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ESTRILDIDAE - Waxbills1 (34:131)
ESTRILDINAE
LAGONOSTICTA Cabanis, 1851 F - Fringilla rubricata M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 76).   
Lagonosticta rara Black-bellied Firefinch
forbesi Neumann, 1908 SE Senegal to Nigeria
rara (Antinori, 1864) vN Cameroon to W and S South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya
Lagonosticta rufopicta2 Bar-breasted Firefinch
rufopicta (Fraser, 1843) vSenegal to N Cameroon, Central African Republic
lateritia von Heuglin, 1864 vSouth Sudan, NE DR Congo, N Uganda, W Kenya
Lagonosticta nitidula3 Brown Firefinch
plumbaria Clancey, 1962 vS Angola, SW Zambia to N Botswana, NW Zimbabwe.
nitidula Hartlaub, 1886 E Angola, SE DR Congo, N Zambia
Lagonosticta senegala Red-billed Firefinch
senegala (Linnaeus, 1766)4 vS Mauritania to Sierra Leone, east to Nigeria (except E); oases in S Algeria and N Niger
rhodopsis (von Heuglin, 1863) E Nigeria and S Chad to Sudan, N and W South Sudan, W Ethiopia and Eritrea
brunneiceps Sharpe, 1890 SE South Sudan, SW, C and E Ethiopia
somaliensis Salvadori, 1894 vSE Ethiopia to Somalia, E Kenya, E Tanzania
ruberrima Reichenow, 19035 vE and S DR Congo, Uganda to C Kenya, Tanzania, NE Zambia, N Malawi
rendalli E. Hartert, 18986 S and E Zambia to S Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, NE and E South Africa
pallidicrissa von Zedlitz, 19107 S Angola, SW Zambia to N and E Botswana, NW Zimbabwe, N South Africa
Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis   Payne, 1998 Rock Firefinch
vN Nigeria, N Cameroon [Payne, 1998 #2973]
Lagonosticta umbrinodorsalis 8  Reichenow, 1910 Chad Firefinch
vE Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad
Lagonosticta rhodopareia Jameson's Firefinch
rhodopareia (von Heuglin, 1868) S Ethiopia, NW Kenya
jamesoni Shelley, 1882 S Kenya to Zambia, Mozambique, N and E Botswana, NE South Africa
ansorgei Neumann, 1908 Lower Congo basin to W Angola
Lagonosticta virata   Bates, G.L., 1932 Mali Firefinch
vMali, Senegal
Lagonosticta rubricata African Firefinch
polionota Shelley, 1873 vS Senegal, Guinea to Nigeria
congica Sharpe, 18909 vCameroon to W South Sudan, NE DR Congo and W Uganda, south to Gabon, N and NE Angola and NW Zambia
landanae Sharpe, 189010 Lower Congo basin, NW Angola
haematocephala Neumann, 1907 vEthiopia, E South Sudan, E Uganda and Kenya to Zambia, Malawi, E Zimbabwe, C Mozambique
rubricata (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vS Mozambique, E South Africa
Lagonosticta larvata11 Black-faced Firefinch
larvata (Rüppell, 1840) vW and C Ethiopia, SE South Sudan
vinacea (Hartlaub, 1857) vSenegal to Guinea and W Mali
togoensis (Neumann, 1907)12 vGhana, Togo to N Cameroon, SW Sudan
nigricollis von Heuglin, 1863 vCentral African Republic to W and S South Sudan and N Uganda
CLYTOSPIZA Shelley, 1896 F - Pytelia monteiri Hartlaub, 1860; type by original designation   
Clytospiza monteiri   (Hartlaub, 1860) Brown Twinspot
iE Nigeria to W and S South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya
PYTILIA Swainson, 1837 F - Pytilia phoenicoptera Swainson, 1837; type by monotypy   
Pytilia lineata 13  von Heuglin, 1863 Red-billed Pytilia
vNW and C Ethiopia
Pytilia phoenicoptera Red-winged Pytilia
phoenicoptera Swainson, 1837 vSenegal to N Nigeria
emini E. Hartert, 1899 N Cameroon to N Uganda and W and S South Sudan
Pytilia afra 14  (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Orange-winged Pytilia
vEthiopia, S Sudan to Tanzania, S DR Congo, Angola, Mozambique, NE South Africa (Limpopo)
Pytilia hypogrammica   Sharpe, 1870 Yellow-winged Pytilia/Red-faced Pytilia
vGuinea-Bissau to Central African Republic
Pytilia melba15,16 Green-winged Pytilia
citerior Strickland, 185317 αvSenegal to S Sudan
jessei Shelley, 1903 Coastal Sudan, Eritrea, NW Somalia
soudanensis (Sharpe, 1890) vE South Sudan, Ethiopia, C and S Somalia to N Kenya
percivali van Someren, 1919 C and SW Kenya, N and C Tanzania
