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DICAEIDAE - Flowerpeckers1,2 (2:45)
PRIONOCHILUS Strickland, 1841 M - Pardalotus percussus Temminck, 1826; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1841, A List of the Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 46).   
Prionochilus olivaceus Olive-backed Flowerpecker
parsonsi McGregor, 19273 Luzon (Philippines)
samarensis Steere, 18904 vSamar, Leyte, Bohol (Philippines)
olivaceus Tweeddale, 1877 vMindanao, Basilan (Philippines)
Prionochilus maculatus Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker
septentrionalis Robinson & Kloss, 1921 vSE Myanmar in S Tenasserim, N and C Thai-Malay Pen.
oblitus (Mayr, 1938) vS Thai-Malay Pen.
maculatus (Temminck, 1836) vSumatra and satellites (Nias and Belitung), Borneo
natunensis (Chasen, 1935) vN Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
Prionochilus thoracicus   (Temminck, 1836) Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker
vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., N and SE Sumatra, Lingga Arch., Belitung I., Borneo
Prionochilus xanthopygius   Salvadori, 1868 Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker
vBorneo
Prionochilus percussus Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker
ignicapilla (Eyton, 1839) Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and E satellites (Riau Arch., Bangka, Belitung), Borneo
regulus (Meyer de Schauensee, 1940) Tanahmasa in Batu Is. (NW Sumatra)
percussus (Temminck, 1826) vW Java
Prionochilus plateni Palawan Flowerpecker
plateni W. Blasius, 1888 Balabac and Palawan (Philippines)
culionensis (Rand, 1948) vCalamian Group (Philippines)
DICAEUM Cuvier, 1816 N - Certhia erythronotus Latham, 1790; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 13). = Certhia cruentata Linnaeus, 1758  5,6
Dicaeum melanozanthum 7  (Blyth, 1843) δ Yellow-bellied Flowerpecker
vS China, Himalayan foothills east from E Uttarakhand, NE India, NE Bangladesh, N continental SE Asia except N Myanmar
Dicaeum chrysorrheum8 Yellow-vented Flowerpecker
chrysochlore Blyth, 1843 vS Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from E Nepal, continental SE Asia, far-N Thai-Malay Pen.
chrysorrheum Temminck, 1829 vThai-Malay Pen. (except far-N), Greater Sundas
Dicaeum vincens   (P.L. Sclater, 1872) Legge's Flowerpecker
iSri Lanka
Dicaeum annae Golden-rumped Flowerpecker
annae (Büttikofer, 1894) Flores (Lesser Sundas)
sumbavense (Rensch, 1931)9 vSumbawa (Lesser Sundas)
Dicaeum agile10 Thick-billed Flowerpecker
1 agile (Tickell, 1833) vHimalayan foothills from N Pakistan to E Nepal, India (except NE), W Bangladesh
1 zeylonicum (Whistler, 1944) vSri Lanka
2 pallescens (Riley, 1935)11 NE India (S Assam), E Bangladesh
2 modestum (Hume, 1875)12 vSW China, continental SE Asia (except NE), Thai-Malay Pen., Borneo
2 atjehense Delacour, 194613 vSumatra
2 finschi M. Bartels Sr., 191414 Java
2 tinctum (Mayr, 1944) vSumbawa and Sumba east to Alor (Lesser Sundas)
2 obsoletum (S. Müller, 1843) vTimor (Lesser Sundas)
3 striatissimum Parkes, 1962 vLuzon, Lubang, Catanduanes, Romblon, Sibuyan (Philippines)
3 aeruginosum (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) vMindoro, Negros, Cebu, Mindanao (Philippines)
3 affine (J.T. Zimmer, 1918) vPalawan (Philippines)
Dicaeum everetti15 Brown-backed Flowerpecker
everetti (Sharpe, 1877)16 S Thai-Malay Pen., Riau Arch. (E Sumatra), Borneo
bungurense (Chasen, 1935)17,18 αvBunguran in N Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
Dicaeum proprium   Ripley & Rabor, 1966 Whiskered Flowerpecker
vMountains of Mindanao (Philippines)
Dicaeum anthonyi19 Flame-crowned Flowerpecker
1 anthonyi (McGregor, 1914) N Luzon (Philippines)
2 masawan Rand & Rabor, 1957 NW Mindanao on Mt. Malindang (Philippines)
2 kampalili Manuel & Gilliard, 195320 αMountains of NC and S Mindanao (Philippines)
Dicaeum bicolor Bicoloured Flowerpecker
inexpectatum (E. Hartert, 1895) vLuzon and Mindoro (Philippines)
bicolor (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao (Philippines)
viridissimum Parkes, 197121 vGuimaras and Negros (Philippines) [Parkes, 1971 #2925]
Dicaeum aureolimbatum Yellow-sided Flowerpecker
aureolimbatum (Wallace, 1865) vSulawesi and NE and SE satellites
laterale Salomonsen, 1960 vSangir (Sangir Is.)
