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TURDIDAE - Thrushes1 (20:159)
MYADESTINAE22
SIALIA Swainson, 1827 F - Sialia azurea Swainson, 1827; type by monotypy and virtual tautonymy = Motacilla sialis Linnaeus, 1758  
Sialia mexicana Western Bluebird
occidentalis J.K. Townsend, 18373 vSW Canada (British Columbia) south to NW Mexico (N Baja California)
bairdi Ridgway, 1894 SW USA (SE California, S Arizona) south to NW Mexico (S Sonora, W Chihuahua)
jacoti A.R. Phillips, 19914 S Texas (Davis Mts.), NE Mexico (San Luis Mts.) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
amabilis R.T. Moore, 1939 vSE Chihuahua to NW Zacatecas (N Mexico)
nelsoni A.R. Phillips, 19915 N and C Mexico (N Coahuila south to NE Jalisco and N Guanajuato) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
mexicana Swainson, 18326 vC Mexico (from Aguascalientes south to N Puebla and from Hidalgo to Veracruz)
Sialia sialis Eastern Bluebird
sialis (Linnaeus, 1758)7 S and SE Canada through E USA to S Texas >> NE Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, N Tamaulipas) and Bermuda
grata Bangs, 18988 vSW USA (S Florida)
nidificans A.R. Phillips, 19919 Caribbean slope of C Mexico [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
fulva Brewster, 1885 vSE Arizona (SW USA) south through montane C Mexico
guatemalae Ridgway, 1882 SE Mexico (Chiapas) and Guatemala
meridionalis Dickey & van Rossem, 193010 vHonduras, El Salvador and N Nicaragua
caribaea T.R. Howell, 196511 vLowlands of NE Honduras and NE Nicaragua [Howell, 1965 #2013]
bermudensis Verrill, 190112 vBermuda [Verrill, 1901 #3981]
Sialia currucoides   (Bechstein, 1798) Mountain Bluebird
iC and E Alaska, W Canada, W USA >> SW USA and W Mexico (N Baja California and south to Guanajuato)
GRANDALA Hodgson, 1843 F - Grandala coelicolor Hodgson, 1843; type by monotypy   13
Grandala coelicolor   Hodgson, 1843 δ Grandala
iS and E Xizang, mountains of WC and NC China from N Yunnan and Sichuan to Qinghai and Gansu, Himalayas
NEOCOSSYPHUS G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884 M - Pseudocossyphus rufus G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884; type by original designation   
Neocossyphus rufus Red-tailed Ant Thrush
rufus (G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884) vCoastal Kenya and Tanzania, Zanzibar
gabunensis Neumann, 1908 vS Cameroon and Gabon to N DR Congo and W Uganda
Neocossyphus poensis White-tailed Ant Thrush
poensis (Strickland, 1844) vGuinea and Sierra Leone to E Ghana; S Benin to Cameroon, Gabon and S PR Congo, Bioko
praepectoralis F.J. Jackson, 190614 vW DR Congo to NW Angola, Uganda and W Kenya
STIZORHINA Oberholser, 1899 F - Muscicapa fraseri Strickland, 1844; type by original designation   15
Stizorhina fraseri Rufous Flycatcher Thrush
fraseri (Strickland, 1844) Bioko
finschi (Sharpe, 1870)16,17 δSW Sierra Leone to SW Nigeria
rubicunda (Hartlaub, 1860) vS South Sudan, Uganda, NE DR Congo
vulpina Reichenow, 1902 vSW Sierra Leone to SW Nigeria
MYADESTES Swainson, 1838 M - Myadestes genibarbis Swainson, 1838; type by monotypy   18,19
Myadestes townsendi Townsend's Solitaire
townsendi (Audubon, 1838) C and E Alaska, W Canada south to SW USA >> SW USA and N Mexico
calophonus R.T. Moore, 1937 vN and C Mexico (from W Chihuahua to Nayarit)
†? Myadestes myadestinus 20  (Stejneger, 1887) Kamao/Large Kauai Thrush
vKauai (Hawaiian Is.)
Myadestes lanaiensis21 Olomao/Lanai Thrush
†? lanaiensis (S.B. Wilson, 1891) vLanai (Hawaiian Is.)
†? rutha (Bryan, 1908) Molokai (Hawaiian Is.)
†? woahensis (Bloxam, 1899)22,23 vOahu (Hawaiian Is.) [Wilson, 1890-1899 #4230]
Myadestes obscurus 24  (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Omao/Hawaiian Thrush
vHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
Myadestes palmeri   (Rothschild, 1893) Puaiohi/Small Kauai Thrush
iKauai (Hawaiian Is.)
Myadestes elisabeth Cuban Solitaire
elisabeth (Lembeye, 1850) E and W Cuba
retrusus Bangs & Zappey, 1905 vIsla de la Juventud (off W Cuba)
Myadestes genibarbis25 Rufous-throated Solitaire
1 solitarius S.F. Baird, 1866 vJamaica
1 montanus Cory, 1881 vHispaniola
1 dominicanus Stejneger, 1882 vDominica (Lesser Antilles)
1 genibarbis Swainson, 1838 vMartinique (Lesser Antilles)
1 sanctaeluciae Stejneger, 1882 St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
2 sibilans Lawrence, 1878 St. Vincent (Lesser Antilles)
Myadestes occidentalis26 Brown-backed Solitaire
occidentalis Stejneger, 188227 vN and C Mexico (from S Chihuahua to Jalisco and from C Coahuila to Oaxaca)
insularis Stejneger, 1882 vIslas Marías (off W Mexico)
oberholseri Dickey & van Rossem, 192528 C and S Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Tabasco) and from Chiapas (S Mexico) to Honduras
Myadestes unicolor 29  P.L. Sclater, 1857 Slate-colored Solitaire
S Mexico (SE San Luis Potosí to Chiapas), C Guatemala, S Belize, W and C Honduras, N El Salvador
Myadestes melanops 30  Salvin, 1865 Black-faced Solitaire
iCosta Rica to C Panama (Colón)
Myadestes coloratus 31  Nelson, 1912 Varied Solitaire
vE Panama (Darién)
Myadestes ralloides32 Andean Solitaire
plumbeiceps Hellmayr, 1921 W Andes of Colombia, W slope of Andes of Ecuador
candelae Meyer de Schauensee, 1947 NC Colombia
venezuelensis P.L. Sclater, 1856 vN Venezuela south in E Andes to N Peru (Cajamarca)
ralloides (d'Orbigny, 1840) C Peru (Huánuco) south to W and C Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
TURDINAE3333
GEOMALIA Stresemann, 1931 F - Geomalia heinrichi Stresemann, 1931; type by monotypy   34
Geomalia heinrichi 35  Stresemann, 1931 Geomalia
Sulawesi except SW
ZOOTHERA Vigors, 1832 F - Zoothera monticola Vigors, 1832; type by monotypy   36
Zoothera dixoni   (Seebohm, 1881) Long-tailed Thrush
iSE Xizang, WC and SW China in W Sichuan and Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from E Himachal Pradesh, NE India, N Myanmar >> NE India, N continental SE Asia east to NW Vietnam
Zoothera mollissima Plain-backed Thrush
whiteheadi (E.C.S. Baker, 1913) Himalayan foothills east to Uttarakhand
mollissima (Blyth, 1842) vWC China in N Yunnan and SW Sichuan, Himalayan foothills east from W Nepal, N Myanmar (status?)
griseiceps (Delacour, 1930) WC and SW China in N Sichuan and C and E Yunnan, NW Vietnam
Zoothera marginata   Blyth, 1847 Dark-sided Thrush
vS Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from E Uttarakhand, NE India, W, N and EC continental SE Asia
Zoothera monticola Long-billed Thrush
monticola Vigors, 1832 Himalayan foothills east from Himachal Pradesh, NE India, SE Bangladesh, W and N Myanmar
atrata Delacour & Greenway, 1939 vNW Vietnam
Zoothera everetti   (Sharpe, 1892) Everett's Thrush
iMountains of Borneo
Zoothera andromedae   (Temminck, 1826) Sunda Thrush
iSumatra including Enggano I., Java, Bali, N, WC and S Philippines
Zoothera aurea37 White's Thrush
aurea (Holandre, 1825)38 vE Russia and S Siberia east to Okhotsk coast, N Mongolia >> S and SE China, Taiwan, N continental SE Asia, N and C Philippines
toratugumi (Momiyama, 1940) Russian Far East, Sakhalin and S Kuril Is., Japan, Korea >> E China, Taiwan
Zoothera major   (Ogawa, 1905) Amami Thrush
vAmami-O-shima (N Ryukyu Is.)
Zoothera dauma39,40 Scaly Thrush
dauma (Latham, 1790)41 S Xizang, SW to SC China, Taiwan (ssp.?), Himalayan foothills, N continental SE Asia >> N and NE South Asia, continental SE Asia, N Thai-Malay Pen.
iriomotensis Nishiumi & Morioka, 2009 vIriomote-jima (Yaeyama Is.) [Nishiumi, 2009 #11783]
horsfieldi (Bonaparte, 1857) Mountains of Greater Sundas (except Borneo), and Lombok (Lesser Sundas)
neilgherriensis (Blyth, 1847)42 vSW India in Western Ghats
imbricata E.L. Layard, 185443 vSri Lanka
Zoothera machiki 44  (H.O. Forbes, 1884) α Fawn-breasted Thrush
iTanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Zoothera margaretae45 Solomons Thrush
turipavae Cain & I.C.J. Galbraith, 1955 Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
margaretae (Mayr, 1935) San Cristobal (SE Solomons)
Zoothera lunulata Bassian Thrush
cuneata (De Vis, 1889)46 αvNE Queensland
lunulata (Latham, 1801)47,48 αvSE Australia, Tasmania, Bass Strait Is.
halmaturina (A.G. Campbell, 1906)49 vSC South Australia, Kangaroo I.
