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PASSERIDAE - Sparrows, Snowfinches and allies (8:38)
PASSER Brisson, 1760 M - Passer Brisson; type by tautonymy = Fringilla domestica Linnaeus, 1758  
Passer ammodendri Saxaul Sparrow
ammodendri Gould, 18721 Iran, N Afghanistan, C Asia east to SC Kazakhstan
nigricans Stepanyan, 1961 C Asia in SE and E Kazakhstan, far-SW Mongolia, NW China in N Xinjiang
stoliczkae Hume, 18742 S Mongolia, NW to NC China from S Xinjiang to W Nei Mongol
Passer domesticus3 House Sparrow
1 domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758)4,5 vEurope (except S) and Siberia east to Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Russian Far East, N Hokkaido and far-NE China in NW Heilongjiang 6
1 balearoibericus von Jordans, 19237 vS Europe east to C Turkey (except Italy)
1 biblicus E. Hartert, 19048 vSE Turkey and Levant to NW Iran
1 hyrcanus Sarudny & Kudashev, 1916 vSE Azerbaijan, N Iran
1 persicus Sarudny & Kudashev, 19169 vC Iran to SW Afghanistan
1 tingitanus Loche, 186710 vNW Africa to NE Libya
1 niloticus Nicoll & Bonhote, 1909 vEgypt
2 indicus Jardine & Selby, 183111 αvSW Asia north to S Israel, S Asia, continental SE Asia (except S) east to Laos
2 bactrianus Sarudny & Kudashev, 1916 vNE Iran, C Asia from W Turkmenistan to S Kazakhstan and Tien Shan, far-NW China in NW Xinjiang, NW Pakistan >> Pakistan, NW India
2 parkini Whistler, 1920 Himalayan foothills from N Pakistan to Sikkim >> Pakistan, N India
2 hufufae Ticehurst & Cheesman, 1924 NE Arabia
2 rufidorsalis C.L. Brehm, 1855 vC and E Sudan, N Eritrea
Passer italiae 12  (Vieillot, 1817) Italian Sparrow
Corsica, Italy south of Alps (except Sardinia); Crete
Passer hispaniolensis Spanish Sparrow/Willow Sparrow
hispaniolensis (Temminck, 1820) vSW Europe, N Africa, W Asia Minor and the Balkans >> NE Africa, SW Asia13
transcaspicus von Tschusi, 1902 vCyprus and E Turkey east to Afghanistan, C Asia east to S Kazakhstan, NW China in Xinjiang >> SW Asia, E Pakistan, NW India
Passer pyrrhonotus 14  Blyth, 1845 α Sind Sparrow
vSE Iran, Pakistan, NW India
Passer castanopterus Somali Sparrow
fulgens Friedmann, 1931 Ethiopia, N Kenya
castanopterus Blyth, 1855 vSomalia
Passer cinnamomeus15 Russet Sparrow
cinnamomeus (Gould, 1836) vNE Afghanistan, S and SE Xizang, Himalayan foothills east from N Pakistan
intensior Rothschild, 192216 vYunnan, NE India, Myanmar (except S and SE), N Laos, N Vietnam >> N Thailand
rutilans (Temminck, 1836)17 αS Sakhalin and S Kuril Is., Japan south to C Honshu, Korea, E and S China to Taiwan
Passer flaveolus 18  Blyth, 1845 α Plain-backed Sparrow
vContinental SE Asia (except N Myanmar and N Vietnam), N and C Thai-Malay Pen.
Passer yatii 19  Sharpe, 1888 Afghan Sparrow
SE Iran and W Afghanistan >> W Pakistan
Passer moabiticus   Tristram, 1864 Dead Sea Sparrow
vS Turkey, N Syria, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, SW Iran
Passer iagoensis 20  (Gould, 1838) Cape Verde Sparrow/Iago Sparrow
vCape Verde Is.
