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NECTARINIIDAE - Sunbirds1,2 (16:136)
ARACHNOTHERA Temminck, 1826 F - Nectarinia chrysogenys Temminck, 1826; type by monotypy   3
Arachnothera crassirostris 4  (Reichenbach, 1853) α Thick-billed Spiderhunter
vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo
Arachnothera robusta5 Long-billed Spiderhunter
robusta S. Müller & Schlegel, 1845 vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo
armata S. Müller & Schlegel, 1845 vJava
Arachnothera flammifera6 Philippine Spiderhunter
flammifera Tweeddale, 1878 vSamar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao (Philippines)
randi Salomonsen, 1953 Basilan (Philippines)
Arachnothera longirostra7,8 Little Spiderhunter
1 longirostra (Latham, 1790) SW Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from C Nepal, SW, EC and NE India, E Bangladesh, Myanmar, W and NW Thailand
1 sordida La Touche, 1921 vSE Yunnan, N continental SE Asia east from NE Thailand
1 pallida Delacour, 1932 vSE continental SE Asia
1 cinereicollis (Vieillot, 1819) δvThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and satellites (except Banyak Is. and Nias I.)
1 zarhina Oberholser, 19129,10 δvBanyak Is. (off W Sumatra)
1 niasensis van Oort, 1910 vNias I. (off W Sumatra)
1 rothschildi van Oort, 1910 N Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
1 atita Oberholser, 1932 vS Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
1 prillwitzi E. Hartert, 1901 Java, Bali
1 buettikoferi van Oort, 1910 Borneo
2 dilutior Sharpe, 187611 vPalawan (Philippines)
Arachnothera juliae   Sharpe, 1887 Whitehead's Spiderhunter
iMountains of Borneo
Arachnothera clarae Naked-faced Spiderhunter
luzonensis Alcasid & Gonzales, 1968 vEC and S Luzon (Philippines) [Alcasid, 1968 #37]
philippinensis (Steere, 1890) vSamar and Leyte (Philippines)
clarae W. Blasius, 1890 Davao area of C Mindanao (Philippines)
malindangensis Rand & Rabor, 1957 vW Mindanao (Philippines)
Arachnothera chrysogenys Yellow-eared Spiderhunter
chrysogenys (Temminck, 1826) Far-SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and satellites, W Borneo, W Java
harrissoni Deignan, 1957 E Borneo
Arachnothera magna Streaked Spiderhunter
magna (Hodgson, 1836)12 αvSE Xizang, W Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from C Nepal, NE India, E Bangladesh, W and N Myanmar
aurata Blyth, 1855 vUplands of C Myanmar
musarum Deignan, 1956 Uplands of S Yunnan, Guangxi, and N continental SE Asia east from E Myanmar
remota Riley, 1940 vUplands of Cambodia and SC and S Vietnam
pagodarum Deignan, 195613 Mountains of SW continental SE Asia and S Thai-Malay Pen.
Arachnothera flavigaster   (Eyton, 1839) Spectacled Spiderhunter
iFar-SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo
Arachnothera affinis 14  (Horsfield, 1821) α Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter
vJava and Bali
Arachnothera modesta15 Grey-breasted Spiderhunter
caena Deignan, 1956 vFar-SW (formerly also SE?) continental SE Asia and N Thai-Malay peninsula
modesta (Eyton, 1839) vC and S Thai-Malay Pen.
concolor Snelleman, 1887 Sumatra including Mentawai Is., W Borneo
Arachnothera everetti 16,17  (Sharpe, 1893) Everett's Spiderhunter/Bornean Spiderhunter
Borneo (except south?)
KUROCHKINEGRAMMA Kashin, 1978 N - Anthreptes nuchalis Blyth, 1843; type by monotypy18,19
Kurochkinegramma hypogrammicum Purple-naped Sunbird
lisettae (Delacour, 1926) W, N and EC continental SE Asia
mariae (Deignan, 1943) SE continental SE Asia
nuchale (Blyth, 1843) vSE Myanmar in S Tenasserim, Thai-Malay Pen.
natunense (Chasen, 1935) vN Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
hypogrammicum (S. Müller, 1843)20 vSumatra, Borneo
CHALCOPARIA Cabanis, 1851 F - Sylvia singalensis Latham, 1790; type by original designation = Motacilla singalensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789  21,22
Chalcoparia singalensis Ruby-cheeked Sunbird
assamensis Kloss, 1930 vSW Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from C Nepal, NE India, Bangladesh, Myanmar (except S and SE), N Thailand
koratensis Kloss, 1918 vSE Yunnan, NC and E continental SE Asia
internota (Deignan, 1955) vSW continental SE Asia
interposita Robinson & Kloss, 1921 vN and C Thai-Malay Pen.
singalensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)23 αvS Thai-Malay Pen.
sumatrana Kloss, 1921 vSumatra and E satellites (Lingga Arch., Belitung)
panopsia Oberholser, 1912 vNias I., Banyak Is., Batu Is. (NW Sumatra)
pallida Chasen, 193524 αvN Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
borneana Kloss, 1921 vBorneo including Banggi I.
bantenensis (Hoogerwerf, 1967) vW Java
phoenicotis (Temminck, 1822) vC and E Java
DELEORNIS Wolters, 1977 M - Anthreptes fraseri Jardine & Selby, 1843; type by original designation   25
Deleornis fraseri26 Fraser's Sunbird
1 idius (Oberholser, 1899) vSierra Leone to Togo
1 cameroonensis (Bannerman, 1921) vS Nigeria to NW Angola and W DR Congo
1 fraseri (Jardine & Selby, 1843)27,28 Bioko
2 axillaris (Reichenow, 1893)29 vC DR Congo to Uganda
ANTHREPTES Swainson, 1832 M - Cinnyris javanica Swainson, 1822; type by original designation and monotypy = Certhia malacensis Scopoli, 1786  30
Anthreptes reichenowi Plain-backed Sunbird
yokanae van Someren, 192131 Coastal Kenya and Tanzania
reichenowi Gunning, 1909 E Zimbabwe, Mozambique, NE South Africa
Anthreptes anchietae   (Bocage, 1878) Anchieta's Sunbird
iAngola to N Zambia, SW Tanzania, W Malawi, NW Mozambique
Anthreptes simplex   (S. Müller, 1843) Plain Sunbird
iFar-SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra including Nias I., N Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo
Anthreptes malacensis32 Brown-throated Sunbird
1 malacensis (Scopoli, 1786)33 vContinental SE Asia (except NW and NC), Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas and satellites (except N Borneo)
1 borneensis Riley, 192034 vN Borneo
1 mjobergi Bangs & J.L. Peters, 192735 Maratua I. (off E Borneo)
1 iris Parkes, 1971 Sibutu (Sulu Arch.) [Parkes, 1971 #2925]
1 paraguae Riley, 192036 Balabac, Palawan and satellites (Philippines)
2 birgitae Salomonsen, 1953 N and C Luzon, Catanduanes, Mindoro (Philippines)
2 griseigularis (Tweeddale, 1878)37 αvSamar, Leyte, Dinagat, NE Mindanao and satellites (Philippines)
3 heliolusius Oberholser, 192338 W and C Mindanao, Basilan (Philippines)
3 wiglesworthi E. Hartert, 190239 Sulu Arch. (except Sibutu)
3 chlorigaster Sharpe, 1877 Tablas, Romblon and Masbate south to Cebu, Negros and SW Mindanao (Philippines)
3 cagayanensis Mearns, 1905 vMapun (Philippines)
3 heliocalus Oberholser, 1923 vSangir (Sangir Is.)
3 celebensis Shelley, 187840,41 αvSulawesi, Banggai Is., Sula Is.