belli Ogilvie-Grant, 1907 E DR Congo to W Uganda, W Tanzania
grotei Reichenow, 1919 E Tanzania, N and C Mozambique, E Malawi
hygrophila Irwin & Benson, 1967 vNE Zambia, N Malawi
melba (Linnaeus, 1758)18 W and S DR Congo, SW Tanzania to Namibia, S Mozambique, N South Africa and Swaziland
HYPARGOS Reichenbach, 1862 M - Amadina verreauxii Des Murs; type by monotypy = Spermophaga margaritata Strickland, 1844  19
Hypargos margaritatus 20  (Strickland, 1844) Pink-throated Twinspot
vS Mozambique, E Swaziland, NE KwaZulu-Natal
Hypargos niveoguttatus Peters's Twinspot/Red-throated Twinspot
macrospilotus Mearns, 191321 vE DR Congo to Kenya, Tanzania, N Malawi, Zambia, NE Angola, N Zimbabwe, N Mozambique
niveoguttatus (W. Peters, 1868) vS Malawi, E Zimbabwe, C Mozambique
EUSCHISTOSPIZA Wolters, 1943 F - Lagonosticta cinereovinacea de Sousa, 1889; type by original designation   
Euschistospiza dybowskii   (Oustalet, 1892) Dybowski's Twinspot
iGuinea to W Ivory Coast; Nigeria to S South Sudan and extreme W Uganda
Euschistospiza cinereovinacea22 Dusky Twinspot
cinereovinacea (de Sousa, 1889) vW Angola
graueri (Rothschild, 1909)23 E DR Congo to SW Uganda
GRANATINA Sharpe, 1890 F - Fringilla granatina Linnaeus, 1766; type by tautonymy
Granatina granatina 24,25  (Linnaeus, 1766) Violet-eared Waxbill
vS Angola, SW Zambia, Zimbabwe to C Namibia, N and NE South Africa, S Mozambique
Granatina ianthinogaster 26  (Reichenow, 1879) Purple Grenadier
Somalia, E and S Ethiopia, SE South Sudan to N and C Tanzania
URAEGINTHUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Fringilla bengalus Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 76).   
Uraeginthus angolensis Blue-breasted Cordon-bleu/Blue Waxbill
angolensis (Linnaeus, 1758) vS PR Congo to N Angola, NW Zambia27
cyanopleurus Wolters, 1963 vS Angola, SW Zambia, NW Zimbabwe, N Botswana
niassensis Reichenow, 1911 vE and S Tanzania to C and E Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, E and S Zimbabwe, NE and E South Africa
Uraeginthus bengalus Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu
bengalus (Linnaeus, 1766) Senegal to Ethiopia, Uganda, W Kenya28
brunneigularis Mearns, 191129 vS Somalia, C and E Kenya, NE Tanzania
ugogensis Reichenow, 191130 δvN, W and C Tanzania
katangae Vincent, 1934 NE Angola, S DR Congo, N Zambia
Uraeginthus cyanocephalus   (Richmond, 1897) Blue-capped Cordon-bleu
vS Somalia, S Ethiopia to NE Tanzania
SPERMOPHAGA Swainson, 1837 F - Spermophaga cyanorynchus Swainson, 1837; type by monotypy = Loxia haematina Vieillot, 1805  
Spermophaga poliogenys   (Ogilvie-Grant, 1906) Grant's Bluebill
iSE Cameroon to E DR Congo, W Uganda
Spermophaga haematina31 Western Bluebill
haematina (Vieillot, 1808)32 αvGambia to Ghana
togoensis (Neumann, 1910) vTogo to SW Nigeria
pustulata (Voigt, 1831) vSE Nigeria, Cameroon to C and S DR Congo, NW Angola
Spermophaga ruficapilla Red-headed Bluebill
ruficapilla (Shelley, 1888)33 NW Angola, S and E DR Congo east to S South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya
cana (Friedmann, 1927) vNE Tanzania
PYRENESTES Swainson, 1837 M - Pirenestes sanguineus Swainson, 1837; type by monotypy   34
Pyrenestes ostrinus 35,36  (Vieillot, 1805) Black-bellied Seedcracker
vSE Ivory Coast, Ghana to Uganda, N Angola, N Zambia
Pyrenestes sanguineus 37  Swainson, 1837 Crimson Seedcracker
vSenegal and Sierra Leone to Ivory Coast
Pyrenestes minor   Shelley, 1894 Lesser Seedcracker
vE Tanzania, Malawi, E Zimbabwe, N Mozambique
ESTRILDA Swainson, 1827 F - Loxia astrild Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation and virtual tautonymy   
Estrilda caerulescens 38  (Vieillot, 1817) Lavender Waxbill
iSenegal to Central African Republic39
Estrilda perreini Grey Waxbill
perreini (Vieillot, 1817) Gabon, S DR Congo to N Angola, Zambia and S Tanzania
incana Sundevall, 185040 vS Malawi, E Zimbabwe, C and S Mozambique, E KwaZulu-Natal
Estrilda thomensis   de Sousa, 1888 Cinderella Waxbill
vAngola (Fazenda do Quito to Ruacana)