Dicaeum trigonostigma22 Orange-bellied Flowerpecker
1 rubropygium E.C.S. Baker, 1921 vS Bangladesh, W and SW continental SE Asia, N Thai-Malay Pen.
1 trigonostigma (Scopoli, 1786)23 C and S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and satellites, Karimata Is. (SW Borneo)
1 antioproctum Oberholser, 191224 vSimeulue I. (off W Sumatra)
1 megastoma E. Hartert, 1918 Bunguran in N Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
1 flaviclunis E. Hartert, 1918 Java, Bali
1 dayakanum Chasen & Kloss, 1929 vBorneo
2 xanthopygium Tweeddale, 1877 vLuzon, Marinduque, Mindoro (Philippines)
2 dorsale Sharpe, 1876 vMasbate (Philippines)
2 intermedium Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Romblon (Philippines)
2 cnecolaemum Parkes, 198925 vTablas (Philippines) [Parkes, 1989 #2941]
2 sibuyanicum Bourns & Worcester, 1894 vSibuyan (Philippines)
2 besti Steere, 1890 Siquijor (Philippines)
2†? pallidius Bourns & Worcester, 1894 vCebu (Philippines)
2 cinereigulare Tweeddale, 187826 αvSamar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao (Philippines)
2 isidroi Rand & Rabor, 196927 Camiguin Sur (Philippines)
2 assimile Bourns & Worcester, 1894 vSulu Arch. (south to Tawi-Tawi)
2 sibutuense Sharpe, 1893 vSibutu (Sulu Arch.)
Dicaeum australe   (Hermann, 1783) Red-keeled Flowerpecker
vPhilippines (except Panay, Guimaras, Negros)
Dicaeum haematostictum 28  Sharpe, 1876 Black-belted Flowerpecker
vPanay, Guimaras, Negros (Philippines)
Dicaeum retrocinctum   Gould, 1872 Scarlet-collared Flowerpecker
vMindoro (Philippines)
Dicaeum quadricolor 29  (Tweeddale, 1878) α Cebu Flowerpecker
iCebu (Philippines)
Dicaeum hypoleucum Buzzing Flowerpecker
obscurum Ogilvie-Grant, 189430 vN, C, and ? S Luzon (Philippines)
cagayanense Rand & Rabor, 1967 vNE Luzon (Philippines)
pontifex Mayr, 1946 Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao (Philippines)
mindanense Tweeddale, 1877 vZamboanga Pen. on SW Mindanao (Philippines)
hypoleucum Sharpe, 1876 vBasilan (Philippines)
Dicaeum nigrilore Olive-capped Flowerpecker
nigrilore E. Hartert, 1904 vMountains of Mindanao except NE (Philippines)
diuatae Salomonsen, 1953 NE Mindanao in Diuata Mts. (Philippines)
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos Pale-billed Flowerpecker
erythrorhynchos (Latham, 1790)31 Himalayan foothills from W Himachal Pradesh to West Bengal, C, E and S India, W Bangladesh, W, SW and S Myanmar
ceylonense Babault, 1920 vSri Lanka
Dicaeum concolor32 Plain Flowerpecker
1 concolor Jerdon, 184033 SW India
2 virescens Hume, 187334 Andamans
3 olivaceum Walden, 1875 vSW, SC and S China, Himalayan foothills east from C Nepal, NE India, E Bangladesh, continental SE Asia except far-SE
3 minullum Swinhoe, 187035 vHainan
3 uchidai N. Kuroda, Sr., 1920 Taiwan
3 borneanum Lönnberg, 1925 vS Thai-Malay Pen., N Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo
3 sollicitans E. Hartert, 1901 Java, Bali
Dicaeum pygmaeum Pygmy Flowerpecker
palawanorum Hachisuka, 1926 Balabac, Palawan (Philippines)
fugaense Parkes, 198836 vCalayan and Fuga (Philippines) [Parkes, 1988 #2939]