3 convergens Rensch, 1929 Lombok (ssp.?) east to Alor, except Sumba (Lesser Sundas)
3 rubrigena Rensch, 1931 Sumba (Lesser Sundas)
Anthreptes rhodolaemus   Shelley, 1878 Red-throated Sunbird
vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo
Anthreptes gabonicus   (Hartlaub, 1861) Brown Sunbird/Mangrove Sunbird
vSenegal and Gambia to Cameroon, south to N Angola
Anthreptes longuemarei42 Western Violet-backed Sunbird
longuemarei (Anon. = Lesson, 1831)43,44 αSenegal to N DR Congo, South Sudan, Uganda and W Kenya [Lesson, 1831 #15556]
angolensis Neumann, 1906 vS DR Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania
nyassae Neumann, 1906 SE Tanzania, N and C Mozambique, E Zimbabwe
Anthreptes orientalis 45  Hartlaub, 1880 Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird
vSomalia to SE South Sudan and NE and C Tanzania
Anthreptes neglectus   Neumann, 1922 Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird
vSE Kenya, E Tanzania, N Mozambique
Anthreptes aurantius 46  J. & E. Verreaux, 1851 δ Violet-tailed Sunbird
vCameroon to PR Congo, DR Congo, S Central African Republic, NE Angola
Anthreptes seimundi Little Green Sunbird
kruensis (Bannerman, 1911) vSierra Leone to W Togo
seimundi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1908) Bioko
minor Bates, G.L., 192647 vS Benin and S Nigeria to N Angola, east to South Sudan and Uganda
Anthreptes rectirostris48,49 Grey-chinned Sunbird
rectirostris (Shaw, 1812)50,51 αvSierra Leone to Ghana and W Togo
tephrolaemus (Jardine & Fraser, 1852)52,53,54 vBioko, S Nigeria to NW Angola, east to Uganda and W Kenya
Anthreptes rubritorques 55  Reichenow, 1905 Banded Green Sunbird
iE Tanzania
HEDYDIPNA Cabanis, 1851 F - Cinnyris platurus Vieillot, 1819; type by original designation 56,57,58
Hedydipna collaris Collared Sunbird
subcollaris (Hartlaub, 1857) vSenegal and Gambia to SW Nigeria
hypodila (Jardine & Fraser, 1852)59,60 αvBioko
somereni (Chapin, 1949) SE Nigeria, N and W DR Congo, N Angola, SW Sudan
djamdjamensis (Benson, 1942) vSW Ethiopia
garguensis (Mearns, 1915) vSE South Sudan, Uganda and W Kenya to N Zambia, W Tanzania
elachior (Mearns, 1910)61 vE Kenya, NE Tanzania, S Somalia, S Ethiopia
zambesiana (Shelley, 1876) vSE Angola, S Zambia, SE Tanzania to N Botswana, N Zimbabwe, C Mozambique.
zuluensis (Roberts, 1931)62 E Zimbabwe, S Mozambique to E South Africa (Mpumalanga, NE KwaZulu-Natal)
collaris (Vieillot, 1819) vSE South Africa (S KwaZulu-Natal, S Eastern Cape), Swaziland
Hedydipna platura 63  (Vieillot, 1819) Pygmy Sunbird
vMauritania and Senegal to SW Sudan, South Sudan, N Uganda, NW Kenya
Hedydipna metallica 64  (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Nile Valley Sunbird
vE Egypt, Sudan to SW Saudi Arabia, Yemen, S Oman >> N Somalia
Hedydipna pallidigaster   (W.L. Sclater & Moreau, 1935) Amani Sunbird
E Kenya, NE and EC Tanzania
ANABATHMIS Reichenow, 1905 F - Nectarinia reichenbachii Hartlaub, 1857; type by subsequent designation (W.L. Sclater, 1930, Systema Avium Æthiopicarum, p. 707).   65
Anabathmis reichenbachii 66  (Hartlaub, 1857) Reichenbach's Sunbird
iLiberia to N Angola and N DR Congo
Anabathmis hartlaubii   (Hartlaub, 1857) Principe Sunbird
iPríncipe
Anabathmis newtonii   (Bocage, 1887) Newton's Sunbird
iSão Tomé
DREPTES Reichenow, 1914 M - Nectarinia thomensis Bocage, 1889; type by original designation   67
Dreptes thomensis   (Bocage, 1889) Giant Sunbird
vSão Tomé
ANTHOBAPHES Cabanis, 1851 F - Certhia violacea Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy   68,69
Anthobaphes violacea   (Linnaeus, 1766) Orange-breasted Sunbird
vS South Africa (Western Cape)
CYANOMITRA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Certhia cyanocephala Shaw, 1812; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 137).   70,71
Cyanomitra verticalis Green-headed Sunbird
verticalis (Latham, 1790) vSenegal to Nigeria
bohndorffi (Reichenow, 1887) Cameroon to Central African Republic, N Angola, S DR Congo
cyanocephala (Shaw, 1812)72 vW Gabon to R. Congo
viridisplendens (Reichenow, 1892) W and S South Sudan, E DR Congo to W Kenya, NE Zambia, N Malawi
Cyanomitra bannermani   C.H.B. Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1943 Bannerman's Sunbird
iAngola, S DR Congo, NW Zambia
Cyanomitra cyanolaema Blue-throated Brown Sunbird
magnirostrata (Bates, G.L., 1930) vSierra Leone to Ghana and W Togo
cyanolaema (Jardine & Fraser, 1852)73 αvBioko
octaviae Amadon, 1953 SW Nigeria to Uganda and N Angola
Cyanomitra oritis Cameroon Sunbird
poensis Alexander, 1903 vMountains of Bioko
oritis (Reichenow, 1892) SW Cameroon (Mont Cameroun)
bansoensis Bannerman, 1922 vE Nigeria, W Cameroon
Cyanomitra alinae Blue-headed Sunbird
derooi (Prigogine, 1975) NE DR Congo [Prigogine, 1975 #3139]
kaboboensis (Prigogine, 1975) vE DR Congo (Mt. Kabobo) [Prigogine, 1975 #3139]
alinae F.J. Jackson, 1904 SW Uganda, NW Rwanda
tanganjicae (Reichenow, 1915) E DR Congo to SW Rwanda, W Burundi
marungensis (Prigogine, 1975)74 δvSE DR Congo (Marungu Highlands) [Prigogine, 1975 #3139]
Cyanomitra olivacea75 Olive Sunbird
guineensis Bannerman, 1921 vSenegal to Togo
cephaelis (Bates, G.L., 1930) Benin to DR Congo, N Angola
obscura (Jardine, 1843)76 vPríncipe, Bioko
ragazzii (Salvadori, 1888) SW Ethiopia, S South Sudan, W Kenya, Uganda, W Tanzania, E and SE DR Congo, N Zambia
changamwensis Mearns, 1910 vS Somalia to NE Tanzania
neglecta Neumann, 1900 vC Kenya, N Tanzania
granti Vincent, 1934 Pemba I., Zanzibar
alfredi Vincent, 193477 E and S Tanzania, Malawi, SE Zambia, N and E Mozambique
sclateri Vincent, 1934 E Zimbabwe, W Mozambique
olivacina (W. Peters, 1881) vCoastal S Mozambique, E South Africa (NE KwaZulu-Natal)
olivacea (A. Smith, 1840) vCoastal SE South Africa (S KwaZulu-Natal to N Eastern Cape)
Cyanomitra verreauxii Mouse-coloured Sunbird/Grey Sunbird
fischeri (Reichenow, 1880) Coastal S Somalia to Mozambique and E South Africa (N KwaZulu-Natal)
zanzibarica (Grote, 1932) vZanzibar
verreauxii (A. Smith, 1832)78,79 ΘCoastal SE South Africa (C and S KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape)
CHALCOMITRA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Certhia amethystina Shaw, 1812; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 137).   80,81,82
Chalcomitra adelberti Buff-throated Sunbird
adelberti (Gervais, 1834)83 Sierra Leone to Ghana
eboensis (Jardine, 1843)84 vTogo to SE Nigeria
Chalcomitra fuliginosa Carmelite Sunbird
aurea (Lesson, 1847) vCoastal Liberia to Gabon
fuliginosa (Shaw, 1812)85 vLower R. Congo, NW Angola
Chalcomitra rubescens Green-throated Sunbird
crossensis Serle, 1963 vSE Nigeria, W Cameroon
stangerii (Jardine, 1842) Bioko
rubescens (Vieillot, 1819) Cameroon to DR Congo, S South Sudan, W Kenya, south to N Angola and NW Zambia.