Estrilda poliopareia 41  Reichenow, 1902 Anambra Waxbill
iS Benin, S Nigeria
Estrilda paludicola42 Fawn-breasted Waxbill
ochrogaster Salvadori, 189743 Ethiopia, E South Sudan
paludicola von Heuglin, 1863 N DR Congo, N Uganda, W and S South Sudan, W Kenya
roseicrissa Reichenow, 1892 E DR Congo to SW Uganda, NW Tanzania
marwitzi Reichenow, 1900 C Tanzania
ruthae Chapin, 1950 C DR Congo
benguellensis Neumann, 1908 vS DR Congo, Angola, N Zambia
Estrilda melpoda 44  (Vieillot, 1817) Orange-cheeked Waxbill
Gambia to SW Chad, Central African Republic, south to DR Congo, N Angola, NE Zambia45
Estrilda rhodopyga Crimson-rumped Waxbill
rhodopyga Sundevall, 1850 vE Sudan, Eritrea, N Ethiopia, NW Somalia
centralis Kothe, 1911 vS Ethiopia and SE South Sudan to Malawi and E DR Congo
Estrilda rufibarba   (Cabanis, 1851) Arabian Waxbill
iSW Arabia
Estrilda troglodytes   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Black-rumped Waxbill
iSenegal to W Ethiopia, Uganda and W Kenya46
Estrilda astrild Common Waxbill
kempi Bates, G.L., 1930 Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia
occidentalis Jardine & Fraser, 185247,48 αvBioko; Ivory Coast to N DR Congo
peasei Shelley, 1903 Ethiopia
macmillani Ogilvie-Grant, 1907 South Sudan and W Ethiopia (R. Baro)
adesma Reichenow, 191649 vE DR Congo to Uganda, NW Tanzania, W Kenya
massaica Neumann, 1907 vC Kenya to N Tanzania
minor (Cabanis, 1878) vS Somalia, E Kenya, NE Tanzania, Zanzibar
cavendishi Sharpe, 190050 SE DR Congo (except upper R. Lualaba, Lake Upemba), S Tanzania to E Zambia, C and E Zimbabwe, Mozambique
nigriloris Chapin , 192851 vSE DR Congo (upper R. Lualaba and Lake Upemba)
niediecki Reichenow, 191652,53 δC Angola to SW Zambia, N Botswana, W Zimbabwe
angolensis Reichenow, 1902 vW Angola
jagoensis Alexander, 189854 vW Angola
rubriventris (Vieillot, 1823) vCoastal Gabon to NW Angola
damarensis Reichenow, 1902 vNamibia
astrild (Linnaeus, 1758) SE Botswana, W and C South Africa55
tenebridorsa Clancey, 1957 E South Africa
Estrilda nonnula Black-crowned Waxbill
elizae Alexander, 190356 Bioko; SW Cameroon (Mont Cameroun)
nonnula Hartlaub, 1883 E Nigeria, E Cameroon to South Sudan, E DR Congo, NW Tanzania and W Kenya
Estrilda atricapilla57 Black-headed Waxbill
atricapilla J. & E. Verreaux, 1851 SW Cameroon to Gabon, NW DR Congo
marungensis Prigogine, 1975 vSE DR Congo (Marungu Highlands) [Prigogine, 1975 #3140]
avakubi Traylor, 1964 S and C DR Congo, NE Angola
kandti Reichenow, 190258,59 E DR Congo, SW Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, W and C Kenya
Estrilda erythronotos Black-faced Waxbill
delamerei Sharpe, 1900 W and C Tanzania to SW Uganda, SW Kenya
erythronotos (Vieillot, 1817)60 S Angola, S Zambia, W Zimbabwe to Namibia, N and NE South Africa.
charmosyna (Reichenow, 1881)61,62 vSomalia, S Ethiopia, SE South Sudan, N and E Uganda, N Kenya
kiwanukae van Someren, 1919 S Kenya, N Tanzania
MANDINGOA E. Hartert, 1919 F - Estrelda nitidula Hartlaub, 1865; type by original designation   
Mandingoa nitidula Green-backed Twinspot
schlegeli (Sharpe, 1870) Sierra Leone to DR Congo, Uganda, NW Angola
virginiae (Amadon, 1953)63 Bioko
chubbi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1912) S Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania to NE Zambia, N Malawi
nitidula (Hartlaub, 1865) vSE DR Congo to S Malawi, Mozambique, E South Africa
CRYPTOSPIZA Salvadori, 1884 F - Pytelia reichenovii Hartlaub, 1874; type by original designation   
Cryptospiza reichenovii64 Red-faced Crimson-wing
reichenovii (Hartlaub, 1874) Bioko, E Nigeria, Cameroon, W Angola
ocularis Sharpe, 190265 vE DR Congo, SW Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
australis Shelley, 189666 vTanzania to Malawi, E Zimbabwe, N Mozambique
Cryptospiza salvadorii Ethiopian Crimson-wing
salvadorii Reichenow, 189267 S Ethiopia, N Kenya
ruwenzori W.L. Sclater, 1925 E DR Congo, SW Uganda
kilimensis Moreau & W.L. Sclater, 1934 vSE South Sudan, Kenya, N Tanzania
Cryptospiza jacksoni   Sharpe, 1902 Dusky Crimson-wing