Zoothera heinei50 Russet-tailed Thrush
papuensis (Seebohm, 1881) vLower montane N, WC, EC, NE and SE New Guinea (locally west to Foya Mts. and Maoke Mts.)
eichhorni (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1924) St. Matthias Group (Bismarck Arch.)
choiseuli (E. Hartert, 1924) Choiseul (C Solomons)
heinei (Cabanis, 1851)51,52 αE Queensland, NE New South Wales
Zoothera talaseae Black-backed Thrush/South Seas Thrush
talaseae (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1926) New Britain (Bismarck Arch.)
atrigena Ripley & Hadden, 1982 Bougainville (N Solomons) [Ripley, 1982 #3333]
†? Zoothera terrestris 53  (von Kittlitz, 1830) α Bonin Thrush
vOgasawara Is. (Japan)
IXOREUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Turdus naevius J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation   54
Ixoreus naevius Varied Thrush
meruloides (Swainson, 1832) C and S Alaska, NW Canada (Yukon) >> SW USA
naevius (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vSE Alaska south to NW California >> SW California
carlottae (A.R. Phillips, 1991)55 Queen Charlotte Is. (British Columbia) >> C California [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
godfreii (A.R. Phillips, 1991)56 Interior British Columbia south to NW USA (Idaho, Montana) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
ENTOMODESTES Stejneger, 1883 M - Ptilogonys leucotis von Tschudi, 1844; type by monotypy   57
Entomodestes coracinus   (von Berlepsch, 1897) Black Solitaire
vW slope of W Andes in Colombia to NW Ecuador
Entomodestes leucotis 58  (von Tschudi, 1844) White-eared Solitaire
vE slope of Andes in Peru and W Bolivia (La Paz)
CICHLOPSIS Cabanis, 1851 F - Cichlopsis leucogenys Cabanis, 1851; type by monotypy   59
Cichlopsis leucogenys Rufous-brown Solitaire
gularis Salvin & Godman, 1882 vSE Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam
chubbi Chapman, 1924 SW Colombia (Cauca), NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
peruviana Hellmayr, 1930 δvC Peru
leucogenys Cabanis, 1851 E Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo)
RIDGWAYIA Stejneger, 1883 F - Turdus pinicola P.L. Sclater, 1859; type by original designation   60
Ridgwayia pinicola Aztec Thrush
maternalis (A.R. Phillips, 1991)61 vNW Mexico (SW Chihuahua to S Jalisco) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
pinicola (P.L. Sclater, 1859) SW Mexico (Michoacán, Puebla, W Veracruz; C Guerrero; C Oaxaca)
HYLOCICHLA S.F. Baird, 1864 F - Turdus mustelinus J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation   62
Hylocichla mustelina   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Wood Thrush
vSE Canada (SE Ontario to Nova Scotia), E USA >> E Mexico, Central America
CATHARUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Turdus immaculatus Bonaparte, 1850; type by monotypy = Turdus aurantiirostris Hartlaub, 1850  63,64
Catharus ustulatus65 Swainson's Thrush
1 swainsoni (von Tschudi, 1845)66 C and E Canada, N USA (North Dakota to Michigan) >> W South America (south to Argentina (Jujuy))
1 appalachiensis Ramos, 1991 vNE USA (Maine, Vermont) >> Andes from Colombia to N Peru (Cajamarca) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
1 incanus (W.E. Godfrey, 1952) vC and E Alaska, W Canada >> Colombia and W Venezuela to Peru
2 ustulatus (Nuttall, 1840) vPacific coast from SE Alaska to N California >> Mexico to Panama
2 phillipsi Ramos, 1991 Queen Charlotte Is. (British Columbia) >> C Mexico [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
2 oedicus (Oberholser, 1899) vCalifornia (SW USA) >> W Mexico to Nicaragua
Catharus fuscescens67 Veery
fuscescens (Stephens, 1817) SE Canada and E USA >> Brazil
fuliginosus (R.H. Howe, Jr., 1900) vE Canada (S Québec to Newfoundland) >> Brazil
salicicola (Ridgway, 1882) SW and SC Canada, W USA >> Brazil
subpallidus (T.B. Burleigh & Duvall, 1959) vNW USA >> Brazil
Catharus minimus Gray-cheeked Thrush
minimus (Lafresnaye, 1848) vE Canada (?N Québec, Newfoundland) >> N South America east of Andes
aliciae (S.F. Baird, 1858)68 Extreme NE Siberia, Alaska, Canada >> mainly N South America east of Andes
Catharus bicknelli 69  (Ridgway, 1882) Bicknell's Thrush
iE Canada and NE USA >> Hispaniola, E Cuba,, Jamaica, Puerto Rico
Catharus guttatus70 Hermit Thrush
guttatus (Pallas, 1811)71 vS Alaska, W Canada (Yukon) >> W USA, N and C Mexico
nanus (Audubon, 1839)72 SE Alaska, W Canada (British Columbia) >> W USA, NW Mexico (Baja California)
munroi A.R. Phillips, 196273 WC Canada (Rocky Mts.) to N Montana >> WC USA and NC Mexico
faxoni (Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1921)74 EC and E Canada (Ontario to Newfoundland), E USA >> SE and SC USA, NC and EC Mexico
jewetti A.R. Phillips, 196275 Northern part of coastal W USA >> SW USA (California)
auduboni (S.F. Baird, 1864) NW USA (Rocky Mts.) >> Mexico south to Guatemala
polionotus (G.B. Grinnell, 1918) vRocky Mts. of NC USA >> W Mexico
slevini (G.B. Grinnell, 1901) Southern part of coastal W USA >> NW Mexico
sequoiensis (Belding, 1889) vMountains of SW USA; NW and N Mexico (N Baja California; Chihuahua) >> SC USA, N Mexico
Catharus occidentalis76 Russet Nightingale Thrush
1 olivascens Nelson, 1899 NW Mexico (SE Sonora and SW Oaxaca south to Nayarit)
2 lambi A.R. Phillips, 196977 W and C Mexico (S Coahuila south to Veracruz) [Phillips, 1969 #3068]
2 fulvescens Nelson, 1897 SW Mexico (Jalisco, N Michoacán, Puebla, W Veracruz; C Guerrero; C Oaxaca)
2 occidentalis P.L. Sclater, 1859 vS Mexico (Guerrero and Oaxaca)
Catharus frantzii78 Ruddy-capped Nightingale Thrush
omiltemensis Ridgway, 190579 vSW Mexico (Jalisco, S Guanajuato, N Michoacán) [Ridgway, 1905 #3280]
nelsoni A.R. Phillips, 196980 SC Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca) [Phillips, 1969 #3068]
chiapensis A.R. Phillips, 196981 vS Mexico (NE Chiapas) to NW Guatemala [Phillips, 1969 #3068]
alticola Salvin & Godman, 1879 S Mexico (SE Chiapas) to S Guatemala
juancitonis Stone, 193182 Honduras [Stone, 1931 #3743]
waldroni A.R. Phillips, 196983 N Nicaragua [Phillips, 1969 #3068]
frantzii Cabanis, 1861 Costa Rica
wetmorei A.R. Phillips, 196984 W Panama [Phillips, 1969 #3068]
Catharus gracilirostris Black-billed Nightingale Thrush
gracilirostris Salvin, 1865 vMountains of Costa Rica (Cordillera Central and Cordillera de Talamanca)
accentor Bangs, 1902 Mountains of W Panama (Chiriquí)
bensoni Griscom, 192485 W Panama (E Chiriquí) [Griscom, 1924 #14529]
Catharus aurantiirostris Orange-billed Nightingale Thrush
clarus Jouy, 189486 vS Tamaulipas and E San Luis Potosí (NC Mexico)
melpomene (Cabanis, 1851)87,88 αC and S Mexico (from Nayarit to Chiapas)
griseiceps Salvin, 186689 Panama (Veraguas and Coclé)
phaeopleurus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 187690,91 ΘvW Colombia (middle Cauca valley to W Nariño)
aurantiirostris (Hartlaub, 1850) vNE Colombia (Sierra de Perijá ?, Norte de Santander), W and N Venezuela (Andes, Falcón, Coastal Range)
birchalli Seebohm, 1881 Mountains of NE Venezuela (NE Anzoátegui, Sucre, N Monagas); Trinidad
barbaritoi Aveledo & Ginés, 1952 NW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá, Zulia)
sierrae Hellmayr, 191992 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.) [Hellmayr, 1919 #1944]
inornatus J.T. Zimmer, 1944 vNC Colombia (W slope of E Andes, Santander)
insignis J.T. Zimmer, 1944 vSC Colombia (E slope of E Andes, S Boyacá; upper Magdalena valley, Huila)
Catharus mexicanus Black-headed Nightingale Thrush
mexicanus (Bonaparte, 1856)93 vEC Mexico (S Tamaulipas to N Oaxaca; C Veracruz)
cantator Griscom, 1930 S Mexico (E Oaxaca and Chiapas); E Guatemala
yaegeri A.R. Phillips, 199194 Honduras [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
carrikeri A.R. Phillips, 199195 Costa Rica and W Panama [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
Catharus dryas Spotted Nightingale Thrush
harrisoni Phillips & Rook, 196596 S Mexico (Oaxaca) [Phillips, 1965 #3063]
ovandensis Brodkorb, 1938 vS Mexico (Chiapas)
dryas (Gould, 1855) E Guatemala, W El Salvador, Honduras
maculatus (P.L. Sclater, 1858)97 vE Colombia, W Venezuela, E Ecuador, E Peru, Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, Sucre)
blakei Olrog, 197398 S Bolivia south to N Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán) [Olrog, 1973 #2829]
Catharus fuscater99 Slaty-backed Nightingale Thrush
1 hellmayri von Berlepsch, 1902 Costa Rica and W Panama
2 mirabilis Nelson, 1912 vE Panama (Cerro Pirre area, SC Darién)
2 sanctaemartae Ridgway, 1904 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
2 fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845) vE Panama (Cerro Tacarcuna); NC Colombia (Sierra de Perijá, ? C and E Andes), Ecuador, NW Venezuela
2 opertaneus Wetmore, 1955 vNW Colombia (N end of W Andes)
2 caniceps Chapman, 1924 W slope of Andes of SW Ecuador and W Peru
2 mentalis P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876 vE slope of Andes in SE Peru and W and C Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz)
CHLAMYDOCHAERA Sharpe, 1887 F - Chlamydochaera jefferyi Sharpe, 1887; type by monotypy   100
Chlamydochaera jefferyi   Sharpe, 1887 Fruithunter
iMountains of Borneo
COCHOA Hodgson, 1836 F - Cochoa purpurea Hodgson, 1836; type by original designation   101
Cochoa purpurea   Hodgson, 1836 Purple Cochoa
vWC and SW China in S Sichuan and Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from Uttarakhand, NE India, N continental SE Asia
Cochoa viridis   Hodgson, 1836 Green Cochoa
vSW and SE China (SW Yunnan, ? Fujian), Himalayan foothills (east from W Bengal), NE India, W, N and EC continental SE Asia (except N Myanmar)
Cochoa azurea   (Temminck, 1824) Javan Cochoa
vMountains of W and C Java
Cochoa beccarii 102  Salvadori, 1879 Sumatran Cochoa
iMountains of Sumatra
GEOKICHLA S. Müller, 1835 F - Turdus citrinus Latham, 1790; type by original designation103,104
Geokichla sibirica Siberian Thrush
sibirica (Pallas, 1776) vC to E Siberia, Russian Far East, N Korea, N Mongolia, far-NE China in N Heilongjiang >> E continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen.