Chalcomitra amethystina Amethyst Sunbird
kalckreuthi (Cabanis, 1878)86 S Somalia, E Kenya, NE Tanzania
kirkii (Shelley, 1876)87 SE South Sudan, Uganda, W and C Kenya, W and S Tanzania to E Zambia, Zimbabwe and C Mozambique
deminuta Cabanis, 1880 vS DR Congo, W Zambia, Angola, N Namibia, N Botswana
amethystina (Shaw, 1812)88,89 vE and S South Africa, S Mozambique, SE Botswana
Chalcomitra senegalensis Scarlet-chested Sunbird
senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) vS Mauritania and Senegal to N Nigeria
acik (Hartmann, 1866) Cameroon to SW Sudan, W and C South Sudan, NE DR Congo, NW Uganda
proteus (Rüppell, 1840)90 vSE Sudan, E South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea
lamperti (Reichenow, 1897) E DR Congo, S and E Uganda, W and C Kenya, W and C Tanzania
saturatior (Reichenow, 1891)91 vS DR Congo, Angola, W Zambia, to Namibia, N Botswana,
gutturalis (Linnaeus, 1766) vS Somalia to E Tanzania, E Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, E South Africa
Chalcomitra hunteri 92  (Shelley, 1889) Hunter's Sunbird
iSomalia, SW and E Ethiopia, S South Sudan, N and E Kenya, NE Tanzania
Chalcomitra balfouri   (P.L. Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881) Socotra Sunbird
iSocotra
LEPTOCOMA Cabanis, 1851 F - Nectarinia hasseltii Temminck, 1825; type by original designation = Certhia brasiliana J.F. Gmelin, 1788  93,94,95
Leptocoma zeylonica Purple-rumped Sunbird
flaviventris (Hermann, 1804) vIndia (except NW), Bangladesh, W and SW Myanmar
zeylonica (Linnaeus, 1766) vSri Lanka
Leptocoma minima   (Sykes, 1832) Crimson-backed Sunbird
vW and SW India
Leptocoma sperata96,97 Purple-throated Sunbird
1 emmae Delacour & Jabouille, 1928 SE continental SE Asia
1 brasiliana (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)98 vNE India, E Bangladesh, continental SE Asia (except N and E), Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and satellites (except Simeulue), Borneo, W Java
1 mecynorhyncha (Oberholser, 1912) vSimeulue I. (NW Sumatra)
1 eumecis (Oberholser, 1917) Anamba Is. (Indonesia)
1 axantha (Oberholser, 1932) vNatuna Is. (Indonesia)
2 henkei (A.B. Meyer, 1884)99 N Luzon and satellites (Philippines)
2 sperata (Linnaeus, 1766) vC and S Luzon, Polillo, Catanduanes (Philippines)
2 trochilus (Salomonsen, 1953)100 Maratua I. (off E Borneo); Palawan and satellites, Mindoro, Romblon, Masbate and Samar south to Negros, Cebu and E Mindanao (Philippines)
2 juliae (Tweeddale, 1877)101 W and C Mindanao, Sulu Arch. (Philippines)
Leptocoma aspasia Black Sunbird
talautensis (A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1894) vTalaud Is. (N Sulawesi)
sangirensis (A.B. Meyer, 1874) vSangir (Sangir Is.)
grayi (Wallace, 1865) N Sulawesi and nearby satellites
porphyrolaema (Wallace, 1865) vSulawesi and satellites, except N and Banggai and Sula Is.
auriceps (G.R. Gray, 1861)102 αBanggai Is., Sula Is. and N Moluccas
auricapilla (Mees, 1965) Kayoa (N Moluccas)
aspasioides (G.R. Gray, 1861)103 αS and SE Moluccas to Watubela Is., Aru Is. (SW New Guinea)
proserpina (Wallace, 1863) Buru (S Moluccas)
chlorolaema (Salvadori, 1874) vKai Is. (SE Moluccas)
cochrani (Stresemann & Paludan, 1932) Waigeo (Western Papuan Is.)104
mariae (Ripley, 1959) Kafiau (Western Papuan Is.)
aspasia (Lesson & Garnot, 1828)105,106 vLowland New Guinea, Misool, Gag, Adi, Yapen, Karkar and Manam Is.
mysorensis (A.B. Meyer, 1874) vBiak I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
maforensis (A.B. Meyer, 1874) vNumfoor I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
nigriscapularis (Salvadori, 1876) vMios Num I. and small islands towards Biak I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
salvadorii (Shelley, 1877) Small islands west of Yapen I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
veronica (Mees, 1965) Liki I. (Kumamba Is., off NC New Guinea)
cornelia (Salvadori, 1878) Tarawai I. (off NC New Guinea)
christianae (Tristram, 1889) D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Louisiade Arch., Woodlark I.
caeruleogula (Mees, 1965) New Britain, Umboi (Bismarck Arch.)
corinna (Salvadori, 1878) New Ireland, New Hanover, Hibernian Is. (Bismarck Arch.)
eichhorni (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1926) Feni Is. (Hibernian Is.)
Leptocoma calcostetha   (Jardine, 1843) Copper-throated Sunbird
vCoasts of SW, S and far-SE continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Balabac and Palawan (W Philippines)
NECTARINIA Illiger, 1811 F - Certhia famosa Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 12).   