iE DR Congo, Rwanda, SW Uganda
Cryptospiza shelleyi   Sharpe, 1902 Shelley's Crimson-wing
iE DR Congo, Rwanda, SW Uganda
COCCOPYGIA Reichenbach, 1862 F - Fringilla dufresnii Vieillot; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 13, p. 305). = Fringilla melanotis Temminck, 182368,69
Coccopygia melanotis Swee Waxbill
bocagei Shelley, 190370 W Angola
melanotis (Temminck, 1823) vZimbabwe, E and S South Africa
Coccopygia quartinia71,72 Yellow-bellied Waxbill
quartinia (Bonaparte, 1850)73 αvEthiopia, Eritrea, SE South Sudan
kilimensis Sharpe, 189074 vE DR Congo to C Kenya, N Tanzania
stuartirwini (Clancey, 1969) E and S Tanzania, E Zambia, Malawi, E Zimbabwe, W Mozambique [Clancey, 1969 #838]
NESOCHARIS Alexander, 1903 F - Nesocharis shelleyi Alexander, 1903; type by original designation   
Nesocharis shelleyi Shelley's Oliveback
shelleyi Alexander, 1903 Bioko; SW Cameroon (Mont Cameroun)
bansoensis Bannerman, 1923 vSE Nigeria, W Cameroon
Nesocharis ansorgei 75  (E. Hartert, 1899) White-collared Oliveback
iE DR Congo, Rwanda, SW Uganda; ? N Angola
Nesocharis capistrata   (Hartlaub, 1861) Grey-headed Oliveback
vGambia to W South Sudan, NW Uganda
NIGRITA Strickland, 1843 M - Aethiops canicapillus Strickland, 1841; type by monotypy   
Nigrita fusconotus White-breasted Negrofinch
uropygialis Sharpe, 1869 vGuinea and Sierra Leone to SW Nigeria
fusconotus Fraser, 1843 Bioko, SE Nigeria to Uganda, W Kenya, N Angola
Nigrita bicolor Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch
bicolor (Hartlaub, 1844) Guinea to Ghana and W Togo
brunnescens Reichenow, 1902 S Benin and Nigeria to DR Congo and N Angola; Príncipe
saturatior Reichenow, 190276 Extreme E DR Congo, W Uganda
Nigrita luteifrons Pale-fronted Negrofinch
luteifrons J. & E. Verreaux, 1851 Sierra Leone to N DR Congo and NW Angola
alexanderi Ogilvie-Grant, 1907 Bioko
Nigrita canicapillus Grey-headed Negrofinch
emiliae Sharpe, 186977 δGuinea to Togo
canicapillus (Strickland, 1841) S Benin and Nigeria to Gabon, N and C DR Congo
schistaceus Sharpe, 189178 vS South Sudan, E DR Congo, Uganda, W Kenya, NW Tanzania
angolensis Bannerman, 1921 vS DR Congo to NW Angola
diabolicus (Reichenow & Neumann, 1895) vC Kenya, N Tanzania
candidus Moreau, 1942 vW Tanzania
PARMOPTILA Cassin, 1859 F - Parmoptila woodhousei Cassin, 1859; type by monotypy   
Parmoptila woodhousei79 Woodhouse's Antpecker
woodhousei Cassin, 1859 SE Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon
ansorgei E. Hartert, 1904 NW Angola, C DR Congo
Parmoptila rubrifrons   (Sharpe & Ussher, 1872) Red-fronted Antpecker
E Sierra Leone to Ghana
Parmoptila jamesoni 80  (Shelley, 1890) Jameson's Antpecker
W DR Congo (Lukolela) to W Uganda
AMADINA Swainson, 1827 F - Loxia fasciata J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation   81
Amadina erythrocephala82 Red-headed Finch
dissita Clancey, 195883 vN South Africa, Botswana, E Namibia, SW Zimbabwe
erythrocephala (Linnaeus, 1758) vS and C South Africa to W Namibia, SW Angola
Amadina fasciata Cut-throat Finch
fasciata (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vSenegal and N Nigeria to Sudan
alexanderi Neumann, 1908 Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia to SE South Sudan, NE Uganda, Kenya, NE and C Tanzania
meridionalis Neunzig, 1910 vS Angola, N Namibia to N Zimbabwe, N Mozambique
contigua Clancey, 1970 vSE Botswana, S and E Zimbabwe, NE South Africa [Clancey, 1970 #845]
ORTYGOSPIZA Sundevall, 1850 F - Fringilla polyzona Temminck, 1823; type by monotypy = Fringilla atricollis Vieillot, 1817  
Ortygospiza atricollis84 Black-faced Quailfinch
atricollis (Vieillot, 1817) vSenegal to Chad, N DR Congo
ansorgei Ogilvie-Grant, 1910 Guinea-Bissau to Ivory Coast
ugandae van Someren, 1921 South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya
Ortygospiza gabonensis85 Black-chinned Quailfinch/Red-billed Quailfinch
gabonensis Lynes, 1914 vEquatorial Guinea and Gabon to C DR Congo
fuscata W.L. Sclater, 1932 vN Angola, S DR Congo, W Zambia