salomonseni Parkes, 1962 NW Luzon (Philippines)
pygmaeum (von Kittlitz, 1833)37,38 αvC and S Luzon, Mindoro, and Samar, Leyte, Cebu, Negros (Philippines)
davao Mearns, 1905 Camiguin Sur, Mindanao (Philippines)
Dicaeum nehrkorni 39  W. Blasius, 1886 Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker
iMountains of Sulawesi [Blasius, 1886 #336]
Dicaeum erythrothorax Flame-breasted Flowerpecker
schistaceiceps G.R. Gray, 186140,41 αN Moluccas
erythrothorax Lesson & Garnot, 182842 Buru (S Moluccas)
Dicaeum vulneratum   Wallace, 1863 Ashy Flowerpecker
vS Moluccas
Dicaeum pectorale43 Olive-crowned Flowerpecker
ignotum Mees, 1964 vGebe (N Moluccas)
pectorale S. Müller, 1843 vWestern Papuan Is. (Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati, Misool), lowland NW New Guinea (Vogelkop and neck)
Dicaeum sanguinolentum Blood-breasted Flowerpecker
sanguinolentum Temminck, 1829 vMountains of Java and Bali
rhodopygiale Rensch, 1928 vMountains of Flores (Lesser Sundas)
wilhelminae Büttikofer, 189244 Sumba (Lesser Sundas)
hanieli Hellmayr, 1912 Mountains of Timor (Lesser Sundas)
Dicaeum cruentatum Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker
cruentatum (Linnaeus, 1758)45 vS China including Hainan, Himalayan foothills east from Nepal, NE India, C and E Bangladesh, mainland SE Asia, Riau Arch. (E Sumatra)
sumatranum Cabanis, 187746 αvSumatra
simalurense Salomonsen, 1961 vSimeulue I. (NW Sumatra)
niasense Meyer de Schauensee & Ripley, 194047 αvNias I. (NW Sumatra)
batuense Richmond, 1912 vBatu Is. and Mentawai Is. (off W Sumatra)
nigrimentum Salvadori, 187448 Borneo
Dicaeum trochileum Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker
trochileum (Sparrman, 1789) vS Sumatra, SE Borneo, Kangean Is. (Java Sea), Java, Bali
stresemanni Rensch, 1928 Lombok (Lesser Sundas)
Dicaeum igniferum 49,50  Wallace, 1864 α Black-fronted Flowerpecker
vSumbawa east to Alor (Lesser Sundas)
Dicaeum maugei Red-chested Flowerpecker/Blue-cheeked Flowerpecker
neglectum E. Hartert, 1897 vPenida I. (SE Bali), Lombok (Lesser Sundas)
splendidum Büttikofer, 1893 vSalayar I. (off SW Sulawesi), Tanahjampea I. (Flores Sea)
maugei Lesson, 183051 Savu east to Timor, Roma and Damar (Lesser Sundas)
salvadorii A.B. Meyer, 1884 Moa, Babar (Lesser Sundas)
Dicaeum celebicum Grey-sided Flowerpecker
talautense A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 189552 vTalaud Is. (N Sulawesi)
sanghirense Salvadori, 1876 vSangir (Sangir Is.)
celebicum S. Müller, 1843 vSulawesi and SE satellites (Muna I. and Buton I.)
sulaense Sharpe, 1884 vBanggai and Sula Is. (E Sulawesi)
kuehni E. Hartert, 1903 Tukangbesi Is. (SE Sulawesi)
Dicaeum monticolum   Sharpe, 1887 Black-sided Flowerpecker
iMountains of Borneo
Dicaeum ignipectus Fire-breasted Flowerpecker
ignipectus (Blyth, 1843)53 δC and E China, Himalayan foothills east from Kashmir, NE India, mountains of continental SE Asia except SE
formosum Ogilvie-Grant, 1912 vTaiwan
cambodianum Delacour & Jabouille, 1928 vMountains of E and SE Thailand and Cambodia
dolichorhynchum Deignan, 1938 vMountains of C and S Thai-Malay Pen.