Nectarinia bocagii 107  Shelley, 1879 Bocage's Sunbird
iAngola, S DR Congo
Nectarinia purpureiventris   (Reichenow, 1893) Purple-breasted Sunbird
vSW Uganda, E DR Congo, Rwanda, Burundi
Nectarinia tacazze108 Tacazze Sunbird
tacazze (Stanley, 1814) Eritrea, Ethiopia
jacksoni Neumann, 1899 SE South Sudan, N and E Uganda, W Kenya, N Tanzania
Nectarinia kilimensis Bronzy Sunbird
kilimensis Shelley, 1885109 αvE DR Congo to S Uganda, W and C Kenya, N Tanzania
arturi P.L. Sclater, 1906 S Tanzania, Malawi, NE Zambia, E Zimbabwe
gadowi Bocage, 1892 WC Angola
Nectarinia famosa Malachite Sunbird
cupreonitens Shelley, 1876110 Ethiopia to E DR Congo, Tanzania and N Malawi
famosa (Linnaeus, 1766)111 vSouth Africa, E Zimbabwe, W Mozambique
Nectarinia johnstoni Scarlet-tufted Sunbird
johnstoni Shelley, 1885 W and C Kenya, N Tanzania
dartmouthi Ogilvie-Grant, 1906 E DR Congo to W Rwanda, SW Uganda
nyikensis Delacour, 1944112,113 vS Tanzania, NE Zambia, N Malawi
itombwensis Prigogine, 1977 vE DR Congo (Itombwe Highlands) [Prigogine, 1977 #3141]
DREPANORHYNCHUS G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884 M - Drepanorhynchus reichenowi G.A. Fischer, 1884; type by original designation   114
Drepanorhynchus reichenowi Golden-winged Sunbird
shellyae (Prigogine, 1952) E DR Congo
lathburyi (J.G. Williams, 1956) N Kenya
reichenowi G.A. Fischer, 1884 S Uganda to C and S Kenya, NE Tanzania
CINNYRIS Cuvier, 1816 M - Certhia splendida Shaw, 1811; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 19). = Certhia coccinigastra Latham, 1801  115,116,117,118
Cinnyris chloropygius Olive-bellied Sunbird
kempi Ogilvie-Grant, 1910 Senegal to SW Nigeria
chloropygius (Jardine, 1842)119 vBioko, SE Nigeria to NW Angola and W DR Congo
orphogaster Reichenow, 1899120 NE Angola, C and E DR Congo, SW South Sudan, SW Ethiopia, Uganda, NW Tanzania, W Kenya
Cinnyris minullus 121  Reichenow, 1899 Tiny Sunbird
vBioko; Sierra Leone and Liberia to DR Congo and W Uganda
Cinnyris manoensis122 Miombo Double-collared Sunbird
manoensis Reichenow, 1907123 vSE Tanzania, SE Zambia, Zimbabwe, N Mozambique
pintoi (Wolters, 1965) Angola, S DR Congo, Zambia, N Malawi
amicorum (Clancey, 1970) S Mozambique (Mt. Gorongoza) [Clancey, 1970 #844]
Cinnyris chalybeus124 Southern Double-collared Sunbird
subalaris Reichenow, 1899 vE South Africa (Limpopo to KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape), Swaziland
chalybeus (Linnaeus, 1766)125 vS and W South Africa to S Namibia
Cinnyris neergaardi   C.H.B. Grant, 1908 Neergaard's Sunbird
iS Mozambique, E South Africa (N KwaZulu-Natal)
Cinnyris afer 126  (Linnaeus, 1766) Greater Double-collared Sunbird
vE and S South Africa
Cinnyris stuhlmanni127 Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird
stuhlmanni Reichenow, 1893 Rwenzori Mts. (NE DR Congo/W Uganda)
graueri Neumann, 1908128 E DR Congo, W Burundi, Rwanda, SW Uganda
chapini Prigogine, 1952 E DR Congo (west of Lake Edward)
prigoginei J.D. Macdonald, 1958129 SE DR Congo (Marungu Highlands)
Cinnyris ludovicensis130 Ludwig's Double-collared Sunbird
ludovicensis (Bocage, 1868)131,132 αvW Angola
whytei Benson, 1948 NE Zambia, N Malawi
Cinnyris reichenowi Northern Double-collared Sunbird
preussi Reichenow, 1892 Bioko, SE Nigeria, Cameroon
reichenowi Sharpe, 1891133 NE DR Congo to Rwanda, W Uganda, SE South Sudan, W and C Kenya
Cinnyris regius Regal Sunbird
regius Reichenow, 1893134 vE DR Congo to W Uganda.
anderseni J.G. Williams, 1950 W Tanzania
Cinnyris rockefelleri   Chapin, 1932 Rockefeller's Sunbird
iE DR Congo
Cinnyris mediocris 135  Shelley, 1885 Eastern Double-collared Sunbird
W and C Kenya, N Tanzania
Cinnyris usambaricus 136  Grote, 1922 Usambara Double-collared Sunbird
vSE Kenya, NE Tanzania
Cinnyris fuelleborni Forest Double-collared Sunbird
fuelleborni Reichenow, 1899 C and S Tanzania, N Malawi, NE Zambia
bensoni J.G. Williams, 1953 S Malawi, N Mozambique
Cinnyris moreaui 137  W.L. Sclater, 1933 Moreau's Sunbird
iNE and E Tanzania
Cinnyris loveridgei   E. Hartert, 1922 Loveridge's Sunbird
iUluguru Mts. (E Tanzania)
Cinnyris pulchellus Beautiful Sunbird
pulchellus (Linnaeus, 1766)138 vMauritania and Senegal to W Ethiopia, Uganda and NW Kenya
melanogastrus (G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884) vW and S Kenya, Tanzania
Cinnyris mariquensis Mariqua Sunbird/Marico Sunbird
osiris (Finsch, 1870)139 αEthiopia and Eritrea to N Kenya, N Uganda
suahelicus Reichenow, 1891 vS Uganda, W and C Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, NE Zambia
mariquensis A. Smith, 1836140 vS Angola, SW Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, N and E South Africa, S Mozambique.
Cinnyris shelleyi Shelley's Sunbird
hofmanni Reichenow, 1915 E Tanzania
shelleyi Alexander, 1899 SC Tanzania to C Zambia and N Mozambique
Cinnyris congensis   (van Oort, 1910) Congo Sunbird
vC PR Congo, DR Congo (middle R. Congo and lower R. Ubangi)
Cinnyris erythrocercus 141  (Hartlaub, 1857) Red-chested Sunbird
vSouth Sudan, Uganda to E DR Congo, W Kenya and NW Tanzania
Cinnyris nectarinioides Black-bellied Sunbird
erlangeri (Reichenow, 1905) S Ethiopia, S Somalia, NE Kenya
nectarinioides Richmond, 1897 E Kenya to NE Tanzania
Cinnyris bifasciatus Purple-banded Sunbird
bifasciatus (Shaw, 1812)142 vGabon to W Angola
microrhynchus Shelley, 1876143 vUganda to S Somalia, south to E and S Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique and KwaZulu-Natal.
Cinnyris tsavoensis   van Someren, 1922 Tsavo Purple-banded Sunbird
vSE Kenya, NE Tanzania
Cinnyris chalcomelas 144  Reichenow, 1905 Violet-breasted Sunbird
iS Somalia, SE Kenya
Cinnyris pembae   Reichenow, 1905 Pemba Sunbird
iPemba I.
Cinnyris bouvieri   Shelley, 1877 Orange-tufted Sunbird
iE Nigeria to W Kenya, south to N Angola and NW Zambia
Cinnyris osea Palestine Sunbird
osea Bonaparte, 1856 Lebanon and SW Syria to Sinai, and W and S Arabia to S Oman
decorsei Oustalet, 1904 E Cameroon to SW Sudan, South Sudan, NE DR Congo
Cinnyris habessinicus Shining Sunbird
kinneari Bates, G.L., 1935 W Saudi Arabia
hellmayri Neumann, 1904 Extreme SW Saudi Arabia, Yemen, S Oman
habessinicus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828) vNE Sudan to N and C Ethiopia
alter Neumann, 1906145 vE Ethiopia, N Somalia
turkanae van Someren, 1920 S Ethiopia, N Kenya, NE Uganda, S Somalia
Cinnyris coccinigastrus 146  (Latham, 1801) α Splendid Sunbird
vSenegal to NE DR Congo
Cinnyris johannae Johanna's Sunbird
fasciatus (Jardine & Fraser, 1852) vSierra Leone to Ghana
johannae J. & E. Verreaux, 1851 SE Nigeria and S Cameroon to DR Congo and NW Angola (Cabinda)
Cinnyris superbus Superb Sunbird
ashantiensis Bannerman, 1922 vSierra Leone to Togo
nigeriae (Rand & Traylor, 1959) S Benin and S Nigeria
superbus (Shaw, 1809)147 αvS Cameroon to DR Congo, Angola
buvuma van Someren, 1932 NE DR Congo, Uganda
Cinnyris rufipennis   (Jensen, 1983) Rufous-winged Sunbird
vEC Tanzania (Udzungwa Mts.)