dorsostriata van Someren, 1921 vE DR Congo to S and W Uganda
Ortygospiza fuscocrissa86 African Quailfinch
fuscocrissa von Heuglin, 1863 Eritrea, Ethiopia
muelleri von Zedlitz, 1911 S Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia (except NE)
smithersi Benson, 1955 NE Zambia
pallida Roberts, 193287 vNE Botswana, W Zimbabwe
digressa Clancey, 1958 vSE Zimbabwe, S Mozambique, NE, SE and C South Africa
bradfieldi Roberts, 192988 S Angola, C Namibia, Botswana to C Zimbabwe, N South Africa
AMANDAVA Blyth, 1836 F - Amandava punctata Blyth, 1836; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Fringilla amandava Linnaeus, 1758  
Amandava amandava Red Avadavat
amandava (Linnaeus, 1758) Pakistan, S Nepal, India, Bangladesh89
flavidiventris (Wallace, 1864)90 αvS Yunnan, Myanmar except Tenasserim, N and C Thailand; Lesser Sundas (east to Timor - ? introduced)
punicea (Horsfield, 1821)91 vSE continental SE Asia, Java, Bali
Amandava formosa   (Latham, 1790) Green Avadavat
vC India
Amandava subflava Zebra Waxbill/Orange-breasted Waxbill
subflava (Vieillot, 1819) vSenegal to W Ethiopia, south to E DR Congo, NW Tanzania, W Kenya
clarkei (Shelley, 1903)92 Gabon, S DR Congo, Tanzania and S Kenya south to Angola, Botswana and E South Africa
PALUDIPASSER Neave, 1909 M - Paludipasser locustella Neave, 1909; type by original designation93
Paludipasser locustella Locust Finch
uelensis Chapin, 1916 vC Nigeria, N Cameroon to N DR Congo
locustella Neave, 1909 W Angola, S DR Congo, Zambia to Malawi, C Mozambique, Zimbabwe
LONCHURINAE94
SPERMESTES Swainson, 1837 F - Spermestes cucullata Swainson, 1837; type by monotypy
Spermestes cucullata Bronze Mannikin
cucullata Swainson, 1837 vSenegal to South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya95
scutata von Heuglin, 186396 vEthiopia to E Angola, Mozambique and E South Africa
Spermestes bicolor Black-and-white Mannikin
bicolor (Fraser, 1843) SW Senegal to Cameroon
poensis (Fraser, 1843)97 vBioko to N Angola, S Ethiopia, W Kenya, NW Tanzania
nigriceps Cassin, 185298 S Somalia, C and E Kenya, Tanzania, E and S Zambia and Malawi to NE South Africa
woltersi (Schouteden, 1956) SE DR Congo, NW Zambia
Spermestes fringilloides 99  (Lafresnaye, 1835) Magpie Mannikin
Senegal to Uganda, south to Angola, Mozambique and KwaZulu-Natal
ODONTOSPIZA Oberholser, 1905 F - Pitylia caniceps Reichenow, 1879; type by original designation and monotypy = Munia caniceps Salvadori, 1876
Odontospiza griseicapilla 100,101  (Delacour, 1943) Grey-headed Silverbill
S Ethiopia to Tanzania
LEPIDOPYGIA Reichenbach, 1862 F - Pyrrhula nana Pucheran, 1845; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 13, p. 261).102
Lepidopygia nana   (Pucheran, 1845) Madagascar Munia/Madagascar Mannikin
Madagascar
EUODICE Reichenbach, 1862 F - Loxia cantans J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 13, p. 368).103
Euodice cantans African Silverbill
cantans (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Mauritania and Senegal to W Sudan, NW South Sudan104
orientalis (Lorenz von Liburnau & Hellmayr, 1901) vSW Arabia to S Oman; Eritrea to E Sudan, Somalia, Kenya and N Tanzania
Euodice malabarica 105  (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Silverbill/White-throated Munia
vC and NE Arabian Pen. to SE Iran, Pakistan, S Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka106
LONCHURA Sykes, 1832 F - Fringilla nisoria Sykes, 1832; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 13, p. 326). = Loxia punctulata Linnaeus, 1758  107,108,109
Lonchura striata110 White-rumped Munia
acuticauda (Hodgson, 1836) SW Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from Uttarakhand, NE India, Bangladesh, NW and N continental SE Asia east to NW Vietnam
striata (Linnaeus, 1766) vW, C and S India, Sri Lanka111
fumigata (Walden, 1873) vAndamans
semistriata (Hume, 1874) vNicobars
subsquamicollis (E.C.S. Baker, 1925)112 vSE Yunnan and Hainan, mainland SE Asia except NW and N, Sumatra including Bangka I.