davisoni (Hume, 1877) Sakhalin and S Kuril Is. to N and C Japan >> Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, W Java
Geokichla wardii 105  (Blyth, 1843) α Pied Thrush
Himalayan foothills from W Himachal Pradesh to C Nepal >> S India ?, Sri Lanka
Geokichla guttata Spotted Thrush
maxis (Nikolaus, 1982) S South Sudan (Imatong Mts.) [Nikolaus, 1982 #2774]
fischeri (Hellmayr, 1901) Coastal Kenya and Tanzania
belcheri (Benson, 1950)106 S Malawi
lippensi (Prigogine & Louette, 1984) SE DR Congo (Upemba) [Prigogine, 1984 #3149]
guttata (Vigors, 1831)107 vCoastal SE South Africa
Geokichla spiloptera   (Blyth, 1847) Spot-winged Thrush
Sri Lanka
Geokichla citrina Orange-headed Thrush
citrina (Latham, 1790) vHimalayan foothills, NE India, W Myanmar >> S India, Sri Lanka
cyanota (Jardine & Selby, 1828) vC and S India
innotata (Blyth, 1846)108,109 δvS Yunnan, continental SE Asia except NW, SW and NE >> Thai-Malay Pen.
melli (Stresemann, 1923) S China
courtoisi (E. Hartert, 1919) EC China in Anhui
aurimacula (E. Hartert, 1910) Hainan, NE and EC continental SE Asia
andamanensis (Walden, 1874) vAndamans
albogularis (Blyth, 1847) vNicobars
aurata (Sharpe, 1888) vMountains of NW Borneo
rubecula (Gould, 1836)110 Java, Bali
Geokichla cinerea   (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) Ashy Thrush
vN and C Luzon, N Mindoro (Philippines)
Geokichla erythronota Red-backed Thrush
erythronota (P.L. Sclater, 1859) vSulawesi
kabaena (Robinson-Dean et al. , 2002) Kabaena I. (off Sulawesi) [Robinson-Dean, 2002 #3367]
mendeni (Neumann, 1939)111 Peleng (Banggai Is.)
Geokichla schistacea   (A.B. Meyer, 1884) Slaty-backed Thrush
vTanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Geokichla peronii Orange-sided Thrush
peronii (Vieillot, 1818) W Timor, ? Roti (Lesser Sundas)
audacis (E. Hartert, 1899) Wetar and E Timor to Damar and Babar (Lesser Sundas)
Geokichla dohertyi 112  (E. Hartert, 1896) Chestnut-backed Thrush
Lesser Sundas east to Timor
Geokichla interpres Chestnut-capped Thrush
interpres (Temminck, 1828)113 Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Sulu Arch., Lesser Sundas east to Flores
leucolaema (Salvadori, 1892)114 vEnggano I. (SW Sumatra)
Geokichla dumasi Moluccan Thrush
dumasi (Rothschild, 1899)115 αBuru (S Moluccas)
joiceyi (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1921)116 Seram (S Moluccas)
Geokichla gurneyi Orange Thrush
chuka (van Someren, 1931) αC Kenya
raineyi (Mearns, 1913)117,118 SE Kenya
otomitra (Reichenow, 1904) Tanzania and N Malawi to SE DR Congo, W Angola
gurneyi (Hartlaub, 1864) SE South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, E Eastern Cape)
disruptans (Clancey, 1955) C Malawi to Mozambique, E Zimbabwe, NE South Africa
Geokichla oberlaenderi   (Sassi, 1914) Oberländer's Thrush
NE DR Congo, SW Uganda
Geokichla crossleyi Crossley's Thrush
crossleyi (Sharpe, 1871) SE Nigeria, Cameroon, S PR Congo
pilettei (Schouteden, 1918) E DR Congo
Geokichla piaggiae119 Abyssinian Thrush
piaggiae (Bouvier, 1877)120 Ethiopia to E DR Congo and N and W Kenya
hadii J.D. Macdonald, 1940 SE South Sudan
ruwenzorii (Prigogine, 1985) Rwenzori Mts. (NE DR Congo/W Uganda) [Prigogine, 1985 #3151]
kilimensis (Neumann, 1900) vN and C Kenya, N Tanzania (Mt. Kilimanjaro)
tanganjicae (Sassi, 1914)121 E DR Congo, Rwanda, N Burundi, SW Uganda
rowei C.H.B. Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1937 S Kenya (Nguruman Hills), N Tanzania (Arusha)
Geokichla camaronensis122 Black-eared Thrush
camaronensis (Sharpe, 1905)123 δvCameroon, Gabon
graueri (Sassi, 1914)124,125 NE DR Congo, W Uganda (Budongo and Bugoma Forests)
kibalensis (Prigogine, 1978) vW Uganda (Kibale Forest) [Prigogine, 1978 #3143]
Geokichla princei Grey Thrush
princei (Sharpe, 1874)126 αSierra Leone and Liberia to Ghana
batesi (Sharpe, 1905) S Nigeria to Gabon; NE DR Congo to W Uganda
OTOCICHLA Wolters, 1980 F - Turdus auritus Verreaux, 1871; type by original designation = Turdus mupinensis Laubmann, 1920
Otocichla mupinensis   (Laubmann, 1920) Chinese Thrush
vWC to NC and NE China from N Yunnan, Sichuan and Gansu to Hebei
PSOPHOCICHLA Cabanis, 1860 F - Merula (Turdus) simensis Rüppell, 1837; Type by subsequent designation (Seebohm, 1881, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 5, p. 147).
Psophocichla litsitsirupa Groundscraper Thrush
simensis (Rüppell, 1837)127 αvEritrea and Ethiopia
litsitsirupa (A. Smith, 1836)128 δS Zambia to E Botswana, N and E South Africa
pauciguttata (Clancey, 1956) δvW and C Botswana, N and C Namibia, S Angola
stierlingi (Reichenow, 1900) C and E Angola to SW Tanzania
TURDUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Turdus viscivorus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 27).   129,130
Turdus viscivorus Mistle Thrush
deichleri von Erlanger, 1897131 NW Africa, Corsica, Sardinia
viscivorus Linnaeus, 1758 vEurope to W Siberia and N Iran >> N Africa to SW Asia
bonapartei Cabanis, 1860 C Siberia east from R. Ob' and south to Altai, NE Iran, Afghanistan and C Asia to Tien Shan, far-NW China in W Xinjiang, N Pakistan, Himalayas east to Uttarakhand
Turdus philomelos Song Thrush
hebridensis W.E. Clarke, 1913 vOuter Hebrides, Isle of Skye >> British Isles
clarkei E. Hartert, 1909 British Isles, W Europe >> SW Europe, NW Africa
philomelos C.L. Brehm, 1831 Europe (except W), N Turkey, Caucasus area, N Iran >> W and S Europe, N and NE Africa, SW Asia132
nataliae Buturlin, 1929 W and C Siberia >> NE Africa, SW Asia
Turdus abyssinicus133 Ethiopian Thrush
abyssinicus J.F. Gmelin, 1789134 vEthiopia to N Uganda, N, W and C Kenya and N Tanzania (Loliondo)
deckeni Cabanis, 1868 N Tanzania (Mt. Kilimanjaro to Monduli)
oldeani W.L. Sclater & Moreau, 1935 N Tanzania (Mbulu and Crater Highlands)
bambusicola Neumann, 1908 E DR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, SW Uganda, NW Tanzania
baraka (Sharpe, 1903) E DR Congo (Virunga Park), Rwenzori Mts.
nyikae Reichenow, 1904 E and S Tanzania, N Malawi, NE Zambia
Turdus helleri 135  (Mearns, 1913) Taita Thrush
SE Kenya (Taita Hills)
Turdus roehli 136  Reichenow, 1905 Usambara Thrush
NE Tanzania
Turdus iliacus Redwing
coburni Sharpe, 1901 Iceland, Faroe Is. >> W Europe
iliacus Linnaeus, 1758137 vN and E Europe, N Siberia to lower R. Kolyma and Altai >> W and S Europe, N Africa, SW Asia
Turdus plebejus138 Mountain Thrush
differens (Nelson, 1901) SE Mexico (SE Chiapas), Guatemala
rafaelensis W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925 vHonduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, NW Costa Rica
plebejus Cabanis, 1861 Costa Rica, W Panama (Chiriquí)
Turdus merula139 Eurasian Blackbird
merula Linnaeus, 1758 Europe, W and N Turkey, Caucasus, N Iran >> south to Middle East140
azorensis E. Hartert, 1905 vAzores
cabrerae E. Hartert, 1901 Madeira and W Canary Is.
mauritanicus E. Hartert, 1902 vNW Africa, coastal S Iberia, E Canary Is.
aterrimus (von Madarász, 1903) vSE Europe, W and N Turkey, Caucasus area, N Iran >> Middle East
syriacus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833141 vCrete, S Turkey, Levant and Egypt to Iran (except N)
intermedius (Richmond, 1896) vN Afghanistan and C Asia east to Tien Shan >> Iraq to W Pakistan
Turdus leucomelas Pale-breasted Thrush
leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 NC and SE Peru; S and E Brazil, W and SE Bolivia, E Paraguay, NE Argentina
albiventer von Spix, 1824 N Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and NE Brazil (lower R. Amazon)
cautor Wetmore, 1946 N Colombia (Guajira Pen.)