Cinnyris oustaleti Oustalet's Sunbird
oustaleti (Bocage, 1878) C Angola
rhodesiae Benson, 1955 W Tanzania, NE Zambia
Cinnyris talatala 148,149  A. Smith, 1836 White-bellied Sunbird
S Angola, S Zambia and Mozambique to NE Namibia, N and E Botswana, N and E South Africa
Cinnyris venustus Variable Sunbird
venustus (Shaw, 1799)150 vSenegal to Cameroon
fazoqlensis (von Heuglin, 1874)151,152 ΘvS Sudan, N and W Ethiopia, Eritrea
albiventris (Strickland, 1852)153 vSomalia, E Ethiopia, NE Kenya
falkensteini G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884 S South Sudan, W and S Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia to Angola, C and E Zimbabwe, C Mozambique
igneiventris Reichenow, 1899 vUganda, Rwanda, E DR Congo
Cinnyris fuscus Dusky Sunbird
fuscus Vieillot, 1819 vNamibia, SW Botswana, W and C South Africa
inclusus (Clancey, 1970) vCoastal SW and W Angola [Clancey, 1970 #842]
Cinnyris ursulae   (Alexander, 1903) Ursula's Sunbird
iBioko, SE Nigeria, W Cameroon
Cinnyris batesi   Ogilvie-Grant, 1908 Bates's Sunbird
iBioko, Liberia to E DR Congo, south to NW Zambia
Cinnyris cupreus Copper Sunbird
cupreus (Shaw, 1812)154 vSenegal to N and E DR Congo, W Ethiopia, W Kenya, NW Tanzania
chalceus (Hartlaub, 1862) vS DR Congo, S Tanzania to Angola, Zambia, N Zimbabwe
Cinnyris asiaticus Purple Sunbird
brevirostris (Blanford, 1873) vPersian Gulf east to NE Afghanistan, Pakistan, NW India
asiaticus (Latham, 1790) vHimalayan foothills from Kashmir to Sikkim, India (except NW and NE), Sri Lanka
intermedius (Hume, 1870) vS Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from Bhutan, NE India, Bangladesh, continental SE Asia except NE and SC
Cinnyris jugularis155 Olive-backed Sunbird
1 andamanicus (Hume, 1873) vCoco Is. (off Myanmar), Andamans
1 proselius Oberholser, 1923 vCar Nicobar (Nicobars)
1 klossi (Richmond, 1902)156 S Nicobars
1 rhizophorae (Swinhoe, 1869)157 S China from SE Yunnan to Guangdong and Hainan, NE continental SE Asia
1 flammaxillaris (Blyth, 1845) vContinental SE Asia (except NE), Thai-Malay Pen. except S
1 ornatus Lesson, 1827 vS Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Lesser Sundas east to Lomblen
1 polyclystus Oberholser, 1912 vEnggano I. (SW Sumatra)
1 aurora (Tweeddale, 1878) Balabac, Palawan and satellites (Philippines)
1 obscurior Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 vN Luzon (Philippines)
1 jugularis (Linnaeus, 1766) vPhilippines (except ranges of aurora and obscurior), south to Basilan
1 woodi (Mearns, 1909) Sulu Arch.
1 plateni (W. Blasius, 1885)158 Sulawesi and N and SW satellites, including Sangir and Talaud Is.
1 infrenatus E. Hartert, 1903 vButon I. and Tukangbesi Is. (off SE Sulawesi)
1 teysmanni Büttikofer, 1893 Tanahjampea I., Kalao I. (Flores Sea)
2 clementiae Lesson, 1827 S and SE Moluccas to Watubela Is. (except Buru)
2 buruensis E. Hartert, 1910 vBuru (S Moluccas)
2 keiensis Stresemann, 1913 vKai Is. (SE Moluccas)
2 idenburgi Rand, 1940 Lowland N New Guinea (R. Tariku-Taritatu basin, local in R. Sepik-Ramu basin)
3 robustirostris (Mees, 1964) vBanggai and Sula Is. (E Sulawesi)
3 frenatus (S. Müller, 1843) vN Moluccas, lowland New Guinea (except range of idenburgi), Aru Is., D'Entrecasteaux Arch. and N and E Queensland
3 flavigastra (Gould, 1843)159 Bismarck Arch., Solomons
Cinnyris buettikoferi   E. Hartert, 1896 Apricot-breasted Sunbird
iSumba (Lesser Sundas)
Cinnyris solaris Flame-breasted Sunbird
solaris (Temminck, 1825)160 vSumbawa east to Alor and Timor (Lesser Sundas)
exquisitus E. Hartert, 1904161,162 δvWetar (Lesser Sundas)
Cinnyris sovimanga163 Madagascar Sunbird
aldabrensis Ridgway, 1894164 αvAldabra (Aldabra Is.)
abbotti Ridgway, 1894165 αAssomption (Aldabra Is.)
buchenorum J.G. Williams, 1953 Cosmolédo Atoll (Aldabra Is.)
sovimanga (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)166 δMadagascar (except SW), Iles Glorieuses
apolis E. Hartert, 1920 SW Madagascar
Cinnyris humbloti Humblot's Sunbird
humbloti A. Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885 Grande Comore (Comoros)
mohelicus Stresemann & Grote, 1926 vMohéli (Comoros)
Cinnyris comorensis 167  W. Peters, 1864 Anjouan Sunbird
vAnjouan (Comoros) [Peters, 1864 #15563]
Cinnyris coquerellii   (Hartlaub, 1860) Mayotte Sunbird
iMayotte (Comoros)
Cinnyris dussumieri 168  (Hartlaub, 1861) α Seychelles Sunbird
iSeychelles
Cinnyris notatus Long-billed Sunbird
moebii Reichenow, 1887 Grande Comore (Comoros)
voeltzkowi Reichenow, 1905 Mohéli (Comoros)
notatus (Statius Muller, 1776) vMadagascar
Cinnyris lotenius Loten's Sunbird
hindustanicus Whistler, 1944 vS India
lotenius (Linnaeus, 1766) vSri Lanka
AETHOPYGA Cabanis, 1851 F - Certhia siparaja Raffles, 1822; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 19).   169,170
Aethopyga duyvenbodei 171  (Schlegel, 1871) Elegant Sunbird
iSangir (Sangir Is.)
Aethopyga ignicauda Fire-tailed Sunbird
ignicauda (Hodgson, 1836)172 αW Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from E Himachal Pradesh, uplands of far-NE India, E Bangladesh, N Myanmar
flavescens E.C.S. Baker, 1921 Uplands of Mizoram (NE India) and W Myanmar
Aethopyga saturata Black-throated Sunbird
saturata (Hodgson, 1836) vHimalayan foothills from W Uttarakhand to Bhutan
assamensis (Horsfield, 1840)173 αvUplands of W Yunnan, Himalayan foothills in Arunachal Pradesh, uplands of NE India, W and N Myanmar
galenae Deignan, 1948 Mountains of NW Thailand
petersi Deignan, 1948 Uplands of SW and S China to Guangdong, N continental SE Asia east from E Myanmar and NE Thailand
ochra Deignan, 1948 Bolovens plateau (S Laos), mountains of C Vietnam
johnsi Robinson & Kloss, 1919 Langbian mountains (SC Vietnam)
cambodiana Delacour, 1948 vMountains of SE Thailand and SW Cambodia
sanguinipectus Walden, 1875 Mountains of SE Myanmar including N Tenasserim
anomala Richmond, 1900 vMountains of N Thai-Malay Pen.
wrayi Sharpe, 1887 Mountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
Aethopyga nipalensis Green-tailed Sunbird
horsfieldi (Blyth, 1843)174 αHimalayan foothills in Uttarakhand and W Nepal
nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836)175 αvHimalayan foothills east from C Nepal
koelzi Ripley, 1948 SE Xizang, SW China to SW Sichuan, uplands of far-NE India, N Myanmar, NW Vietnam
victoriae Rippon, 1904 Uplands of Mizoram (NE India) and W Myanmar
karenensis Ticehurst, 1939 vUplands of E Myanmar
angkanensis Riley, 1929 vMountains of NW Thailand
blanci Delacour & Greenway, 1939 Mountains of NC and C Laos
ezrai Delacour, 1926 Mountains of S Vietnam
australis Robinson & Kloss, 1923 vMountains of N Thai-Malay Pen.