swinhoei (Cabanis, 1882) EC and E China, Taiwan
Lonchura leucogastroides 113,114  (F. Moore, 1858) α Javan Munia
iFar-S Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok115
Lonchura fuscans   (Cassin, 1852) Dusky Munia
iBorneo and far-N satellites; Mapun (Philippines)116
Lonchura molucca 117  (Linnaeus, 1766) Black-faced Munia
vKangean Is. (Java Sea) and Nusa Penida I. (SE Bali), Sulawesi and N, E and SE satellites, Flores Sea islands, Moluccas, Sumbawa east to Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Lonchura punctulata Scaly-breasted Munia
insulicola Mees, 2006118 Mauritius, Réunion, Seychelles [Mees, 2006 #7094]
punctulata (Linnaeus, 1758) vN Pakistan, S Nepal, S Bhutan, India except NE, W Bangladesh, Sri Lanka119
subundulata (Godwin-Austen, 1874)120 αvNE India, E Bangladesh, Myanmar except E and Tenasserim
topela (Swinhoe, 1863)121 SE Xizang, SW, S and SE China, Hainan, Taiwan, continental SE Asia
nisoria (Temminck, 1830)122 vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Nias I., Riau Arch., Lingga Arch., Bangka I., Belitung I., Bawean I., Java, Bali and W Lesser Sundas (Lombok and Sumbawa)
blasii (Stresemann, 1912) Flores east to Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
sumbae Mayr, 1944 Sumba (Lesser Sundas)
cabanisi (Sharpe, 1890)123 N and NW Borneo; Luzon, Palawan, Mindoro to Negros, Cebu (Philippines) [Sharpe, 1890 #5414]
particeps (Riley, 1920) Sulawesi
Lonchura kelaarti Black-throated Munia
vernayi (Whistler & Kinnear, 1933) E India
jerdoni (Hume, 1874)124 αSW India
kelaarti (Jerdon, 1863) Sri Lanka
Lonchura leucogastra White-bellied Munia
leucogastra (Blyth, 1846) vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra
palawana Ripley & Rabor, 1962 vE Borneo; Palawan and satellites, and Tawi-Tawi (Philippines)
smythiesi Parkes, 1958 W Borneo
castanonota Mayr, 1938 vS Borneo
everetti (Tweeddale, 1877) Luzon, Mindoro, Catanduanes (Philippines)
manueli Parkes, 1958 C and S Philippines
Lonchura tristissima Streak-headed Mannikin
tristissima (Wallace, 1865) vLowland NW New Guinea (Vogelkop)
hypomelaena Stresemann & Paludan, 1934 vLowland and hill N, WC and SW New Guinea (E neck of Vogelkop to R. Mamberamo and R. Noord)
calaminoros (Reichenow, 1916) Lowland and hill N, NE and SE New Guinea (R. Mamberamo to Hydrographer Mts.), Karkar and Umboi Is.
moresbyae Restall, 1995125,126 Lowland and hill SC and SE New Guinea (E Gulf of Papua to S foothills of Owen Stanley Range) [Restall, 1995 #3256]
leucosticta (D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879)127 vLowland SW to SC New Guinea (R. Noord to W Gulf of Papua)
Lonchura quinticolor 128  (Vieillot, 1807) Five-coloured Munia
iLesser Sundas east to Tanimbar Is.
Lonchura malacca129,130,131 Black-headed Munia
1 malacca (Linnaeus, 1766) vWC, EC and S India, Sri Lanka132
2 rubronigra (Hodgson, 1836) vS Nepal, N India on Ganges plain east to Bihar
2 atricapilla (Vieillot, 1807) SW Yunnan, SE Nepal, NE India east from W Orissa, Bangladesh, Myanmar except Tenasserim
2 deignani Parkes, 1958 Continental SE Asia except Myanmar, far-N Thai-Malay Pen.
2 sinensis (Blyth, 1852) vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., lowland Sumatra, Riau Arch., Lingga Arch.
2 batakana (Chasen & Kloss, 1929) vMountains of N Sumatra
2 formosana (Swinhoe, 1865) vTaiwan, N Luzon (Philippines)
2 jagori (C.E. von Martens, 1866)133,134 Borneo, Philippines (except N Luzon), Sulawesi and E and SE satellites
3 ferruginosa (Sparrman, 1789) vJava and Bali
Lonchura maja 135  (Linnaeus, 1766) White-headed Munia
iThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and NW satellites (Simeulue, Nias, Batu Is.); ? introduced S Vietnam
Lonchura pallida 136  (Wallace, 1864) Pale-headed Munia
vC and SW Sulawesi, Flores Sea Islands, Lesser Sundas east to Babar (except Timor)
Lonchura grandis Grand Mannikin/Great-billed Mannikin
heurni E. Hartert, 1932 Lowland N New Guinea (Mamberamo basin)
destructa (E. Hartert, 1930) vLowland N New Guinea (NC coast)
ernesti (Stresemann, 1921) Lowland N New Guinea (Sepik basin and Ramu basin)
grandis (Sharpe, 1882) vLowland SE New Guinea (west to E Gulf of Papua and Huon Gulf)
Lonchura vana   (E. Hartert, 1930) Grey-banded Mannikin
iMontane NW New Guinea (mountains of Doberai Pen.)
Lonchura caniceps137 Grey-headed Mannikin
caniceps (Salvadori, 1876) Lowland SE New Guinea (S coast)
scratchleyana (Sharpe, 1898) vMontane SE New Guinea (west to Wharton Range)
kumusii (E. Hartert, 1911) Lowland SE New Guinea (N coast)
Lonchura nevermanni   Stresemann, 1934 Grey-crowned Mannikin
iLowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region)
Lonchura spectabilis Hooded Mannikin
mayri (E. Hartert, 1930)138 Lowland N New Guinea (coast and Sepik basin)
wahgiensis Mayr & Gilliard, 1952139 vMontane EC and NE New Guinea (Central Highlands to Herzog Range, mountains of Huon Pen.)
spectabilis (P.L. Sclater, 1879) vNew Britain, Long I. and Umboi (Bismarck Arch.)