beccarii Robinson & Kloss, 1916 Mountains of N Sumatra
luzoniense Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 vMountains of N and C Luzon (Philippines)
bonga E. Hartert, 1904 Mountains of Samar (Philippines)
apo E. Hartert, 1904 Mountains of Leyte, Negros, Mindanao (Philippines)
Dicaeum aeneum Midget Flowerpecker
aeneum Pucheran, 1853 vBuka to Florida and Tulagi (Solomons)
becki E. Hartert, 1929 Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
Dicaeum malaitae 54  Salomonsen, 1960 Malaita Flowerpecker
Malaita (SE Solomons)
Dicaeum eximium Red-banded Flowerpecker
layardorum Salvadori, 1880 New Britain
eximium P.L. Sclater, 1877 vNew Ireland, New Hanover
phaeopygium Salomonsen, 1964 vDjaul I.
Dicaeum tristrami   Sharpe, 1884 Mottled Flowerpecker
iSan Cristobal (SE Solomons)
Dicaeum nitidum55 Louisiade Flowerpecker
nitidum Tristram, 1889 vTagula, Misima (Louisiade Arch.)
rosseli Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1914 Rossel (Louisiade Arch.)
Dicaeum hirundinaceum56 Mistletoebird
hirundinaceum (Shaw, 1792)57 vAustralia
ignicolle G.R. Gray, 1858 vAru Is. (off SW New Guinea)
keiense Salvadori, 187458 αvKai Is., Tayandu Is., Watubela Is. (SE Moluccas)
fulgidum P.L. Sclater, 188359 vTanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Dicaeum geelvinkianum60 Red-capped Flowerpecker
maforense Salvadori, 1876 vNumfoor I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
misoriense Salvadori, 1876 vBiak I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
geelvinkianum A.B. Meyer, 1874 vYapen I., Kurudu I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
obscurifrons Junge, 1952 Lower montane WC New Guinea (Wissel Lakes region)
diversum Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1903 vLowland to lower montane N New Guinea (Cenderawasih Bay to R. Taritatu-Sepik divide)
centrale Rand, 1941 vLower montane WC New Guinea (valleys and N slopes of Maoke Mts.)
setekwa Rand, 1941 Lowland and hill SW New Guinea (S slopes Maoke Mts.)
rubrigulare D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879 vLowland SC New Guinea (interior)
albopunctatum D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879 vLowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region)
rubrocoronatum Sharpe, 1876 vLowland to lower montane N, EC, NE and SE New Guinea (west to upper R. Sepik, E Star Mts. and Gulf of Papua), Karkar I., Manam I.61
violaceum Mayr, 1936 vD'Entrecasteaux Arch.

1 The prudent recommendation of Nyári et al. (2009) [Nyári, 2009 #11986] to defer change, made in the face of evidence that some species currently placed in Dicaeum do not belong there, is followed here. However, species sequences in both genera are based on their work.
2 Suggestions for superspecies in Salomonsen (1967) [Salomonsen, 1967 #3454] in Dicaeum are often not corroborated by the limited taxon sampling in Nyári et al. (2009) [Nyári, 2009 #11986] and are not included here.
3 Salomonsen (1967) [Salomonsen, 1967 #3454] cited the correct spelling but used an ISS.
4 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
5 Species sequence based on Nyári et al. (2009) [Nyári, 2009 #11986] with unscreened species interpolated based on Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
6 For date correction see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542].
7 Correct original spelling. Spelling melanoxanthum by Salomonsen (1967) [Salomonsen, 1967 #3454] and the argument in his footnote cannot be sustained. But Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] also used his ISS.
8 This species together with D. melanozanthum, D. vincens, D. agile, D. annae and D. everetti make up the species that seem not to belong in a monophyletic Dicaeum; see Nyári et al. (2009) [Nyári, 2009 #11986], although D. vincens and D. annae were not screened. Rasmussen & Anderton (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479] adopt the generic name Pachyglossa.
9 Very slightly differentiated and not accepted by Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
10 Sheldon (1985) [Sheldon, 1985 #3594] considered that the separation of the Philippine forms in a species aeruginosum, as in Salomonsen (1967) [Salomonsen, 1967 #3454] was not justified. Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249] perceived three perhaps four subspecies groups which are reflected here.
11 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719], Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249] and Rasmussen & Anderton (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479].