Turdus fumigatus Cocoa Thrush
1 aquilonalis (Cherrie, 1909) vNE Colombia, N Venezuela, Trinidad
1 orinocensis J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1955 vE Colombia, W Venezuela
1 fumigatus M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 vThe Guianas, N and E Brazil (Amapá and Maranhão to Mato Grosso and Goiás: Alagoas to Rio de Janeiro)
2 bondi Deignan, 1951 St. Vincent (Lesser Antilles)
2 personus (Barbour, 1911) vGrenada (Lesser Antilles)
Turdus hauxwelli 142  Lawrence, 1869 Hauxwell's Thrush
iUpper Amazonia in ?SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, NW Brazil (Amazonas, ?Rondônia) and N Bolivia
Turdus flavipes143 Yellow-legged Thrush
venezuelensis (Sharpe, 1900)144 αvNE Colombia, W Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá, Norte de Santander, Mérida) and mountains of N Venezuela
melanopleura (Sharpe, 1900)145 Mountains of NE Venezuela and Trinidad
xanthoscelus Jardine, 1847 vTobago
polionotus (Sharpe, 1900)146 αvSE Venezuela, W Guyana, N Brazil (Roraima)
flavipes Vieillot, 1818 SE Brazil (Bahia south to Santa Catarina), SE Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Turdus lawrencii   Coues, 1880 Lawrence's Thrush
iE Venezuela (Bolívar), W Guyana; SE Colombia to N Bolivia, W Brazil (south to N Mato Grosso)
Turdus obsoletus147 Pale-vented Thrush
obsoletus Lawrence, 1862 vCosta Rica, Panama, NW Colombia (Chocó)
parambanus E. Hartert, 1920 vW Colombia (Valle to Nariño) and W Ecuador
colombianus E. Hartert & Hellmayr, 1901 vC Colombia (Cundinamarca, Tolima)
Turdus albicollis148,149 White-necked Thrush
1 phaeopygoides Seebohm, 1881150 NE Colombia (Santa Marta, E slope of E Andes in Boyacá), N Venezuela (from Zulia to Sucre), Trinidad
1 phaeopygus Cabanis, 1849151 vE Colombia to the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon to Maranhão, south of Amazon on R. Tapajós)
1 spodiolaemus von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896152 vE Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia (Beni) and W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Purus)
1 contemptus Hellmayr, 1902 vE Andean foothills of extreme SE Peru (E Puno) and Bolivia to NW Argentina (Salta)
2 crotopezus M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 vE Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Alagoas)
3 albicollis Vieillot, 1818 vSE Brazil (Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul), N Uruguay
4 paraguayensis (C. Chubb, 1910) vSW Brazil (Mato Grosso), E Paraguay and N Argentina (Misiones)
Turdus assimilis153,154 White-throated Thrush
1 calliphthongus R.T. Moore, 1937 vNW Mexico (SE Sonora, NE Sinaloa, SW Chihuahua)
1 lygrus Oberholser, 1921155 vC and S Mexico (S Sinaloa and S Chihuahua south to SW Chiapas)
1 suttoni A.R. Phillips, 1991156 SW Tamaulipas, NE San Luis Potosí (E Mexico) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
1 assimilis Cabanis, 1851157 αvC Mexico (Hidalgo to N Oaxaca and W Veracruz)
1 leucauchen P.L. Sclater, 1859158,159 αS Mexico on Caribbean slope to Costa Rica
1 hondurensis A.R. Phillips, 1991160 vC Honduras (Lake Yojoa area) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
1 benti A.R. Phillips, 1991161 SW El Salvador [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
1 rubicundus (Dearborn, 1907) vPacific slope of S Mexico (Chiapas), W Guatemala and El Salvador
1 atrotinctus W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925 vCaribbean highlands of E Honduras and N Nicaragua
1 cnephosus (Bangs, 1902) vSW Costa Rica, W Panama (Chiriquí, Veraguas)
1 campanicola A.R. Phillips, 1991162 C Panama (Cerro Campana) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
1 croizati A.R. Phillips, 1991163 SC Panama (Azuero Pen.) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
1 coibensis Eisenmann, 1950 vIsla de Coiba (off SW Panama)
2 daguae von Berlepsch, 1897164 E Panama (E Darién), W Colombia, W Ecuador
Turdus rufiventris Rufous-bellied Thrush
juensis (Cory, 1916) vNE Brazil (Maranhão and Ceará to Bahia)
rufiventris Vieillot, 1818 vE Bolivia, S Brazil (Mato Grosso to Bahia south to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, Paraguay, N Argentina
Turdus maculirostris 165,166  von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884 α Ecuadorean Thrush
vSW Colombia, W Ecuador, NW Peru
Turdus grayi Clay-colored Thrush
tamaulipensis (Nelson, 1897)167 αvS USA (S Texas), E Mexico (E Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, N Veracruz)
microrhynchus Lowery & R.J. Newman, 1949 vC Mexico (SC San Luis Potosí)
lanyoni Dickerman, 1981168 Caribbean drainage of S Mexico, N Guatemala and S Belize [Dickerman, 1981 #1332]
yucatanensis A.R. Phillips, 1991169 vSE Mexico (N Yucatan Pen.), N Belize [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
linnaei A.R. Phillips, 1966170 S Mexico (Pacific Oaxaca and lowland S Chiapas) east to Guatemala border [Phillips, 1966 #3067]
grayi Bonaparte, 1838171 S Mexico (Pacific slope of Chiapas) to W Guatemala
megas W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925172 Pacific slope of W Guatemala to Honduras, Nicaragua
casius (Bonaparte, 1855) Costa Rica to NW Colombia (east to Santa Marta)
incomptus (Bangs, 1898) vCoastal N Colombia
Turdus haplochrous   Todd, 1931 Unicolored Thrush
vN Bolivia (SE Beni, W Santa Cruz)
Turdus sanchezorum 173  O'Neill, Lane, & Naka, 2011 Varzea Thrush
iAmazonia in NE and EC Peru, SE Colombia (Amazonas) and NW Brazil (Amazonas) [O'Neill, 2011 #13255]
Turdus nudigenis Spectacled Thrush
nudigenis Lafresnaye, 1848 vLesser Antilles, Trinidad, Tobago, and from Venezuela to the Guianas
extimus Todd, 1931 vN Brazil (Santarém)
Turdus mandarinus174 Eastern Blackbird
sowerbyi Deignan, 1951 WC to NC China from W Sichuan to S Gansu
mandarinus Bonaparte, 1850175 vWC and SC to E China
Turdus ludoviciae 176  (Lort Phillips, 1895) Somali Thrush
N Somalia
Turdus tephronotus   Cabanis, 1878 Bare-eyed Thrush
vS Ethiopia, S Somalia, C and E Kenya, NE Tanzania
Turdus bewsheri Comoro Thrush
comorensis A. Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885 vGrande Comore (Comoros)
moheliensis Benson, 1960 vMohéli (Comoros)
bewsheri E. Newton, 1877 Anjouan (Comoros)
Turdus libonyana Kurrichane Thrush
tropicalis W. Peters, 1881 vTanzania to C and E Zambia, Malawi, E Zimbabwe and Mozambique
verreauxii Bocage, 1869177,178,179 δSC DR Congo, Angola, Namibia, W Zambia, W Zimbabwe, N Botswana
libonyana (A. Smith, 1836)180 δE Botswana, NE South Africa, C Zimbabwe, W Swaziland
peripheris Clancey, 1952 vE South Africa, SE Swaziland, S Mozambique
Turdus menachensis   Ogilvie-Grant, 1913 Yemen Thrush
vSW Saudi Arabia, W Yemen
Turdus olivaceus181 Olive Thrush
milanjensis Shelley, 1893 vS Malawi, NW Mozambique
swynnertoni Bannerman, 1913 E Zimbabwe and W Mozambique
transvaalensis (Roberts, 1936) vNE South Africa, W Swaziland
culminans Clancey, 1982 E South Africa (W KwaZulu-Natal) [Clancey, 1982 #916]
olivaceus Linnaeus, 1766 vSW and S South Africa
pondoensis Reichenow, 1917 vSE South Africa (E Eastern Cape to E KwaZulu-Natal)
Turdus smithi 182,183  Bonaparte, 1850 Smith's Thrush/Karoo Thrush
W and C South Africa to S Namibia, SE Botswana
Turdus lherminieri184 Forest Thrush
lherminieri Lafresnaye, 1844 Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)
dorotheae (Wolters, 1980)185 Montserrat (Lesser Antilles) [Wolters, 1980 #4264]
dominicensis (Lawrence, 1880) vDominica (Lesser Antilles)
sanctaeluciae (P.L. Sclater, 1880)186 δSt. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
Turdus leucops 187  Taczanowski, 1877 Pale-eyed Thrush
Venezuela (Maracaibo, Mérida), Brazil (Roraima, N Amazonas) and Andes from Colombia south to Bolivia
Turdus jamaicensis   J.F. Gmelin, 1789 White-eyed Thrush
vJamaica
Turdus swalesi La Selle Thrush
dodae G.R. Graves & Olson, 1986188 C Dominican Republic [Graves, 1986 #1776]
swalesi (Wetmore, 1927) S Haiti, SW Dominican Republic
Turdus infuscatus 189  (Lafresnaye, 1844) Black Thrush
vMountains of C and S Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, C Honduras
Turdus nigrescens 190  Cabanis, 1861 α Sooty Thrush
iCosta Rica, W Panama (Volcán de Chiriquí)
Turdus migratorius191 American Robin
1 migratorius Linnaeus, 1766 vAlaska, Canada, C USA (south to Kansas, Pennsylvania) >> E USA, E Mexico
1 nigrideus Aldrich & Nutt, 1939 vE Canada (Newfoundland, Labrador) >> E USA
1 achrusterus (Batchelder, 1900) vSE USA (Oklahoma E to Virginia, south to Texas, Florida) >> SE Mexico
1 caurinus (G.B. Grinnell, 1909) vSE Alaska, W Canada (coastal British Columbia) >> SW USA (W California)
1 propinquus Ridgway, 1877192 vW Canada (east to SW Saskatchewan), W USA, C Mexico (S to Oaxaca) >> Guatemala
1 phillipsi Bangs, 1915193 SW Mexico (Jalisco, S Hidalgo to S Oaxaca)
2 confinis S.F. Baird, 1864 vW Mexico (Sierra Victoria, Cape San Lucas area, S Baja California)
Turdus rufitorques   Hartlaub, 1844 Rufous-collared Thrush
iSE Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador, SW Honduras
Turdus rufopalliatus194 Rufous-backed Thrush
rufopalliatus Lafresnaye, 1840 δvW Mexico (Sonora to Puebla)
interior A.R. Phillips, 1991195 vSC Mexico [Phillips, 1991 #3072]
graysoni (Ridgway, 1882)196 Islas Marías (off W Mexico)
Turdus falcklandii Austral Thrush
falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 Falkland Is.