Passer motitensis21 Rufous Sparrow/Great Sparrow
subsolanus Clancey, 1964 vSW Zimbabwe, E Botswana, NE South Africa
benguellensis Lynes, 1926 vSW Angola
motitensis (A. Smith, 1836) vNamibia, W, C and S Botswana, N South Africa
Passer insularis22 Socotra Sparrow
insularis P.L. Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 vSocotra
hemileucus Ogilvie-Grant & H.O. Forbes, 189923 αv'Abd al Kuri I. (off Socotra)
Passer cordofanicus24 Kordofan Sparrow
cordofanicus von Heuglin, 187425 αvSW Sudan
shelleyi Sharpe, 1891 S and E Ethiopia, NW Somalia, SE South Sudan, N Uganda, NW Kenya
rufocinctus G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884 vC Kenya to N Tanzania
Passer melanurus Cape Sparrow/Mossie
damarensis Reichenow, 1902 vSW Angola, Namibia, S and E Botswana, S Zimbabwe, N South Africa
melanurus (Statius Muller, 1776) vW, C, S and SE South Africa
vicinus Clancey, 1958 E South Africa (Gauteng to KwaZulu-Natal highlands), Lesotho
Passer griseus26 Northern Grey-headed Sparrow
1 swainsonii (Rüppell, 1840) NE Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, N Somalia
2 gongonensis (Oustalet, 1890) vSW Ethiopia, N and E Kenya, NE Tanzania
3 suahelicus Reichenow, 1904 vSW and S Kenya to C Tanzania
4 laeneni Niethammer, 195527 NE Nigeria, Chad
4 griseus (Vieillot, 1817) vMauritania and Senegal to C and S Sudan, W Eritrea south to C Ghana, C Nigeria
4 ugandae Reichenow, 190428 S Ghana, S Nigeria to South Sudan, south to Angola, Zambia, N Zimbabwe, and east to W Kenya, W and S Tanzania, Malawi
Passer diffusus Southern Grey-headed Sparrow
luangwae Benson, 1956 SE Zambia
mosambicus van Someren, 1921 vE Tanzania, N Malawi, NE Mozambique
diffusus (A. Smith, 1836) vW and S Angola, SW Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, W Zimbabwe, N South Africa
stygiceps Clancey, 195429,30 αN and E Zimbabwe, S Malawi, C and S Mozambique, E, C and S South Africa
Passer zarudnyi 31  Pleske, 1896 Sarudny's Sparrow
E Turkmenistan, C Uzbekistan (?E Iran)
Passer simplex Desert Sparrow
saharae von Erlanger, 189932 NW Sahara (Mauritania, Algeria, S Tunisia, W Libya)
simplex (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) S Sahara (C Mali, Niger, N Chad, NW and C Sudan)
Passer montanus Eurasian Tree Sparrow
montanus (Linnaeus, 1758) vEurope and SE Turkey east to Kamchatka and Commander Is., south to N Kazakhstan, Altai, NE Mongolia, far-NE China in NW Heilongjiang 33
dybowskii Domaniewski, 191534 Russian Far East, N Korea, NE China in C and E Heilongjiang
transcaucasicus Buturlin, 1906 vN and E Asia Minor and Caucasus area to N Iran and lower R. Volga
kansuensis Stresemann, 193235 vNC China in Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia
dilutus Richmond, 189636,37 αvE Iran, C Asia north to S Kazakhstan, W and S Mongolia, NW to NC China from Xinjiang to NW Gansu, Pakistan
tibetanus E.C.S. Baker, 1925 vS and Xizang and WC China in SE Qinghai and W Sichuan
saturatus Stejneger, 188538 vSakhalin and S Kuril Is., Japan to Ryukyu Is., S Korea, EC and E China to Taiwan, N Philippines
hepaticus Ripley, 194839 vSE Xizang, NE India in NE Arunachal Pradesh