Lonchura forbesi 140  (P.L. Sclater, 1879) New Ireland Mannikin
iNew Ireland (Bismarck Arch.)
Lonchura hunsteini White-cowled Mannikin
hunsteini (Finsch, 1886) N New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.)
nigerrima (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1899) vNew Hanover (Bismarck Arch.)
minor (Yamashina, 1931)141 vPohnpei (Caroline Is.)
Lonchura flaviprymna   (Gould, 1845) Yellow-rumped Mannikin
iNE Western Australia, NW Northern Territory (W Arnhem Land)
Lonchura castaneothorax Chestnut-breasted Mannikin
uropygialis Stresemann & Paludan, 1934 vLowland NW New Guinea (head of Cenderawasih Bay)
boschmai Junge, 1952 Hill WC New Guinea (Wissel Lakes region)
sharpii (von Madarász, 1894) Lowland N and NE New Guinea (east to Huon Gulf); Manam I.
ramsayi Delacour, 1943 Lowland SE New Guinea (west to E Gulf of Papua and Holnicote Bay); Goodenough I.
castaneothorax (Gould, 1837)142 NW to coastal E Australia143
Lonchura stygia   Stresemann, 1934 Black Mannikin
vLowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region)
Lonchura teerinki Black-breasted Mannikin
mariae Ripley, 1964 Montane WC New Guinea (upper Grand Baliem valley)
teerinki Rand, 1940 Montane WC New Guinea (lower Grand Baliem valley)
Lonchura monticola 144  (De Vis, 1897) Alpine Mannikin
iAlpine SE New Guinea (Wharton Range to Owen Stanley Range)
Lonchura montana   Junge, 1939 Snow Mountain Mannikin
vAlpine WC New Guinea (Maoke Mts.)
Lonchura melaena Bismarck Mannikin/Buff-bellied Mannikin
melaena (P.L. Sclater, 1880) vNew Britain (Bismarck Arch.)
bukaensis Restall, 1995 vBuka (N Solomons); ? New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.) [Restall, 1995 #3256]
Lonchura fuscata   (Vieillot, 1807) Timor Sparrow
vRoti, Semau, Timor (Lesser Sundas)
Lonchura oryzivora 145  (Linnaeus, 1758) Java Sparrow
vKangean Is. (Java Sea), Java, Bali, Lesser Sundas (east to Sumbawa)146
HETEROMUNIA Mathews, 1913 F - Amadina pectoralis Gould, 1841; type by original designation   147
Heteromunia pectoralis   (Gould, 1841) Pictorella Finch/Pictorella Mannikin
vN Western Australia to NW Queensland
STAGONOPLEURA Reichenbach, 1850 F - Loxia guttata Shaw, 1796; type by subsequent designation (Cabanis, 1851, Museum Heineanum, 1, p. 172).   148
Stagonopleura bella149 Beautiful Firetail
bella (Latham, 1801)150 αvSE New South Wales, SE Victoria, Tasmania, Flinders I.
interposita Schodde & Mason, 1999 vSE South Australia, SW Victoria [Schodde, 1999 #3524]
samueli (Mathews, 1912)151 Mount Lofty Range to Kangaroo I. (SC South Australia)
Stagonopleura oculata   (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830) Red-eared Firetail
vSW Western Australia
Stagonopleura guttata   (Shaw, 1796) Diamond Firetail
vSC to E Australia
OREOSTRUTHUS De Vis, 1898 M - Oreospiza fuliginosa De Vis, 1897; type by monotypy   
Oreostruthus fuliginosus Mountain Firetail
pallidus Rand, 1940 vAlpine WC to EC New Guinea (Maoke Mts. to Hindenburg Range)
hagenensis Mayr & Gilliard, 1954 vAlpine EC New Guinea (Central Highlands)
fuliginosus (De Vis, 1897) vAlpine SE New Guinea (Wharton Range and Owen Stanley Range)
EMBLEMA Gould, 1842 N - Emblema pictum Gould, 1842; type by monotypy   152
Emblema pictum   Gould, 1842 Painted Finch
vWC to EC Australia
NEOCHMIA G.R. Gray, 1849 F - Fringilla phaeton Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841; type by original designation   153
Neochmia temporalis154 Red-browed Finch
minor (A.J. Campbell, 1901) vNE Australia (Cape York Pen.)
temporalis (Latham, 1801)155,156 αvSC to E Australia, Kangaroo I.157
Neochmia phaeton Crimson Finch
evangelinae D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879 Lowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region), NE Australia (Cape York Pen.)
phaeton (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841)158 N Western Australia (Kimberley Division), N Northern Territory (Arnhem Land), NW and NE Queensland
Neochmia ruficauda159 Star Finch
subclarescens (Mathews, 1912)160 WC and NW Western Australia, N Northern Territory (Arnhem Land), S Gulf of Carpentaria
clarescens (E. Hartert, 1899) S Cape York Pen. to NE Queensland
†? ruficauda (Gould, 1837) EC Queensland
Neochmia modesta 161  (Gould, 1837) Plum-headed Finch
vEC Queensland, NC New South Wales
POEPHILA Gould, 1842 F - Amadina acuticauda Gould, 1840; type by subsequent designation (Gould, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 10 (1842), p. 18).   