magellanicus P.P. King, 1831197 vC and S Chile (including Juan Fernández Arch.) and S Argentina
Turdus reevei 198  Lawrence, 1869 α Plumbeous-backed Thrush
iW Ecuador (Guayaquil, W Loja), NW Peru (Piura)
Turdus fulviventris 199  P.L. Sclater, 1858 α Chestnut-bellied Thrush
vNE Colombia, (Sierra de Perijá), Andes of W Venezuela; E Andes of Colombia to E Ecuador, NW Peru
Turdus olivater200 Black-hooded Thrush
sanctaemartae (Todd, 1913) Santa Marta (N Colombia)
olivater (Lafresnaye, 1848) vE Colombia (Norte de Santander), mountains of N and W Venezuela (from Lara to Miranda)
paraquensis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1946 vS Venezuela (Cerro Paraque)
kemptoni W.H. Phelps & W,H, Phelps, Jr., 1955 S Venezuela (Serranía de la Neblina)
duidae Chapman, 1929 S Venezuela (Cerro Duida)
roraimae Salvin & Godman, 1884201 SE Venezuela (Bolívar), W Guyana
caucae (Chapman, 1914) C Andes of Colombia
Turdus chiguanco202 Chiguanco Thrush
1 chiguanco d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 Coastal Peru, NW Bolivia (N La Paz)
1 conradi Salvadori & Festa, 1899 Andes of S Ecuador to C Peru
2 anthracinus Burmeister, 1858 vS Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba), NE Chile (Atacama), W Argentina (Mendoza, San Luis, Córdoba)
Turdus fuscater Great Thrush
cacozelus (Bangs, 1898) vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
clarus W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953 vNE Colombia, W Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá)
quindio Chapman, 1925 C and W Andes of Colombia, N Ecuador
gigas Fraser, 1841 E Andes of Colombia, W Venezuela (Lara, Trujillo, Mérida, Táchira)
gigantodes Cabanis, 1873 S Ecuador to C Peru (S to Junín)
ockendeni Hellmayr, 1906203 SE Peru (Cuzco, Puno)
fuscater d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 vW Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
Turdus nigriceps Slaty Thrush
nigriceps Cabanis, 1874 Andes of SW Ecuador (Loja) and NW Peru (Piura); C Bolivia to C Argentina >> S Ecuador to Bolivia
subalaris (Seebohm, 1887)204 vSE Brazil (Goiás to Paraná), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones) >> north to SC Brazil
Turdus serranus Glossy-black Thrush
cumanensis (Hellmayr, 1919) vNE Venezuela (Anzoátegui, Sucre, Monagas)
atrosericeus (Lafresnaye, 1848) vNE Colombia, N Venezuela (Mérida and Táchira to Caracas)
fuscobrunneus (Chapman, 1912) vMountains of C and S Colombia, Ecuador
serranus von Tschudi, 1844 vW slope of Andes of Peru, W Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba), NW Argentina (Jujuy)
continoi Fraga & Dickinson, 2008205 NW Argentina (Jujuy) [Fraga, 2008 #10394]
Turdus eremita206 Tristan da Cunha Thrush
eremita (Gould, 1855) Tristan da Cunha I.
gordoni (Stenhouse, 1924) Inaccessible I.
procax (Elliott, 1954) Nightingale I.
Turdus amaurochalinus 207  Cabanis, 1851 α Creamy-bellied Thrush
vS and E Bolivia, S Brazil south to C and E Argentina (south to Río Negro) >> SE Peru, C, E and NE Brazil
Turdus ignobilis Black-billed Thrush
goodfellowi E. Hartert & Hellmayr, 1901 W Colombia (Cauca valley and W slope of W Andes)
ignobilis P.L. Sclater, 1858208 αvE and C Colombia (slopes of E and C Andes)
debilis Hellmayr, 1902 vE Andes of Colombia, SW Venezuela, E Ecuador, E Peru, Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Tapajós), N Bolivia
murinus Salvin, 1885 vS Venezuela (Cerro Duida in Bolívar), Guyana (Mt. Roraima)
arthuri (C. Chubb, 1914) Tepuis of SE Venezuela, the Guianas
cururuensis Novaes, 1963209 vEC Amazonian Brazil (R. Cururu and Serra do Cachimbo) [Novaes, 1963 #14532]
Turdus maranonicus   Taczanowski, 1880 Marañon Thrush
vNW Peru (upper Marañón valley from Piura to La Libertad)
Turdus xanthorhynchus 210  Salvadori, 1901 Principe Thrush
vPríncipe
Turdus olivaceofuscus   Hartlaub, 1852 São Tomé Thrush
vSão Tomé
Turdus aurantius   J.F. Gmelin, 1789 White-chinned Thrush
vJamaica
†? Turdus ravidus   (Cory, 1886) Grand Cayman Thrush
vGrand Cayman (Cayman Is.)
Turdus plumbeus211,212 Red-legged Thrush
1 plumbeus Linnaeus, 1758 vN Bahamas
1 schistaceus (S.F. Baird, 1864) vE Cuba
1 rubripes Temminck, 1826 W and C Cuba, Isla de la Juventud
1 coryi (Sharpe, 1902) Cayman Brac (Cayman Is.)
2 ardosiaceus Vieillot, 1822213 αvHispaniola, Ile de la Tortue, Ile de la Gonâve, Puerto Rico
2 albiventris (P.L. Sclater, 1889) vDominica (Lesser Antilles)
Turdus pelios African Thrush
chiguancoides Seebohm, 1881 Senegal to N Ghana
saturatus (Cabanis, 1882) vW Ghana to C Cameroon, W PR Congo and Gabon
nigrilorum Reichenow, 1892 SW Cameroon (Mont Cameroun)
poensis Alexander, 1903 vBioko
pelios Bonaparte, 1850214 E Cameroon to S and E Sudan, W Eritrea and W, C and E Ethiopia
bocagei (Cabanis, 1882) W DR Congo, W and NW Angola
centralis Reichenow, 1905 vE PR Congo and S Central African Republic to South Sudan, S Ethiopia, W Kenya and NW Tanzania
graueri Neumann, 1908 W Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, E DR Congo
stormsi Hartlaub, 1886215 SE DR Congo, E Angola, N Zambia
Turdus niveiceps 216  (Hellmayr, 1919) Taiwan Thrush
Mountains of Taiwan
Turdus boulboul   (Latham, 1790) Grey-winged Blackbird
iWC (from W Sichuan) to S China, Himalayan foothills, NE continental SE Asia >> NE India, S Myanmar, NW Thailand
Turdus simillimus217 Indian Blackbird
nigropileus (Lafresnaye, 1840)218 W and C India
simillimus Jerdon, 1839 vSW India in S Karnataka, NW Tamil Nadu and N Kerala
bourdilloni (Seebohm, 1881) SW India in S Kerala and SW Tamil Nadu
kinnisii (Blyth, 1851)219 Sri Lanka
Turdus cardis 220  Temminck, 1831 Japanese Thrush
iJapan, Korea, E China >> E and S China, NE and EC continental SE Asia
Turdus hortulorum 221  P.L. Sclater, 1863 Grey-backed Thrush
iExtreme SE Siberia, Russian Far East, Korea, extreme NE China >> SE China. NE continental SE Asia
Turdus dissimilis   Blyth, 1847 Black-breasted Thrush
vSW China in Yunnan, far-NE India from Arunachal Pradesh to Nagaland and Manipur, Myanmar (except S and SE) >> N continental SE Asia
Turdus unicolor   Tickell, 1833 Tickell's Thrush
iHimalayan foothills east to Bhutan >> C Pakistan, N and C India, Bangladesh
Turdus obscurus   J.F. Gmelin, 1789 Eyebrowed Thrush
vC and SE Siberia east to Kamchatka, NE Mongolia >> S China, Himalayas east from C Nepal, NE India, mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas, Philippines, N Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas east to Flores
Turdus feae   (Salvadori, 1887) Grey-sided Thrush
iNE China in W and N Hebei >> NE India, W, E and SE Myanmar to N Tenasserim, NW Thailand, N Laos
Turdus celaenops   Stejneger, 1887 Izu Islands Thrush
iIzu Is. and satellites of S Kyushu (Japan)
Turdus chrysolaus Brown-headed Thrush
orii Yamashina, 1929 Sakhalin, Kuril Is. >> Japan, Ryukyu Is.