malaccensis A.J.C. Dubois, 188740 αvS Yunnan and Hainan, Himalayan foothills east from Uttarakhand, NE India, SE Asia southeast to Timor (Lesser Sundas), Biak I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
Passer luteus   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Sudan Golden Sparrow
vSenegal to Sudan, Eritrea
Passer euchlorus 41,42  (Bonaparte, 1850) α Arabian Golden Sparrow
vSW Arabia, N Somalia
Passer eminibey   (Hartlaub, 1880) Chestnut Sparrow
iSW Sudan, South Sudan to W and S Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, N Tanzania
CARPOSPIZA J.W. von Müller, 1854 F - Carpospiza longipennis J.W. von Müller, 1854; type by monotypy = Petronia brachydactyla Bonaparte, 1850  43
Carpospiza brachydactyla 44  (Bonaparte, 1850) α Pale Rock Sparrow
vC and N Arabia, Lebanon, and SE Turkey to Iran and SW and S Turkmenistan >> NE Africa
PETRONIA Kaup, 1829 F - Fringilla petronia Linnaeus, 1766; type by tautonymy   
Petronia petronia Eurasian Rock Sparrow
petronia (Linnaeus, 1766)45 vS Europe, Madeira and Canary Is. to W Asia Minor
barbara von Erlanger, 1899 vNW Africa to NW Libya
puteicola Festa, 1894 S Turkey to Syria, N Israel and Jordan
exigua (Hellmayr, 1902) vC Turkey to N Caucasus, N Iraq and N Iran
kirhizica Sushkin, 192546 vLower R. Volga to Aral Sea
intermedia E. Hartert, 1901 vSW and E Iran, C Asia from W Turkmenistan to E Kazakhstan, NW China in Xinjiang >> Pakistan
brevirostris Taczanowski, 1874 vSE Siberia from Baikal to Altai, Mongolia, NC China from Qinghai to Nei Mongol and Hebei
GYMNORIS Blyth, 1845 F - Fringilla flavicollis Franklin, 1831; type by monotypy = Fringilla xanthocollis E. Burton, 1838  47,48
Gymnoris superciliaris Yellow-throated Bush Sparrow
rufitergum (Clancey, 1964) SE Gabon and S DR Congo to SW Tanzania, Angola, NE Namibia, NW Botswana
flavigula (Sundevall, 1850)49 SE Zambia, Zimbabwe to E Botswana, N South Africa
bororensis (Roberts, 1912)50 vE Tanzania to Mozambique, lowland NE South Africa
superciliaris Blyth, 1845 vSE South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape)
Gymnoris dentata 51  (Sundevall, 1850) Sahel Bush Sparrow
vSenegal to Ethiopia, SW Arabia
Gymnoris pyrgita52 Yellow-spotted Bush Sparrow
pallida Neumann, 1908 vSenegal, Mauritania to C Sudan
pyrgita (von Heuglin, 1862) vEritrea, Ethiopia and SE South Sudan to Somalia, Kenya, NE Tanzania
Gymnoris xanthocollis Chestnut-shouldered Bush Sparrow/Chestnut-shouldered Petronia
transfuga E. Hartert, 1904 vSW Asia east from E Turkey and Kuwait, S Afghanistan, C and S Pakistan >> NW India
xanthocollis (E. Burton, 1838) vNE Afghanistan, N Pakistan, S Nepal, India
MONTIFRINGILLA C.L. Brehm, 1831 F - Fringilla nivalis Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy   53
Montifringilla henrici 54,55  (Oustalet, 1892) α Tibetan Snowfinch/Prince Henri's Snowfinch
iNE Xizang to NC China in E Qinghai
Montifringilla nivalis White-winged Snowfinch
nivalis (Linnaeus, 1766) vS Europe (Spain and Alps to Greece)
leucura Bonaparte, 185556 vS and E Asia Minor [Bonaparte, 1855 #416]
alpicola (Pallas, 1811) Caucasus area, NW and N Iran, Afghanistan, W Pamir Mts.
gaddi Sarudny & von Loudon, 190457 SW and S Iran
tianshanica Keve, 194358,59 δvN Tajikistan to W and C Tien Shan Mts.