Aethopyga gouldiae Mrs. Gould's Sunbird
gouldiae (Vigors, 1831) SE Xizang, Himalayan foothills east from Himachal Pradesh
isolata E.C.S. Baker, 1925 vNE India, E Bangladesh, W Myanmar
dabryii (J. Verreaux, 1867) EC and S China, N and EC continental SE Asia >> uplands of C and SE Myanmar, W and N Thailand
annamensis Robinson & Kloss, 1919 vBolovens plateau (S Laos), Langbian mountains (SC Vietnam)
Aethopyga temminckii   (S. Müller, 1843) Temminck's Sunbird
iC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo
Aethopyga mystacalis 176  (Temminck, 1822) Javan Sunbird
vJava
Aethopyga shelleyi   Sharpe, 1876 Lovely Sunbird
iBalabac, Palawan and satellites (W Philippines)
Aethopyga vigorsii 177  (Sykes, 1832) Vigors's Sunbird
WC India
Aethopyga siparaja178 Crimson Sunbird
1 seheriae (Tickell, 1833) Himalayan foothills from Himachal Pradesh to Sikkim, N India
1 labecula (Horsfield, 1840)179,180 S Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from Bhutan, NE India, Bangladesh, Myanmar (except S and SE), NW Laos, NW Vietnam [Horsfield, 1840 #2009]
2 nicobarica Hume, 1873 vS Nicobars
1 cara Hume, 1874 vSE Myanmar including Tenasserim, N Thailand, N Thai-Malay Pen.
1 owstoni Rothschild, 1910 S China on Naozhou I. (S Guangdong)
1 tonkinensis E. Hartert, 1917 vS China in Guangxi, NE Vietnam
1 insularis Delacour & Jabouille, 1928 vPhu Quoc I. (far-S Vietnam)
1 mangini Delacour & Jabouille, 1924 EC and SE continental SE Asia
2 trangensis Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 vC Thai-Malay Pen.
2 siparaja (Raffles, 1822) S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo including Maratua I. and Karimata Is.
2 natunae Chasen, 1935181 αN Natuna Is. (Indonesia)
2 heliogona Oberholser, 1923 vW Java
3 flavostriata (Wallace, 1865) vN Sulawesi
3 beccarii Salvadori, 1875 SW and SE Sulawesi and satellites
Aethopyga magnifica 182  Sharpe, 1878 Magnificent Sunbird
vTablas, Sibuyan, Panay, Negros, Cebu (Philippines)
Aethopyga jefferyi 183,184  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) δ Jeffery's Sunbird/Luzon Sunbird
Uplands of N and C Luzon (Philippines)
Aethopyga pulcherrima   Sharpe, 1876 Metallic-winged Sunbird
vSamar and Leyte south to Mindanao and Basilan (Philippines)
Aethopyga decorosa 185  (McGregor, 1907) McGregor's Sunbird/Bohol Sunbird
vBohol (Philippines)
Aethopyga flagrans Flaming Sunbird
decolor Parkes, 1963 N Luzon (Philippines)
flagrans Oustalet, 1876 C and S Luzon, Catanduanes (Philippines)
Aethopyga guimarasensis186 Ilongo Sunbird/Maroon-naped Sunbird
guimarasensis (Steere, 1890) vPanay, Guimaras (Philippines)
daphoenonota Parkes, 1963187 vNegros (Philippines)
Aethopyga bella Handsome Sunbird
flavipectus Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 N Luzon (Philippines)
minuta Bourns & Worcester, 1894 vC and S Luzon, Polillo, Marinduque, Mindoro (Philippines) [Bourns, 1894 #459]
rubrinota McGregor, 1905 Lubang (Philippines)
bella Tweeddale, 1877 vSamar and Leyte to Mindanao (Philippines)
bonita Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Masbate, Ticao, Panay, Negros, Cebu (Philippines)
arolasi Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Jolo and Tawi-Tawi (Sulu Arch.)
Aethopyga eximia   (Horsfield, 1821) White-flanked Sunbird
vMountains of Java
Aethopyga christinae Fork-tailed Sunbird
latouchii H.H. Slater, 1891 C, S and SE China, C Laos, N and C Vietnam
sokolovi Stepanyan, 1985 S Vietnam [Stepanyan, 1985 #3719]
christinae Swinhoe, 1869 Hainan
Aethopyga linaraborae   Kennedy, Gonzales & H. Miranda, 1997 Lina's Sunbird
iMountains of SE Mindanao (Philippines) [Kennedy, 1997 #2200]
Aethopyga primigenia Grey-hooded Sunbird
diuatae Salomonsen, 1953 Mountains of NE Mindanao (Philippines)
primigenia (Hachisuka, 1941) vMountains of WC and E Mindanao (Philippines)
Aethopyga boltoni188 Apo Sunbird
malindangensis Rand & Rabor, 1957 vMountains of NC and W Mindanao (Philippines)
boltoni Mearns, 1905 Mountains of C Mindanao (Philippines)
tibolii Kennedy, Gonzales & H. Miranda, 1997 Mountains of S Mindanao (Philippines) [Kennedy, 1997 #2200]

1 Sequence of genera largely unchanged as published details of taxon sampling has been strong only in Aethopyga and Arachnothera. The retention of multiple genera derived from the broad genus Nectarinia reflects a wish to defer a new round of changes until much more complete taxon sampling results are published.
2 Modifications made to that sequence place Arachnothera first following Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801]. Kurochkinegramma (previously Hypogramma) is placed next on the evidence in Moyle et al. (2011) [Moyle, 2011 #13442] that this nested within Arachnothera.
3 Species sequence based on Moyle et al. (2011) [Moyle, 2011 #13442]; but see note to genus Kurochkinegramma.
4 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
5 These two taxa named on the same page and depicted in the same plate; precedence assigned to robusta by Chasen (1935) [Chasen, 1935 #708] who may be seen as the First Reviser.
6 For treatment as a separate species from A. longirostra see Moyle et al. (2011) [Moyle, 2011 #13442]. See also Rahman et al. (2010) [Rahman, 2010 #12467].
7 Subspecies groups derive from proposed treatment of the Palawan taxon as a species separate from A. longirostra by Moyle et al. (2011) [Moyle, 2011 #13442].
8 Unusual individual and sexual variability of size, including of bill-length, of mainland cinereicollis puts at risk the separate status of at least some of the small-island taxa of the Sunda region.
9 For recognition see van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920].
10 Correct original spelling. Spelling zharina in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
11 Treated as a separate species by Moyle et al. (2011) [Moyle, 2011 #13442].
12 Dated 1837 by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] but see Dickinson & Pittie (2009) [Dickinson, 2009 #11609].
13 Treated as a synonym of musarum by Wells (2007) [Wells, 2007 #10194] extending the range of this to the Thai-Malay peninsula (instead of the nominate form).
14 Dated 1822 by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Raphael (1970) [Raphael, 1970 #3206].
15 For treatment as a separate species from A. affinis see Davison (2000) [Davison, 2000 #1136]. Perhaps monotypic as subspecies distinctions not well defined.
