu (Samoa)
tutuilae Mayr, 1942 Tutuila (American Samoa)
manuae Mayr, 1942 Manu'a Is. (Samoa)
brunnescens Sharpe, 1890 Niue
Aplonis atrifusca   (Peale, 1848) Samoan Starling
vSamoa, American Samoa
†? Aplonis corvina   (von Kittlitz, 1833) Kosrae Starling
vKosrae (Caroline Is.)
Aplonis cinerascens   Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871 Rarotonga Starling
iRarotonga (Cook Is.)
†? Aplonis mavornata   Buller, 1887 Mysterious Starling
iCook Is.; ? Society Is.
Aplonis fusca Tasman Starling
†? fusca Gould, 1836 vNorfolk I.
†? hulliana Mathews, 1912136 vLord Howe I.

1 Subfamilies and their composition follow Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
2 The sequence of genera follows Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808] as does sequence species in each genus. Corroborated by Zuccon et al. (2008) [Zuccon, 2008 #11778] with added genus Fregilupus screened.
3 Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808] used the genus-group name Temenuchus Cabanis, 1851, to include S. sinensis however the name Surnia Lesson, 1837 has precedence due to their inclusion of its type species S. sinensis. That and their use of Poliopsar was corrected to Spodiopsar by Zuccon et al. (2008) [Zuccon, 2008 #11778].
4 The broad genus Sturnus has been split based on Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808].
5 Subspecies recognition based on Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
6 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. unicolor.
7 Introduced to South Africa, SE Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga, Lord Howe I., Norfolk I., Macquarie I, USA, Canada and Bahamas.
8 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
9 For recognition see Roselaar (1995) [Roselaar, 1995 #3385]. But see Feare & Craig (1998) [Feare, 1998 #1544]. See also Kirwan et al. (2008) [Kirwan, 2008 #13632].
10 For use of this name in place of indicus Blyth, 1843, see Biswas (1963) [Biswas, 1963 #315].
11 For recognition; see Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808].
12 For recognition; see Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808].
13 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with A. philippensis.
14 Spelled Graculipica by Sharpe (1890) [Sharpe, 1890 #5414].
15 For recognition; see Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808].
16 Introduced to United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
17 For recognition; see Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808].
18 For rectification of name of type species under Art. 70.3 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] see Zuccon et al. (2008) [Zuccon, 2008 #11778]. However, they misread Mees (1997) [Mees, 1997 #2639] who confirmed that the name senex had nothing to do with Layard's new species but is a junior synonym of Sturnus sericeus ... not of Sturnus sinensis as they stand.
19 Previously treated under the name senex; but see Mees (1997) [Mees, 1997 #2639].
20 Place in sequence of genera determined by Zuccon et al. (2008) [Zuccon, 2008 #11778].
21 Not screened by Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
22 For circumscription and recognition under the name Temenuchus Cabanis, 1851; see Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808].
23 Introduced to United Arab Emirates.
24 Treated as a separate species by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
25 First appeared in pl. 22 of Jerdon's book in March 1845, not in the Madras Journal of Literature and Science.
26 Includes assamica; see Craig & Feare (2009) [Craig, 2009 #12271].
27 Beavan credited Tytler with the name but there is no evidence Tytler did more than supply the MS name.
28 Poliopsar Sharpe, 1888 is preoccupied by Poliopsar Cassin, 1867; see Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78].
29 Taxon recognized by Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808], but using the name Poliopsar; see instead Zuccon (2008) [Zuccon, 2008 #11778].
30 Includes Heterornis senex; see Mees (1997) [Mees, 1997 #2639] and Zuccon et al. (2008) [Zuccon, 2008 #11778].
31 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
32 Species sequence follows Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808] and Zuccon et al. (2008) [Zuccon, 2008 #11778].
33 Includes tristoides Hodgson, 1836; perhaps a nomen nudum until described by Brooke (1976) [Brooke, 1976 #509].
34 Includes naumanni Dementiev, 1957 [Dementiev, 1957 #1310].
35 Introduced to S Ukraine, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, Hong Kong, extreme W Borneo, South Africa, Comoros, Maldives, Madagascar, Seychelles, St. Helena I., Andamans, Chagos Arch., E Australia, N New Zealand, Fiji, American Samoa, Samoa, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna Is., Tokelau, Kiribati, Line Is., Cook Is., Society Is., Iles Australes, Tuamotu Is., Iles Marquises, Hawaiian Is. and USA (Florida).