chrysolaus Temminck, 1832222 N and C Japan >> S Japan, SE China, Taiwan, N Philippines
Turdus pallidus   J.F. Gmelin, 1789 Pale Thrush
vC and SE Siberia from Yenisey east to S Kamchatka, Russian Far East, N Korea, far-NE China >> S Japan, S Korea, E China, Taiwan
Turdus poliocephalus Island Thrush
thomassoni (Seebohm, 1894) Mountains of N Luzon (Philippines)
mayonensis (Mearns, 1907) vMountains of S Luzon (Philippines)
mindorensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 vMountains of Mindoro (Philippines)
nigrorum Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 Mountains of Negros (Philippines)
malindangensis (Mearns, 1907) vNW Mindanao on Mt. Malindang (Philippines)
katanglad Salomonsen, 1953 NC Mindanao on Mt. Kitanglad (Philippines)
kelleri (Mearns, 1905) SC Mindanao on Mt. Apo (Philippines)
seebohmi (Sharpe, 1888) Mountains of NW Borneo
erythropleurus Sharpe, 1887 vChristmas I. (Indian Ocean)
loeseri Meyer de Schauensee, 1939 Mountains of N Sumatra
indrapurae Robinson & Kloss, 1916 Mountains of SC Sumatra
fumidus S. Müller, 1844223,224 αvMountains of W Java
javanicus Horsfield, 1821 vMountains of C Java
stresemanni M. Bartels Jr., 1938 EC Java on Mount Lawu
whiteheadi (Seebohm, 1893) Mountains of E Java
celebensis (Büttikofer, 1893) vMountains of SW Sulawesi
hygroscopus Stresemann, 1931 vMountains of SC Sulawesi
schlegelii P.L. Sclater, 1861 Mountains of W Timor (Lesser Sundas)
sterlingi Mayr, 1944 Mountains of E Timor (Lesser Sundas)
deningeri Stresemann, 1912 Mountains of Seram (S Moluccas)
versteegi Junge, 1939 Alpine WC New Guinea (Maoke Mts.)
erebus Mayr & Gilliard, 1952225 Alpine EC New Guinea (Central Highlands)
keysseri Mayr, 1931 Alpine NE New Guinea (Mts. of Huon Pen.)
papuensis (De Vis, 1890) vAlpine SE New Guinea (Wharton and Owen Stanley Ranges)
canescens (De Vis, 1894) Goodenough I. (D'Entrecasteaux Arch.)
tolokiwae Diamond, 1989 Tolokiwa, New Britain (subsp.?) (Bismarck Arch.) [Diamond, 1989 #1322]
heinrothi Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1924 St. Matthias Group (Bismarck Arch.)
beehleri Ripley, 1977 New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.) [Ripley, 1977 #3327]
bougainvillei Mayr, 1941 Bougainville (N Solomons)
kulambangrae Mayr, 1941 Kolombangara (New Georgia Is., C Solomons)
sladeni Cain & I.C.J. Galbraith, 1955 Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
rennellianus Mayr, 1931 vRennell (S Solomons)
vanikorensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1830 vUtupua, Vanikoro (Santa Cruz Is.); Espíritu Santo, Malo (Vanuatu)
placens Mayr, 1941 Uréparapara, Vanua Lava (Banks Is., Vanuatu)
whitneyi Mayr, 1941 Gaua, ? Mere Lava (Banks Is., Vanuatu)
malekulae Mayr, 1941 Malakula, Pentecost, Ambrym, ?Maewo, ? Ambae (Vanuatu)
becki Mayr, 1941 Paama, Lopévi, Epi, Emaé (Vanuatu)
efatensis Mayr, 1941 vEfaté, Nguna (Vanuatu)
albifrons (E.P. Ramsay, 1879) Erromango (Vanuatu)
pritzbueri E.L. Layard, 1878 Tanna (Vanuatu); Lifou (Loyalty Is.)
†? mareensis E.L. Layard & Tristram, 1879 vMaré (Loyalty Is.)
xanthopus J.R. Forster, 1844 Yandé, New Caledonia
†? vinitinctus (Gould, 1855) vLord Howe I.
†? poliocephalus Latham, 1801226 vNorfolk I.227
layardi (Seebohm, 1891)228 αYasawa, Viti Levu, Ovalau, Koro (Fiji)
vitiensis (E.L. Layard, 1876) vVanua Levu (Fiji)
hades Mayr, 1941 Gau (Fiji)
tempesti E.L. Layard, 1876 Taveuni (Fiji)
ruficeps (E.P. Ramsay, 1875)229 αKadavu, Ono (Fiji)
samoensis Tristram, 1879 vSavai'i, Upolu (Samoa)
Turdus kessleri   (Przevalski, 1876) Kessler's Thrush
iWC and NC China from N Yunnan to E Qinghai and Gansu >> SE Xizang
Turdus maximus 230,231  (Seebohm, 1881) Tibetan Blackbird
vHimalayas east to Uttarakhand
Turdus pilaris   Linnaeus, 1758 Fieldfare
vN and C Europe, W and C Siberia to Aldan basin and Transbaikalia, N Asia >> W and S Europe, SW Asia
Turdus albocinctus 232  Royle, 1840 α White-collared Blackbird
vSE Xizang, WC China in SW Sichuan, Himalayan foothills east from W Himachal Pradesh, NE India
Turdus rubrocanus Chestnut Thrush
rubrocanus J.E. & G.R. Gray, 1847233,234 αvE Afghanistan, Himalayas east to Uttarakhand >> Nepal, N and NE India, W Myanmar
gouldii (J. Verreaux, 1871)235 δE Xizang, WC to NC China from N Yunnan to E Qinghai east to W Hubei >> N continental SE Asia
Turdus torquatus Ring Ouzel
torquatus Linnaeus, 1758 vN Europe, British Isles, W France >> S Europe, NW Africa
alpestris (C.L. Brehm, 1831) vN Spain and C Europe to Balkans, Greece and W Asia Minor >> N and NE Africa
amicorum E. Hartert, 1923 C and E Turkey, Caucasus area, N Iran, SW Turkmenistan >> SW Asia
Turdus naumanni   Temminck, 1820 Naumann's Thrush
iSiberia from mid Yenisey valley east to upper Lena basin, south to Baikal, N Mongolia >> S Japan, Korea, S China, Taiwan, N continental SE Asia
Turdus eunomus 236  Temminck, 1831 Dusky Thrush
vNC to far-NE and E Siberia south to Sakhalin >> China (except N), Himalayas, northern NE India, N continental SE Asia
Turdus atrogularis 237,238  Jarocki, 1819 Black-throated Thrush
vSiberia from Ural Mts. to Baikal, NW Mongolia >> SW Asia and Afghanistan, SE Xizang and SW China, Pakistan, Himalayas, NE India, NW continental SE Asia
Turdus ruficollis   Pallas, 1776 Red-throated Thrush
vSC Siberia from Altai to Baikal, N Mongolia >> SW China, Himalayas east from Nepal, NE India, N Myanmar
CATAPONERA E. Hartert, 1896 F - Cataponera turdoides E. Hartert, 1896; type by monotypy   239
Cataponera turdoides Sulawesi Thrush
abditiva Riley, 1918 vNC Sulawesi
tenebrosa Stresemann, 1938 vSC Sulawesi
turdoides E. Hartert, 1896 SW Sulawesi
heinrichi Stresemann, 1938 SE Sulawesi

1 Sequence of genera follows Klicka et al. (2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240] and Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006) [Jønsson, 2006 #9914].
2 Sequence of genera based on Klicka et al.(2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240] and Voelker & Klicka (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #10945], but Grandala only included by Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006) [Jønsson, 2006 #9914] and thus interpolated.
3 Tentatively includes anabelae; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]; which was misspelled annabelae in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
4 Tentatively recognised; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
5 For recognition see Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes, 1997 [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
6 Tentatively includes australis; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
7 Includes episcopus; see Phillips et al. (1964) [Phillips, 1964 #4743] and Webster (1973) [Webster, 1973 #14535].
8 Doubtfully distinct; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
9 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
10 Doubtfully distinct; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
11 For recognition see Monroe (1968) [Monroe, 1968 #2706] and Webster (1973) [Webster, 1973 #14535].
12 For recognition, see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]; but see Webster (1973) [Webster, 1973 #14535] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
13 For placement here see Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006) [Jønsson, 2006 #9914]. But see Collar (2004) [Collar, 2004 #1016] for suggested placement as a chat.
14 Includes pallidigularis and two more recent names from Cunningham-van Someren & Schifter, 1981 [Cunningham-van Someren, 1981 #1103], kakamegoes and nigridorsalis, see Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328].
15 For placement next to Neocossyphus see Olsson & Alström (2013) [Olsson, 2013 #14644]. But see Voelker & Klicka (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #10945] for inclusion within Neocossyphus.
16 For treatment within S. fraseri see Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417].
17 Correct original spelling. Spelling finschii in Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] and in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
18 Includes Phaeornis; see Pratt (1982) [Pratt, 1982 #11446] who revised species limits. See also Miller et al. (2007) [Miller, 2007 #10815].