16 Treated as a subspecies of A. affinis by Chasen (1935) [Chasen, 1935 #708], Smythies (1957, 1960, 1999) [Smythies, 1957 #3666], [Smythies, 1960 #4438], [Smythies, 1999 #3667], but as a separate species by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]. Separate status confirmed by findings of by Moyle et al. (2011) [Moyle, 2011 #13442].
17 Probably includes pars see Davison (2000) [Davison, 2000 #1136].
18 This name was proposed as a replacement name for Hypogramma Reichenbach, 1853, which is preoccupied by Hypogramma Guennee, 1852 (Lepidoptera). For a review of this proposal see Gregory & Dickinson (2012) [Gregory, 2012 #13835]. Use here provisional as may eventually prove better subsumed in Arachnothera.
19 Moyle et al. (2011) [Moyle, 2011 #13442] in part of their results found this embedded in Arachnothera. This requires corroboration and the genus is here maintained on morphological grounds.
20 Dates from June 1843 thus taking precedence over nuchale which dates from November 13 or later.
21 Treated in a broad genus Anthreptes by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719] and Mann (2002) [Mann, 2002 #2476].
22 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
23 The date 1788 in Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] was erroneous.
24 Late publication evident from printer's code on back of the cover of this issue; see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
25 Treated in a broad genus Anthreptes by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
26 Subspecies groups follow treatment of axillaris as an incipient species by Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887].
27 Acceptance of this source and authorship follows Iredale (1951) [Iredale, 1951 #10434] who dated appearance of this name in Jardine's The Naturalists' Library 1843. Sheets-Pyenson (1981) [Sheets-Pyenson, 1981 #10433] misrepresented his data and inferred 1842.
28 Dual original spellings; First Reviser probably Reichenow (1904) [Reichenow, 1904 #15387].
29 For inclusion of this taxon here see Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417]. But see Cheke & Mann (2001, 2008) [Cheke, 2001 #719], [Cheke, 2008 #12246] for treatment as a separate species.
30 Includes Rhizophorornis Wolters, 1977 [Wolters, 1977 #4260].
31 Determining the correct author of this name is problematic; Hartert appears to have read a paper by and on behalf of van Someren.
32 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361]. See also Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246], who accept two species, recognising A. griseigularis as a species. Molecular studies may well detect more than three species.
33 Birds of the Anamba Is. named anambae were placed here by Chasen (1935) [Chasen, 1935 #708]. But see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719] for acceptance of that form.
34 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
35 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
36 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
37 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
38 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
39 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
40 Includes citrinus, extremus and nesophilus Eck, 1976 [Eck, 1976 #1476]; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
41 For correct date of publication see p. xiv in the original work.
42 Considered to form a superspecies with A. orientalis and A. neglectus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; to this A. aurantius was added by Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
43 Includes haussarum see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190] and Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631]. But see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
44 Dated 1831 by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] but cited from Lesson's Illustrations de Zoologie these being dated 1833 by Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296]; however this name was published earlier, see Sherborn (1927) [Sherborn, 1927 #15555]. This was within an anonymous review of the manuscript and 'v�lins' for the first 10 plate part almost certainly written by Lesson himself as advance promotion for his work.
45 Treated as monotypic by White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190] and by Irwin (2000) [Irwin, 2000 #2087], thus implicitly including neumanni.
46 Spelling aurantium in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS. Variable.
47 When placed in a broad genus Nectarinia this name is preoccupied and the name traylori must be used see Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198].
48 Forms a superspecies with A. rubritorques; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
49 Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801] found this in a different clade from A. malaccensis so that Anthreptes is polyphyletic. However, published information is available for too few species to allow changes now.
50 Includes pujoli see Érard (1979) [Érard, 1979 #1525].
51 Cited from '1811-1812' by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; see Sherborn (1930) [Sherborn, 1930 #14154] for 1812.
52 Implicitly includes amadoni Eisentraut, 1973 [Eisentraut, 1973 #1496] see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
53 Authors not Jardine & Selby as mistakenly cited by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
54 For delay in publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12713].
55 For treatment as a separate species from A. rectirostris; see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887].
56 Anthodiaeta is in synonymy as long as the species collaris is included here. Wolters (1977) [Wolters, 1977 #4260] by treating Anthodiaeta as a subgenus of Hedydipna acted as First Reviser in assigning precedence to the latter name.
57 Treated in a broad genus Anthreptes by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
58 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
59 Authors not Jardine & Selby as mistakenly cited by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
60 For delay in publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12713].
61 Includes jubaensis see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
62 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719] and Brown in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724] who had patersonae and beverleyae in synonymy.
63 Forms a superspecies with H. metallica; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
64 For a discussion of separation from H. platura see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
65 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
66 Considered to form a superspecies with A. hartlaubii and A. newtonii; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
67 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
68 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
69 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
70 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
71 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
72 Cited from '1811-1812' by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; see Sherborn (1925) [Sherborn, 1925 #15559] for 1812. Perhaps validly published by Bechstein one year earlier.
73 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12713].
74 Correct original spelling. Spelling marunguensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
75 Treated as a single broad species following Bowie et al. (2004) [Bowie, 2004 #462].
76 Iredale (1951) [Iredale, 1951 #10434] dated the appearance of this name in Jardine's The Naturalists' Library 1843. Sheets-Pyenson (1981) [Sheets-Pyenson, 1981 #10433] misrepresented his data and inferred 1842.
77 Includes intercalans Clancey, 1978 [Clancey, 1978 #890] see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
78 The original spelling veroxii is accompanied by internal evidence which we believe requires correction under Art. 32.5 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]. The original spelling is in overwhelming use and, having been brought to our attention, that is not here disputed; however, equally frequent objections arise when a name cannot be 'corrected'; for example where the name lopesi or lopozi is examined. See also vol. 1, p. xxi of this book, and Appendix 8 to each volume (on each CD-ROM).
79 Cover of this issue of the South African Quarterly Journal dated 1832 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
80 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
81 Includes Cirrothorax Wolters, 1977 [Wolters, 1977 #4260].
82 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
83 Date open to question, see Sherborn (1922) [Sherborn, 1922 #15557]. The 'Table Méthodique des années 1831-1838' provided by the publisher dates this 1833, but 'Juillet, 1834' appears on the page and this may not be an error.
84 Iredale (1951) [Iredale, 1951 #10434] dated appearance of this name in Jardine's The Naturalists' Library 1843. Sheets-Pyenson (1981) [Sheets-Pyenson, 1981 #10433] misrepresented his data and inferred 1842.
85 Cited from '1811-1812' by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; see Sherborn (1926) [Sherborn, 1926 #15560] for 1812. Perhaps validly published by Bechstein one year earlier.
86 Treated as a synonym of kirkii by Cheke & Mann (2001, 2008) [Cheke, 2001 #719], [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
87 Includes doggetti, see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
88 Includes adjuncta Clancey, 1975 [Clancey, 1975 #876], see Tree in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
89 Cited from '1811-1812' by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; see Sherborn (1923) [Sherborn, 1923 #15558] for 1812.
90 Includes cruentata; see Opinion 2187 [I.C.Z.N., 2007] [I.C.Z.N., 2007 #10374].
91 For recognition see Irwin (1981) [Irwin, 1981 #2080]. But see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
92 Treated as monotypic by Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631], thus includes siccata Clancey, 1986 [Clancey, 1986 #933]. But see Cheke & Mann (2001, 2008) [Cheke, 2001 #719], [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
93 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
94 Includes Chalcostetha; Steinheimer (2008) [Steinheimer, 2008 #10903] acting as First Reviser assigned precedence to Leptocoma over Chalcostetha.
95 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
96 Subspecies groups follow Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719]; Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] treated them as separate species.