36 Introduced to United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Oman.
37 For assignment to Acridotheres; see Lovette et al. (2008) [Lovette, 2008 #10808].
38 Introduced to Israel.
39 For assignment to Acridotheres; see Feare & Craig (1992) [Feare, 1992 #1543].
40 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with A. burmannicus.
41 Feare & Craig (1998) [Feare, 1998 #1544] treated A. cinereus and A. javanicus as allospecies of A. fuscus.
42 Introduced to Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna Is., American Samoa and Samoa.
43 For recognition see Deignan (1963) [Deignan, 1963 #1245] and Wells (2007) [Wells, 2007 #10194].
44 Dated 1851 by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
45 The findings of Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953] do not support this forming a superspecies with A. grandis as suggested by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
46 Introduced to S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, W Borneo and Lesser Sundas.
47 Includes infuscatus; see Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78]; but this was recognised by Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332] as a subspecies of a broad A. javanicus.
48 A Burmese record (Smythies, 1953; Amadon, 1962) [Smythies, 1953 #3665]; [Amadon, 1962 #78] needs re-examination; it may be valid but it is just as likely to have been A. grandis.
49 Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78] is using 1766 was no doubt misled by a date in Sharpe (1890) [Sharpe, 1890 #5414] where, as throughout the Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, all dates prior to 1766 were excluded.
50 Introduced to Portugal, Penang I. (off W Thai-Malay Pen.), Philippines (Luzon), Japan (Honshu, Shikoku) and SW Canada (SW British Columbia).
51 Species sequence follows Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
52 Includes benguellensis; see Craig (1988) [Craig, 1988 #15401].
53 For inclusion here of O. neumanni and subspecies modicus; see Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1973) [Mackworth-Praed, 1973 #15400]; but see Craig (1998) [Craig, 1998 #15385].
54 Date of publication based on the Bibliographie de la France; but there may have been an earlier printing.
55 For recognition see Dowsett et al. (2008) [Dowsett, 2008 #12725].
56 Includes harterti; see Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1973) [Mackworth-Praed, 1973 #15400].
57 Hartlaub cited G.R. Gray's MSS name; but there is no evidence the description given is by or supplied by Gray.
58 The findings of Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953] do not support this forming a superspecies with O. morio as suggested by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
59 Mistakenly considered variable and spelled spiloptera in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
60 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with P. kenricki.
61 Treated as monotypic by Jackson & Sclater (1938) [Jackson, 1938 #15391] with dubius in synonymy. Also treated as monotypic by White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188] with mention of bensoni but not dubius.
62 Shown to be a form of P. kenricki by Reichenow (1905) [Reichenow, 1905 #15386], but not mentioned by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78]. The junior name bensoni must be a synonym of this.
63 Includes webbi Keith, 1968 [Keith, 1968 #2178]; see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
64 For treatment in Poeoptera; see Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
65 Species sequence follows Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953]. The genera Spreo and Cosmopsarus recognised by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78] are subsumed here.
66 For treatment as a separate species from L. hildebrandti; see Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1960) [Mackworth-Praed, 1960 #4711].
67 Includes degener; see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
68 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with L. purpuroptera and L. mevesii.
69 For correction of spelling see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1124].
70 Includes chalceus; see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188], a new name for purpureus Bocage, 1868 (preoccupied by purpureus Statius Muller, 1766) for which the available name benguelensis was overlooked.
71 Includes magnificus; see Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328].
72 Implicitly includes excelsior Clancey, 1987 [Clancey, 1987 #938]; see Wilkinson (2000) [Wilkinson, 2000 #4218].
73 Preoccupied in a broad Lamprotornis, including Cosmopsarus, by Turdus superbus Statius Muller, 1776 not used since 1899 and considered a nomen oblitum.
74 For treatment as monotypic see Fry et al. (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1632]; thus rufiventris is a synonym; see also White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
75 The findings of Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953] do not support this forming a superspecies with L. hildebrandti and L. shelleyi as suggested by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
76 For treatment of this and L. albicapillus in Lamprotornis; see Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
77 For date correction see Dickinson & Gregory (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9467].
78 Correct original spelling. Spelling horeensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
79 Includes cyanogenys; see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
80 Considered a separate species by Wolters (1982) [Wolters, 1982 #4265] and by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to be an allospecies of L. chloropterus. But see Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1416].
81 Includes hartlaubi; see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
82 Date 1856 in Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78] was a typographical error. See also Dickinson & Pittie (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9467].