12 Includes remotum; see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719] and Wells (2007) [Wells, 2007 #10194].
13 Includes Piprisoma modestum sumatranum Chasen, 1939; preoccupied in Dicaeum by Dicaeum sumatranum Cabanis, 1878.
14 Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249] saw this as very distinct (thus counting as their fourth subspecies group). Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094] showed this not to be as rare as had been thought and that it closely resembled some Bornean birds.
15 For a discussion of the validity of this species see Sheldon (1985) [Sheldon, 1985 #3594].
16 Includes sordidum; see Wells (2007) [Wells, 2007 #10194] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249].
17 This taxon shows some features of D. agile and may be more closely related to that species, see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
18 Date correction based on printing code on the back cover.
19 Subspecies groups derive from Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249].
20 Originally named rubricapila in 1952; this replacement name was published January 28, 1953.
21 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
22 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719]. Within the Philippines four subgroups are suggested by Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249].
23 The name melanostigma applied in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] to part of this population was a lapsus arising from use by Salomonsen (1960) [Salomonsen, 1960 #7709].
24 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001, 2008) [Cheke, 2001 #719], [Cheke, 2008 #12249].
25 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
26 For date correction see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
27 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
28 For treatment as a species separate from D. australe; see Brooks et al. (1992) [Brooks, 1992 #531], Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719] and Mann (2002) [Mann, 2002 #2476].
29 For date correction see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
30 Includes lagunae see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
31 Dual original spellings; for First Reviser selection see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
32 Subspecies groups based on Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249].
33 Treated as a monotypic species by Rasmussen & Anderton (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479].
34 Treated as a monotypic endemic species by Rasmussen & Anderton (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479].
35 Treated as the nominate form in a polytypic third component of a D. concolor species-group by Rasmussen & Anderton (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479].
36 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
37 Dual original spellings; for First Reviser selection see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
38 Steinbacher (1954) [Steinbacher, 1954 #8019] erred in dating this 1835; the cover of this issue is dated 'Mars, 1833'; see Dickinson & Daneliya (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12678].
39 Original citation, incorrect in Salomonsen (1967) [Salomonsen, 1967 #3454], linked by number in our range statement.
40 For an informal proposal to treat this as a separate species see Rheindt & Hutchinson (2007) [Rheindt, 2007 #10835].
41 For date correction see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
42 Name first published as caption to plate 30 in the Voyage de la Coquille without naming the author; we follow Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #8548] in crediting the two authors of the book.
43 For a broader species concept, including D. geelvinkianum and D. nitidum, see Salomonsen (1967) [Salomonsen, 1967 #3454] and Beehler & Finsch (1985) [Beehler, 1985 #15365].
44 For a suggestion that this does not belong in D. sanguinolentum and deserves species rank see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
45 Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249] exhumed the long buried name ignitum for Thai-Malay peninsular birds; but see Wells (2007) [Wells, 2007 #10194].
46 Description first appeared in the Ornithologisches Centralblatt 2: 182-183 before the 1878 description in the Journal für Ornithologie.
47 Date of publication 23 May 1940 apparent on cover.
48 The name hosei (sic) was used by Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719] as the label for a Bornean colour morph. However the holotype of hosii (original spelling, verified) has been shown to match nigrimentum, see White (1974) [White, 1974 #4193], and the name is unavailable for use in a different context. Cheke & Mann rightly used quotation marks.
49 Includes cretum; see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094]; but see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249].
50 For date correction see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
51 includes romae; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
52 Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249] suggest this may deserve specific rank.
53 Correct original spelling. Spelling ignipectum in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS. Invariable.
54 Separation from D. aeneum follows robustly supported deep divergence recovered by Smith & Filardi (2007) [Smith, 2007 #10843].
55 For treatment as a species separate from D. pectorale follows Mayr (1941) [Mayr, 1941 #2550].
56 Sister to D. geelvinkianum with robust support, see Nyári et al. (2009) [Nyári, 2009 #11986].
57 Author Shaw and not Shaw & Nodder; see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9496].
58 For correct date see Poggi (1996, 2010) [Poggi, 1996 #10153], [Poggi, 2010 #12656].
59 May merit treatment as a separate species, see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12249].
60 For treatment as a species separate from D. pectorale follows Mayr (1941) [Mayr, 1941 #2550].
61 Western geographic limits poorly understood and relations with four 'different' subspecies there unclear, see Salomonsen (1960) [Salomonsen, 1960 #7710].
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