groumgrzimaili Sarudny & von Loudon, 190460 E Tien Shan Mts., Bogda Shan, Altai, Tuva Republic, Mongolia
kwenlunensis Bianchi, 1908 vN Xizang, NW China in S Xinjiang
Montifringilla adamsi Black-winged Snowfinch/Adams's Snowfinch
xerophila Stegmann, 1932 vNW China in SE Xinjiang and W and N Qinghai
adamsi Adams, 185961 αS and E Xizang, WC to NC China from W Sichuan to E Qinghai and SW Gansu, Himalayas from Ladakh to Sikkim
ONYCHOSTRUTHUS Richmond, 1917 M - Onychospiza taczanowskii Przevalski, 1876; type by monotypy   62
Onychostruthus taczanowskii   (Przevalski, 1876) White-rumped Snowfinch
iXizang, WC China from NW Sichuan to SW Gansu, Himalayas from SE Ladakh to NW Nepal
PYRGILAUDA J. Verreaux, 1871 F - Pyrgilauda davidiana J. Verreaux, 1871; type by monotypy   63,64
Pyrgilauda ruficollis Rufous-necked Snowfinch
isabellina Stegmann, 1932 vNW China in S Xinjiang
ruficollis (Blanford, 1871) vS and E Xizang, WC China in W Sichuan, Himalayas from Nepal to Sikkim
Pyrgilauda davidiana Père David's Snowfinch
potanini Sushkin, 1925 SE Russian Altai, Mongolia, SE Transbaikalia
davidiana J. Verreaux, 187165 vFar-S Mongolia, NC China from E Qinghai to C Nei Mongol
Pyrgilauda blanfordi Blanford's Snowfinch
barbata Przevalski, 188766 αvNC China in E Qinghai
ventorum Stegmann, 1932 NW China in SE Xinjiang and NW Qinghai
blanfordi (Hume, 1876) Xizang, NW to NC China in SW Xinjiang and S Gansu, Himalayas from Ladakh to N Nepal
Pyrgilauda theresae   (R. Meinertzhagen, 1937) Afghan Snowfinch
iC Afghanistan, S Tajikistan >> S Turkmenistan
HYPOCRYPTADIUS E. Hartert, 1903 M - Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus E. Hartert, 1903; type by monotypy   67
Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus 68  E. Hartert, 1903 Cinnamon Ibon
vMountains of Mindanao (Philippines)

1 Includes korejewi see Stepanyan (1990: 600) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
2 Includes timidus see Stepanyan (1961) [Stepanyan, 1961 #3711].
3 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
4 Includes plecticus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809], see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
5 Includes colchicus see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
6 Introduced to Azores, Cape Verde Is., W, E and S Africa, Comoros, Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, Seychelles, Andamans, Nicobars, Chagos Arch., E Australia, New Zealand, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Norfolk I., Easter I., Hawaiian Is., USA, Canada, Bermuda, West Indies, much of South America (outside Amazonia) and Juan Fernandez Arch.
7 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
8 Includes mayaudi Kumerloeve, 1969 [Kumerloeve, 1969 #2296]; see Sumemrs-Smith (1988) [Summers-Smith, 1988 #15743]. But see Kirwan et al. (2008) [Kirwan, 2008 #13632].
9 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
10 Includes maroccanus Stephan, 1999 [Stephan, 1999 #3730]; see Summers-Smith (2009) [Summers-Smith, 2009 #12272].
11 For correct date see Sherborn (1927) [Sherborn, 1927 #15688].
12 For recognition as a valid species see Hermansen et al. (2011) [Hermansen, 2011 #12860] and Elgvin et al. (2011) [Elgvin, 2011 #12854]. For treatment as conspecific with P. hispaniolensis, and through date precedence the species name see Töpfer (2006) [Töpfer, 2006 #10096].
13 Introduced to Canary Is. and Cape Verde Is.
14 For recommended date see Dickinson & Pittie (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9467].
15 Mlíkovský (2011) [Mlíkovský, 2011 #12813] dated this 8 April 1838 thus giving this name date precedence over rutilans.
16 Implicitly includes batangensis Cheng & Tan, 1963 [Cheng, 1963 #725].
17 Livr. 99 must be dated from 1836 see Dickinson (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1369].
18 For recommended date see Dickinson & Pittie (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9467].
19 For treatment as a separate species from P. moabiticus; see Kirwan (2004) [Kirwan, 2004 #2229].
20 Previously a broad species as in Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726] but reduced to monotypic by Summers-Smith (1984) [Summers-Smith, 1984 #3781], followed by Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
21 Treated as part of P. iagoensis by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726]; after separation by Summers-Smith (1984) [Summers-Smith, 1984 #3781] further restricted to south African forms by Urban (2004) [Urban, 2004 #15689].