83 For recognition see Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
84 Includes friedmanni; see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
85 For recognition see Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
86 Treatment of this and the next species under Hylopsar follows Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953]. Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with H. cupreocauda.
87 For recognition see Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
88 Includes mandanus; see Craig (2000) [Craig, 2000 #1082].
89 Original spelling corrusca was an incorrect Latin spelling here considered an inadvertent error, see Art. 32.5.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] and the correct spelling is corusca.
90 For recognition that these creepers are closely related to starlings; see Cibois & Cracraft (2004) [Cibois, 2004 #769]. See also Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
91 Correct original spelling see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
92 Includes longirostris see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
93 Treated as a separate species in Kennedy et al. (2000) [Kennedy, 2000 #2203], but with reservations. Molecular evidence needed.
94 Date 1952 in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was miscopied.
95 Includes zamboanga; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
96 Sequence of genera follows Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953].
97 Dated 1851 by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
98 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with B. celebensis and B. galeatus.
99 For evidence that this is paraphyletic with Basilornis celebensis; see Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953]. Pending fuller taxon sampling morphological distinctness of this species justifies restoration of this genus-group name for the Philippine species.
100 Dated 1851 by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
101 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. albertinae.
102 For correct date see Pieters & Dickinson (2005) [Pieters, 2005 #3077].
103 Date 1877 in Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78] not correct.
104 Misspelled melanotus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533], despite correct original citation in Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
105 The original name was Mainatus dumontii; Mino was introduced as a subgeneric name.
106 For treatment as a species separate from M. dumontii; see Feare & Craig (1998) [Feare, 1998 #1544].
107 Significantly shorter-tailed than nominate kreffti see Amadon (1956) [Amadon, 1956 #75]. Eck (2001) [Eck, 2001 #1480] suggested that this is closer to M. dumontii and that uniting these two species would be better.
108 Feare & Craig (1998) [Feare, 1998 #1544] and Craig & Feare (2009) [Craig, 2009 #12271] favoured splitting this species into four; treated here as subspecies groups. This arrangement is somewhat counter-intuitive and DNA studies are indicated.
109 Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] treated this as a monotypic species apparently following Feare & Craig (1998) [Feare, 1998 #1544]. Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953] seem to agree, but broader sampling of the species complex is needed.
110 For recognition of dual authorship see Pittie & Dickinson (2010) [Pittie, 2010 #12619].
111 Given as 1844 by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78]; but see Dickinson & Gregory (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9471].
112 Tytler was credited with the MS name by Beavan but apparently had little more involvement in naming this.
113 Introduced to Puerto Rico.
114 For recognition see Hoogerwerf (1963) [Hoogerwerf, 1963 #2006] and Feare & Craig (1998) [Feare, 1998 #1544]. But see Ripley (1944) [Ripley, 1944 #3293], Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78] and van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920].
115 Includes mertensi; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
116 Dated 1851 by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
117 Includes centralis and leptorhynchus; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
118 Includes pelingense; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
119 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
120 The species sequence follows Feare & Craig (1998) [Feare, 1998 #1544]. Taxon sampling in Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953] limited to ten species.
121 For discussion of spelling Aplornis see Schodde & Bock (2009) [Schodde, 2009 #11824] and I.C.Z.N. (2011) [I.C.Z.N., 2011 #12804].
122 Date not completely resolved; Poggi (2010) [Poggi, 2010 #12656] dated this 10.xii.1880; however, p. 193, the start page of signature 13, in at least some copies, is dated 5 Gennaio 1881. There may have been a reissue and this is being investigated.
123 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with A. crassa.
124 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with A. insularis.
125 The findings of Lovette & Rubenstein (2007) [Lovette, 2007 #9953] do not support this forming a superspecies with A. metallica as suggested by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
126 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with A. dichroa.
127 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
128 For correct date see Raphael (1970) [Raphael, 1970 #3206].
129 Includes leptorrhynchus; see van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920].
130 Date 1783 in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was mistaken.
131 Includes forsteni; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
132 Includes persimilis; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
133 Includes montosa; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
134 Given as 1851 by Amadon (1962) [Amadon, 1962 #78], but we follow Hartlaub (1851) [Hartlaub, 1851 #1912] in accepting 1850 as the date of all 543 pp. of Vol. 1 of Bonaparte's Conspectus Generum Avium.
135 Species treated as monotypic by White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194]; but this subspecies recognised by Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361]; however, comparative review desirable.
136 Recognised by Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
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