19 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
20 For treatment as a species separate from M. obscurus (Gmelin, 1789); see Pratt (1982) [Pratt, 1982 #11446].
21 For treatment as a species separate from M. obscurus; see Pratt (1982) [Pratt, 1982 #11446].
22 For treatment as a species separate from M. obscurus see Pratt (1982) [Pratt, 1982 #11446]; but see Olson (1996) [Olson, 1996 #2859] for subspecies treatment and for determination of correct original spelling.
23 Our numbered reference is to Wilson & Evans; in this connection, see Olson (1996) [Olson, 1996 #2859] for an explanation of Bloxam's role.
24 Treated by Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] as a broad species including M. myadestinus, M. oahensis [sic] and M. lanaiensis; for treatment of these as separate species see Pratt (1982) [Pratt, 1982 #11446].
25 Subspecies groups derived from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
26 Previously M. obscurus; however subsuming Phaeornis in Myadestes created homonymy and the name M. occidentalis, as the next oldest name, became the specific epithet.
27 Includes cinereus; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
28 Includes deignani A.R. Phillips, 1966 [Phillips, 1966 #3067]; and orientalis H.D. Pratt, 1988 [Pratt, 1988 #3120], see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]. Pratt's name was a nomen novum for the preoccupied name obscurus.
29 Includes veraepacis see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]; and pallens see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
30 For treatment as a separate species from M. ralloides, see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
31 For treatment as a separate species from M. ralloides, see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
32 Forms a superspecies with M. melanops and M. coloratus; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8]. All treated as one species by Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315]. Residual M. ralloides may comprise more than one species; see Miller et al. (2007) [Miller, 2007 #10815].
33 Sequence of genera follows Voelker & Klicka (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #10945]; largely corroborated by Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 10819].
34 Olsson & Alström (2013) [Olsson, 2013 #14644]; provided DNA support for a sister relationship between Zoothera and Geomalia. Reasonable support for placing Geomalia within Zoothera was not apparent in either the individual gene trees or the combined tree and finding its exact position was hampered by the limited amount of sequence obtained for this species in two genes.
35 Includes matinangensis see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194]; but see Collar (2004) [Collar, 2004 #1016].
36 Species sequence based on Voelker & Klicka (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #10945]; for transfer of other species to Geokichla see Voelker & Outlaw (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #11768].
37 For treatment as a separate species from Z. dauma see Martens & Eck (1995) [Martens, 1995 #2504]. For a discussion of the broader complex see Collar (2004) [Collar, 2004 #1018]. Full taxon sampling of the complex is said to be in hand but certainty of specimen identification may be a problem.
38 Includes the name hancii; see Mees (1977) [Mees, 1977 #2622] (type examined), but not the population for which Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] used that name.
39 This has usually been seen as a broad species including not just aurea, but Australasian taxa; we believe some recent authors, as noted by Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524], erred in treating horsfieldi as a separate species.
40 Treatment as a species apart from Z. aurea and Z. major remains tentative.
41 Provisionally, but after examining the types, this includes socia from Yunnan based on a first winter bird, as well as Taiwanese breeding birds discussed by Mees (1977) [Mees, 1977 #2622], and affinis applied to wintering Malay Pen. birds. The name hancii does not belong here (see above).
42 For suggestion this may form a species Z. neilgherriensis with subspecies imbricata see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
43 For treatment as a separate species see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
44 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
45 For treatment as a separate species from Z. talaseae see Voelker & Klicka (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #10945]. Inclusion of turipavae follows Mayr & Diamond (2001) [Mayr, 2001 #10562], but may warrant species rank, see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
46 For date correction see Ingram (1990) [Ingram, 1990 #10761].
47 Implicitly includes macrorhyncha see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
48 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
49 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
50 Inclusion of eichhorni and choiseuli regarded as questionable on zoogeographic grounds.
51 Includes paraheinei Schodde, 1989 [Schodde, 1989 #3517]; see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
52 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
53 For date correction see Dickinson & Daneliya (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12678].
54 We follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] in retaining this genus. See also Klicka et al. (2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240].
55 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
56 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
57 Sister to Cichlopsis; see Klicka et al. (2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240].
58 Forms a superspecies with E. coracinus; see Voelker & Klicka (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #10945].
59 Formerly included in Myadestes but see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271]. May be better subsumed in Entomodestes; see Klicka et al. (2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240].
60 We follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] in retaining this genus. See also Klicka et al. (2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240].
61 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
62 For recognition of a monotypic genus Hylocichla see Klicka et al. (2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240].
63 Species sequence follows Voelker et al. (2013) [Voelker, 2013 #15188].
64 Given as 1851 by Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
65 Subspecies classification follows Ramos in Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]. Subspecies groups based on A.O.U., (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
66 Includes almae; see Ramos in Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
67 We defer acceptance of levyi A.R. Phillips, 1991 [Phillips, 1991 #3072], and pulichorum A.R. Phillips, 1991 [Phillips, 1991 #3072], pending further review. See also Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
68 For recognition, see Todd (1963) [Todd, 1963 #13945] and Ouellet (1993) [Ouellet, 1993 #2886].
69 For treatment as a separate species from C. minimus see Ouellet (1993) [Ouellet, 1993 #2886].
70 We follow Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539] in accepting the two races proposed by Phillips (1962) [Phillips, 1962 #3061]; however, the views of Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072] on the correct application of the names guttatus and nanus have been rejected; see Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353]. For alternative treatments see Collar (2005) [Collar,
71 Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072] considered this name applicable to birds breeding in S Alaska that migrate to WC and SW USA.
72 Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072] considered this name applicable to birds breeding in E Canada that migrate to SC and SE USA. Thus he treated faxoni as a synonym; but see Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353] for reasons to reject that view.
73 For recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
74 Includes crymophilus; Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
75 For recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539]. But see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
76 Subspecies groups drawn from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
77 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353]. Includes durangensis A.R. Phillips, 1969 [Phillips, 1969 #3068] see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
78 For treatment as a separate species from C. occidentalis; see Rowley & Orr (1964) [Rowley, 1964 #11447].
79 For recognition, see Phillips (1969) [Phillips, 1969 #3068].
80 Includes confusus A.R. Phillips, 1969 [Phillips, 1969 #3068]; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
81 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
82 For recognition, see Phillips (1969) [Phillips, 1969 #3068].
83 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
84 For recognition see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
85 For recognition see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917]; but see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
86 Includes aenopennis; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
87 Includes bangsi; see Monroe (1968) [Monroe, 1968 #2706]; also includes costaricensis see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
88 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
89 Includes russatus; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
90 Correct original spelling. Spelling phaeoplurus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
91 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
92 For recognition, see Meyer de Schauensee (1964) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1964 #14133].
93 Includes smithi see Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315]; but see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
94 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
95 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353]. The name fumosus is apparently based on hybrid C. fuscater X C. mexicanus and is thus unavailable (Phillips 1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
96 For recognition see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303] and Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353], but see also Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
97 Includes ecuadoreanus; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
98 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541]. For recognition, see de la Peña (1999) [de la Peña, 1999 #14533] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
99 Subspecies groups drawn from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
100 For transfer from the Campephagidae, see Ahlquist et al. (1984) [Ahlquist, 1984 #34] and Olson (1987) [Olson, 1987 #2847].
101 For transfer of this genus from the Timaliidae to the Turdidae see Voelker & Spellman (2004) [Voelker, 2004 #4037], Voelker & Klicka (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #10945] and Sangster et al. (2010) [Sangster, 2010 #12435].
102 For treatment as a separate species from C. azurea see Collar & Andrew (1987) [Collar, 1987 #15741].
103 Species sequence follows Voelker & Outlaw (2008) [Voelker, 2008 #11768]; whom we follow in restoring this genus name to use.
104 In accepting Geokichla S. Müller, 1835 [= 1836], see Richmond (1926) [Richmond, 1926 #3268], we act here as First Revisers in selecting this name over Geocichla Gould, 1836 (April 9) in the belief that the evident delay of Müller's publication from 1835 into 1836 was short-lived.
105 For date correction see Dickinson & Pittie (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9467].
106 For recognition, see Clancey (1994) [Clancey, 1994 #962].
107 Includes Turdus f. natalicus Grote, 1938; proposed as a new name to be used if both Catharus and Zoothera were to be submerged in Turdus.
108 Original spelling innotota; a misspelled Latin word.
109 Birds from C and SE Burma and SW Thailand appear to represent a hybrid swarm where subspecies innotata meets the nominate form; see Wells (2007) [Wells, 2007 #10194]; they have been named gibsonhilli.
110 Includes orientis; see Mees (1996) [Mees, 1996 #2638].
111 Collar (2004, 2005) [Collar, 2004 #1018], [Collar, 2005 #8917] treated this as a separate species. Corroboration from molecular evidence is desirable.
112 For treatment as a species separate from Z. erythronota; see Eck (1976) [Eck, 1976 #1476].
113 Pl. 458 appeared in Livr. 77 in 1828 (Dickinson, 2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1369]; Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] wrongly cited Livr. 78 and dated it 1826.
114 Collar (2004, 2005) [Collar, 2004 #1018], [Collar, 2005 #8917] treated this as a separate species. Corroboration from molecular evidence is desirable.
115 This issue of the Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club was mistakenly dated 1898 and is from one year later.
116 Collar (2004, 2005) [Collar, 2004 #1018], [Collar, 2005 #8917] treated this as a separate species. Corroboration from molecular evidence is desirable.