22 Treated as part of P. iagoensis by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726] and then as part of P. motitensis by Summers-Smith (1984) [Summers-Smith, 1984 #3781]; restricted to the Red Sea by Urban (2004) [Urban, 2004 #15689].
23 Issue cover date May 18, 1899.
24 Treated as part of P. iagoensis by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726] and then as part of P. motitensis by Summers-Smith (1984) [Summers-Smith, 1984 #3781]; following segregation of Red Sea species P. insularis restriction of P. motitensis to southern African this assemblage remains. Further splits have been proposed but full taxon sampling of the whole complex is overdue.
25 For date correction see van den Elzen et al. (2011) [van den Elzen, 2011 #12758].
26 Treatment as a broad species follows Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328]. But see Urban (2004) [Urban, 2004 #15689] and Summers-Smith (2009) [Summers-Smith, 2009 #12272]for treatment as four species, recognised here as subspecies groups.
27 May be better treated as a synonym of the nominate form.
28 For recognition see Benson & Benson (1975) [Benson, 1975 #13822].
29 For recognition see Benson & Benson (1975) [Benson, 1975 #13822].
30 Not 1953 as given by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726]; original examined.
31 For treatment as a separate species from P. simplex see Kirwan et al. (2009) [Kirwan, 2009 #11863].
32 Considered doubtfully diagnosable by Kirwan et al. (2009) [Kirwan, 2009 #11863].
33 Introduced to SE Australia, Guam, Palau, Northern Mariana Is and EC USA.
34 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994: 336) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
35 For recognition see Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739].
36 Includes zaissanensis see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
37 For date correction see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
38 Includes iubilaeus and obscuratus see Cheng (1987: 938) [Cheng, 1987 #739]; for recognition of the latter see Summers-Smith (2009) [Summers-Smith, 2009 #12272].
39 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
40 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
41 For recognition see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887].
42 Dated 1851 by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
43 Treated in the genus Petronia by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726]; but see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
44 Dated 1851 by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
45 Includes madeirensis; see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
46 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
47 For treatment as separate from Petronia, see Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
48 For correction of authorship and date see Gregory (2006) [Gregory, 2006 #9473]. Previously mistakenly attributed to J.E. Gray by Moreau & Greenway (1962) [Moreau, 1962 #2726] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
49 For recognition see Clancey (1964) [Clancey, 1964 #820].
50 For recognition see Clancey (1964) [Clancey, 1964 #820].
51 The population named buchanani was recognised by Summers-Smith (1994) [Summers-Smith, 2009 #12272].
52 For treatment as a separate species from G. xanthocollis, see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887] and Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
53 Sequence of species follows Qu Yan-hua et al. (2006) [Qu Yan-hua, 2006 #10032].
54 For treatment as a separate species from M. nivalis see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
55 The cover for No. 5/6 is dated 10 April 1892.
56 Includes fahrettini Watson, 1961 [Watson, 1961 #15690] see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
57 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
58 Correct original spelling. Spelling tianschanica in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
59 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
60 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
61 For date correction see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
62 For reasons to use this generic name see Eck (1996) [Eck, 1996 #1478]. Corroborated by Qu Yan-hua et al. (2006) [Qu Yan-hua, 2006 #10032].
63 We follow Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] in accepting this genus. However, see Kashin (1982) [Kashin, 1982 #4395], who considered the name preoccupied and proposed Stepaniania as a nomen novum, and differing views from Mlíkovský (1998) [Mlíkovský, 1998 #10259]. Gregory & Dickinson (2012) [Gregory, 2012 #13835] considered the views of both but considered Verreaux's name to be available.
64 Species sequence follows Qu Yan-hua et al. (2006) [Qu Yan-hua, 2006 #10032]; but P. theresae not screened.
65 For confirmation of publication in 1871 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
66 Date 1877 given by Moreau & Greenway (1961) [Moreau, 1962 #2726] and by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was a typographical error. Original examined.
67 For transfer to the Passeridae see Fjeldså et al. (2010) [Fjeldså, 2010 #12462].
68 Includes malindangensis and pallidigula; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
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