97 N. s. marinduquensis duPont, 1971 [duPont, 1971 #1443] is now thought to have been based on a specimen of Aethopyga magnifica, see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
98 Includes phayrei Blyth, 1843 [Blyth, 1843 #355] recognised in Smythies, 1953 [Smythies, 1953 #3665] but not in Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198].
99 The name thereseae applies to birds that are intergradient between henkei and sperata; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
100 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
101 Includes davaoensis applies to birds that are intergradient between juliae and trochilus, see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
102 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
103 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
104 Range restricted to Waigeo, following Mees (1965) [Mees, 1965 #2609]; but see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
105 Includes sericea Lesson, 1827 shown by Hachisuka (1952) [Hachisuka, 1952 #1861] to be a junior synonym in Cinnyris of sericea Bechstein, 1811 (a junior synonym of Nectarinia coccinigastra). Following Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] both were treated in the genus Nectarinia and the substitute name aspasia, put forward by Hachisuka, should have been used.
106 Since Lesson's name was replaced in 1952 it is permanently available, see Art. 57.2. Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] mistakenly followed Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198. Also includes vicina see Mees (1965) [Mees, 1965 #2609]; but see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
107 Correct original spelling restored by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198].
108 May form a superspecies with N. bocagii and N. purpureiventris; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
109 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
110 Includes aeneigularis see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
111 Includes major see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
112 The name salvadorii was found preoccupied and replaced prior to 1961 and should not have been restored when preoccupation no longer applied. See Art. 59.3 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]; the name is unavailable but also a synonym.
113 Reprint cover dated May 10, 1944.
114 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
115 Treated in a broad genus Nectarinia by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; but see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631] and Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
116 Includes three generic names proposed by Wolters (1977) [Wolters, 1977 #4260] namely Melanocinnyris, Chrysocinnyris and Haplocinnyris.
117 For date correction see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542].
118 Gender addressed by David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1125], multiple name changes occur.
119 Includes insularis and luehderi see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190]; the latter was misspelled luhderi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
120 Includes bineschensis see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631]. But see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
121 Includes amadoni; see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
122 For treatment as a separate species from C. chalybeus, see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
123 Includes gertrudis see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
124 Forms a superspecies with C. manoensis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
125 Includes albilateralis, see Smith & Tree in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
126 Includes saliens, see Smith in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724]. But see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
127 For treatment as a separate species from C. afer; see Clancey & Irwin (1978) [Clancey, 1978 #15631].
128 Includes schubotzi, see Chapin (1954) [Chapin, 1954 #15731]. But see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
129 For treatment at species rank see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2001, 2008) [Cheke, 2001 #719], [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
130 For treatment as a separate species from C. afer; see Clancey & Irwin (1978) [Clancey, 1978 #15631].
131 Includes erikssoni Trimen, 1882 [Trimen, 1882 #3878] see Brooke (1993) [Brooke, 1993 #513].
132 For date correction see Crawford-Cabral & Mesquitela (1989) [Crawford-Cabral, 1989 #15562].
133 Includes kikuyensis as used by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], who placed this is a broad genus Nectarinia where Cinnyris reichenowi Sharpe, 1891 was preoccupied by Drepanorhynchus reichenowi Fischer, 1884.
134 Includes kivuensis, see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
135 Until recently seen as conspecific with C. usambaricus and C. fuelleborni; best now seen as allospecies.
136 For treatment of this and C. fuelleborni as separate from C. mediocris see Bowie et al. (2004) [Bowie, 2004 #463].
137 For molecular validation of treatment as a separate species from C. loveridgei; see Bowie et al. (2004) [Bowie, 2004 #463].
138 Includes aegra and lucidipectus see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
139 For date correction see The Ibis, 1871, page 432.
140 Includes lucens Clancey, 1973 [Clancey, 1973 #865], see Bowie in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
141 Forms a superspecies with C. congensis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
142 Cited from '1811-1812' by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; see Sherborn (1924) [Sherborn, 1924 #15561] for 1812.
143 Includes strophium, see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
144 This and C. pembae were treated as separate species by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] and this treatment has been broadly adopted, see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631]. Now best seen as allospecies.
145 For correct spelling see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1124].
146 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
147 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9496].
148 Original spelling verified. Includes anderssoni see Fry (2000) [Fry, 2000 #1631].
149 Considered to form a superspecies with C. oustaleti; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
150 For clarification of authorship see Dickinson (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9496].
151 Spelling fazoglensis in Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] was an ISS.
152 For date correction see van den Elzen et al. (2011) [van den Elzen, 2011 #12758].
153 Includes blicki see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
154 Cited from '1811-1812' by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198]; see Sherborn (1925) [Sherborn, 1925 #15559] for 1812.
155 Two basic subspecies groups used follow Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246]; the third comes from Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
156 Extra subspecies blanfordi recognised by Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246]; but not by Rasmussen & Anderton (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479].
157 Includes tamdaoensis Vo Quy, 1981 [Vo Quy, 1981 #4032] see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246].
158 Includes meyeri and saleyerensis; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
159 For correct spelling see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1124].
160 Includes degener; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
161 White in White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194] considered exquisitus better treated as a synonym, Bruce disagreed. It is recognised by Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
162 Original spelling exquisita incorrectly retained in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]; correction for gender needed.
163 Forms a superspecies with C. humbloti and C. comorensis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246]; C. coquerellii was also included by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
164 For correct date of publication see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
165 For correct date of publication see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
166 Correct original spelling. Spelling souimanga in Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] and in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
167 Louette et al. (2004) [Louette, 2004 #15732] suggested that this should be seen as related to C. sovimanga.
168 Date of delayed publication, February 1861, appears on the cover of the journal issue.
169 Species sequence based on Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801]; with unscreened species interposed.
170 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
171 Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801] found this outside the core clade for Aethopyga. The genus-group name Duyvena Mathews, 1935, is available for such a monotypic genus.
172 Date 1837 used by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Dickinson & Pittie (2009) [Dickinson, 2009 #11609].
173 Introduced as a nomen nudum in 1837 by McClelland. Dated 1839 by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] and attributed to McClelland but see Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #1384].
174 Dated 1844-45 by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] following Baker (1930) [Baker, 1930 #163], but Mayr (1979) [Mayr, 1979 #2567] gave 1843 for taxa described in the same part of this article and Dickinson & Pittie (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9467] found no basis to change this.
175 Dated 1837 by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198], but see Dickinson & Pittie (2009) [Dickinson, 2009 #11609].
176 Forms a superspecies with A. temminckii; see Cheke & Mann (2008) [Cheke, 2008 #12246]; treated as conspecific by Rand (1967) [Rand, 1967 #3198] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], but see Mees (1986) [Mees, 1986 #2631].
177 For treatment as a species separate from A. siparaja see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
178 Subspecies groups tentative and drawn from Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801].
179 For recognition see Ripley (1961; 1982) [Ripley, 1961 #3310], [Ripley, 1982 #3332] who mentioned intergradation with seheriae, for which reason Deignan (1963) [Deignan, 1963 #1245] and others lumped the two taxa.
180 Implicitly includes terglanei er-Rashid, 1966 [er-Rashid, 1966 #1502]; see Rasmussen & Anderton (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #15479].
181 Date of issue determined from printer's code on back cover of issue.
182 For treatment as a separate species from A. siparaja; see Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801].
183 For treatment as a separate species from A. pulcherrima see Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801].
184 Correct original spelling. Spelling jeffreyi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
185 For treatment as a separate species from A. pulcherrima see Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801].
186 For treatment as a separate species from A. flagrans see Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801].
187 For recognition see Cheke & Mann (2001) [Cheke, 2001 #719].
188 For indications that subspecies tiboli may deserve treatment as a separate species see Hosner et al. (2013) [Hosner, 2013 #14801].
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