117 For recognition of this see Keith & Prigogine (1997) [Keith, 1997 #2184].
118 Includes chyulu, see Prigogine (1985) [Prigogine, 1985 #15607].
119 For reasons to unite piaggiae and tanganjicae see Keith & Prigogine (1997) [Keith, 1997 #2184].
120 Includes williamsi, see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
121 For recognition, see Prigogine (1977) [Prigogine, 1977 #15499]. For treatment as a race of Z. piaggiae see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
122 For reasons to include kibalensis see Keith & Prigogine (1997) [Keith, 1997 #2184].
123 Correct original spelling. Spelling cameronensis in Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
124 A substitute name was proposed for use in a broad genus Turdus; see Hall (1966) [Hall, 1966 #1886].
125 For reassignment of this taxon from G. princei to G. camaronensis see Prigogine (1965) [Prigogine, 1965 #15553].
126 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
127 For correct date see Steinheimer (2005) [Steinheimer, 2005 #3709].
128 For correct spelling see Cole (1984) [Cole, 1984 #9493]. Spelling litsipsirupa in Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] and in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
129 Includes Psophocichla, Platycichla, Nesocichla and Cichlherminia based on Klicka et al. (2005) [Klicka, 2005 #2240] and Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
130 Species sequence based closely on Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819] with extra information drawn from Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100].
131 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1988) [Cramp, 1988 #1087].
132 Introduced to SE Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand, Norfolk I. and Lord Howe I.
133 For treatment as a separate species from T. olivaceus see Bowie et al. (2005) [Bowie, 2005 #9773].
134 Includes polius; see Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315]. Two subspecies, mwaki and porini, described by Cunningham-van Someren & Schifter, 1981 [Cunningham-van Someren, 1981 #1103], are implicitly included by Urban (1997) [Urban, 1997 #3900]; porini is a substitute name for fuscatus mistakenly introduced as new in the first part of their paper.
135 For treatment as a separate species from T. abyssinicus, see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917] and Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
136 For treatment as a separate species from T. abyssinicus, see Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
137 For the use of this name see Opinion 551 (I.C.Z.N., 1959) [I.C.Z.N., 1959 #9494]. The name Turdus musicus Linnaeus, 1758, was in general use until Opinion 551 appeared.
138 May be best treated as monotypic; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
139 For need for a narrower species treatment see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917] and for nature of implementation here see Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
140 Introduced to SE Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe I. and Norfolk I.
141 Includes insularum; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
142 Sometimes treated as a subspecies of T. fumigatus, see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
143 Formerly placed in genus Platycichla, but see Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100] and Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
144 For dates of parts of this work see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #8548].
145 For dates of parts of this work see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #8548].
146 For dates of parts of this work see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #8548].
147 For treatment as a separate species from T. fumigatus; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
148 Considered to form a superspecies with T. assimilis; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100]. But sometimes considered conspecific, e.g. by Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
149 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
150 Includes minuscula; see Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315].
151 For date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
152 Includes berlepschi; see Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315].
153 For treatment as a separate species from T. albicollis, see e.g. Monroe (1968) [Monroe, 1968 #2706], A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]; but see also Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
154 Subspecies groups derived from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
155 Includes oaxacae Orr & Webster, 1968 [Orr, 1968 #2876]; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072]. But for recognition of that see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
156 For recognition see Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
157 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
158 Tentatively includes oblitus; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
159 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
160 For recognition see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
161 Tentatively recognised; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
162 Tentatively recognised; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
163 Tentatively recognised; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
164 For treatment as a separate species, see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Ridgely & Tudor (2009) [Ridgely, 2009 #12008].
165 For treatment as separate species from T. nudigenis see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100] and O'Neill et al. (2011) [O'Neill, 2011 #13255].
166 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
167 Date checked to the original.
168 For recognition, see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303] and Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
169 Tentatively recognised; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
170 For recognition see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303] and Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
171 Includes umbrinus; see Dickerman (1981) [Dickerman, 1981 #1332], Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
172 For recognition, see Dickerman (1981) [Dickerman, 1981 #1332] and Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
173 Described as a sister species to T. haplochrous; see O'Neill et al. (2011) [O'Neill, 2011 #13255].
174 Treated as a species based on the position of subspecies mandarinus in the results of Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819] and the zoogeographical situation; these authors are followed for sequence position.
175 Given as 1851 by Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
176 For treatment at species rank see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917]; corroborated by Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
177 Correct original spelling. Spelling verreauxi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
178 Includes chobiensis; see Urban (1997) [Urban, 1997 #3900].
179 Date of publication perhaps 1870 but delay may have only been until December 1869.
180 Misspelled libonyanus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. Invariable; for origin see Skead (1967) [Skead, 1967 #15497].
181 For a discussion of the taxonomy of this species see Urban (1997) [Urban, 1997 #3900].
182 For treatment as a separate species from T. olivaceus see Bowie et al. (2005) [Bowie, 2005 #9773].
183 Given as 1851 by Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
184 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Cichlherminia, but see Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100] and Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819]. The last authors found a significant difference in DNA between two subspecies but did not sample the other two.
185 Includes lawrencii Cory, 1891, preoccupied in Turdus; by T. lawrencii Coues, 1880. The name montserrati Zuccon, 2011 [Zuccon, 2011 #12893] was not needed, see Kuziemko & Brammer (2013) [Kuziemko, 2013 #15420].
186 For correct spelling see original description and Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315].
187 Formerly placed in genus Platycichla, but see Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100] and Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
188 For recognition, see e.g. Keith et al. (2003) [Keith, 2003 #14531].
189 For treatment as a separate species from T. serranus, see e.g. A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
190 Issue delayed until February 1861; see the cover of the issue.
191 Considered to form a superspecies with T. rufitorques; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. But see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
192 Includes aleucus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
193 Includes permixtus; see Phillips (1991) [Phillips, 1991 #3072].
194 For closest relatives and thus position in sequence see Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100].
195 Tentatively recognised; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
196 Treated as a separate species by Phillips (1981) [Phillips, 1981 #14224] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], but see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
197 Includes pembertoni; see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
198 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287]. Issue date of June 1869 unlikely to be publication date, but no proof found of delay until 1870.
199 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
200 May comprise more than one species; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
201 Includes ptaritepui; see Phelps & Phelps (1955, 1963) [Phelps, 1955 #3039], [Phelps, 1963 #3050]. But see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
202 Subspecies groups derived from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. See also Jaramillo (2003) [Jaramillo, 2003 #13739] and Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
203 For suggestion this may deserve species rank see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
204 Sometimes considered a separate species, see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271]; but see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
205 New name for T. s. unicolor Olrog & Contino, 1970 [Olrog, 1970 #2827] from El Duraznillo, Jujuy, which seems to have escaped re-evaluation. Preoccupied by Turdus unicolor Tickell, 1833.
206 Previously treated as a monotypic genus Eremita; see Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315].
207 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
208 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
209 Apparently overlooked and awaiting re-evaluation.
210 For treatment as a separate species from T. olivaceofuscus see Melo et al. (2010) [Melo, 2010 #12395].
211 Subspecies groups derived from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. Supported by DNA findings of Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819]; had all subspecies been sampled evidence for species rank would have been more certain.
212 Forms a superspecies with the extinct T. ravidus, see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; historically treated in the genus Mimocichla, recognition of which was not recommended by Voelker et al. (2007) [Voelker, 2007 #10100] or Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
213 For date correction see Sherborn & Woodward (1906) [Sherborn, 1906 #7879] and Evenhuis (2003) [Evenhuis, 2003 #10726].
214 Given as 1851 by Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296]. Includes adamauae see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
215 Includes williami; see White (1962) [White, 1962 #4188].
216 For basis of treatment as a species separate from T. poliocephalus; see Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
217 For treatment as a species separate from T. merula see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]; for position in sequence see Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
218 Includes spencei; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
219 Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] attributed this name to Kelaart in Blyth; however, although Blyth acknowledged use of Kelaart's MS name there is no evidence that Kelaart wrote the description.
220 Includes yessoensis Fushihara, 1959 [Fushihara, 1959 #1640]; see Orn. Soc. Japan (1974) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 1974 #2874].
221 Treated as conspecific with T. dissimilis by Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315]; but separation restored by Voous (1977) [Voous, 1977 #4062] or earlier.
222 Pl. 537 appeared in Livr. 91 in 1832 (Dickinson, 2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1369]; Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] wrongly cited Livr. 87 and dated it 1831.
223 Includes biesenbachi; see Mees (1996) [Mees, 1996 #2638].
224 For correct date of publication see Husson & Holthuis (1955) [Husson, 1955 #2048].
225 The name carbonarius is preoccupied; see LeCroy (2005) [LeCroy, 2005 #2357] and is a synonym.
226 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
227 Introduced to Cocos Is.
228 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
229 For correct date and citation see McAllan (2006) [McAllan, 2006 #7018].
230 Includes buddhae; see Collar (2005) [Collar, 2005 #8917].
231 For place in sequence see Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
232 This name appears in Part XI of Royle's work; for the date of that see Stearn (1943) [Stearn, 1943 #7996].
233 Dickinson & Walters (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9472] showed that the 'indication' given in Gray & Gray (1847), a work not by Hodgson as sometimes suggested, confirms this name, although only a synonym, to be safely identified and thus later usage of the name in lieu of Merula castanea (preoccupied in Turdus) is valid under Art. 11.6 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
234 For date correction see Dickinson & Walters (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9469].
235 Correct original spelling. Spelling gouldi in Ripley (1964) [Ripley, 1964 #3315] and in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
236 For treatment as a separate species from T. naumanni see Stepanyan (1983, 1990) [Stepanyan, 1983 #3718], [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. For continuing treatment as a single species see Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
237 For treatment as a separate species from T. ruficollis see Stepanyan (1983, 1990) [Stepanyan, 1983 #3718]; [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] and Knox et al. (2008) [Knox, 2008 #10937]. For continuing treatment as a single species see Nylander et al. (2008) [Nylander, 2008 #10819].
238 Includes vogulorum Portenko, 1981 [Portenko, 1981 #3111] see Stepanyan (2003) [Stepanyan, 2003 #4769].
239 Affinities discussed by Collar (2004) [Collar, 2004 #1016].
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