Poephila personata Masked Finch
personata Gould, 1842 vNW and NC Australia (Kimberley Division, Arnhem Land)
leucotis Gould, 1847 vNE Australia (Cape York Pen.)
Poephila acuticauda Long-tailed Finch
acuticauda (Gould, 1840) N Western Australia (Kimberley Division)
hecki Heinroth, 1900162 N Northern Territory (Arnhem Land), NW Queensland
Poephila cincta163 Black-throated Finch
atropygialis Diggles, 1876164 vCape York Pen., NE Queensland
cincta (Gould, 1837) vEC Queensland, NE New South Wales
TAENIOPYGIA Reichenbach, 1862 F - Amadina castanotis Gould, 1837; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 13, p. 311).   165,166
Taeniopygia guttata Zebra Finch
guttata (Vieillot, 1817) vLesser Sundas (east to Sermata)
castanotis (Gould, 1837)167 vInland Australia
Taeniopygia bichenovii168 Double-barred Finch
annulosa (Gould, 1840) vNW and NC Australia (Kimberley Division, Arnhem Land)
bichenovii (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)169 δE Australia
ERYTHRURA Swainson, 1837 F - Erythura viridis Swainson, 1837; type by monotypy = Fringilla sphecura Temminck, 1821 = Loxia prasina Sparrman, 1788  170
Erythrura hyperythra Tawny-breasted Parrotfinch
brunneiventris (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) vMountains of N and C Luzon, Mindoro (Philippines)
borneensis (Sharpe, 1889) vMountains of Borneo
malayana (Robinson, 1928) vMountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
hyperythra (Reichenbach, 1862)171 αvMountains of W Java
microrhyncha (Stresemann, 1931)172 vMountains of Sulawesi
intermedia (E. Hartert, 1896)173 vMountains of Lesser Sundas east to Flores
Erythrura prasina174 Pin-tailed Parrotfinch
prasina (Sparrman, 1788) vContinental SE Asia except NW and NE, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Java175
coelica E.C.S. Baker, 1925 δvBorneo
Erythrura viridifacies   Hachisuka & Delacour, 1937 Green-faced Parrotfinch
iLuzon, Negros, Cebu (Philippines)
Erythrura tricolor 176  (Vieillot, 1817) Tricolour Parrotfinch
iTimor to Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Erythrura coloria   Ripley & Rabor, 1961 Red-eared Parrotfinch
vMindanao on Mt. Apo and Mt. Kitanglad (Philippines)
Erythrura trichroa Blue-faced Parrotfinch
sanfordi Stresemann, 1931 Mountains of C Sulawesi
modesta Wallace, 1862 vN Moluccas
pinaiae Stresemann, 1914 Uplands of Buru and Seram (S Moluccas)
sigillifer (De Vis, 1897)177 δMontane New Guinea, D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Louisiade Arch., Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, New Ireland)
macgillivrayi Mathews, 1914178 NE Queensland
eichhorni E. Hartert, 1924 St. Matthias Group (Bismarck Arch.)
pelewensis N. Kuroda, Sr., 1922 vPeleliu to S Babeldaob (Palau)
clara Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina, 1931 vChuuk, Pohnpei (Caroline Is.)
trichroa (von Kittlitz, 1833)179 αKosrae (Caroline Is.)
woodfordi Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1900180 Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
cyanofrons E.L. Layard, 1878 Gaua (Banks Is.), locally S to Anatom (Vanuatu); Maré, Lifou (Loyalty Is.)
Erythrura papuana 181  Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1900 Papuan Parrotfinch
vMontane NW, WC, EC, NE and SE New Guinea (including Adelbert Range)
Erythrura psittacea   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Red-throated Parrotfinch
vNew Caledonia, Ile des Pins
Erythrura cyaneovirens182 Red-headed Parrotfinch
1 regia (P.L. Sclater, 1881) vGaua (Banks Is.) to Emaé (Vanuatu)
1 efatensis Mayr, 1931 vEfaté (Vanuatu)
1 serena (P.L. Sclater, 1881) vAnatom (Vanuatu)
2 pealii Hartlaub, 1852 Yasawa and Mamanuca Groups, Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Kadavu, (Fiji)
3 gaughrani duPont, 1972 Savai'i (Samoa) [duPont, 1972 #1446]
3 cyaneovirens (Peale, 1848) Upolu (Samoa)
Erythrura kleinschmidti 183  (Finsch, 1878) α Pink-billed Parrotfinch
iViti Levu (Fiji)
CHLOEBIA Reichenbach, 1862 F - Amadina gouldiae Gould, 1844; type by monotypy 184
Chloebia gouldiae   (Gould, 1844) Gouldian Finch
N Western Australia (Kimberley Division), N Northern Territory (Arnhem Land), N Queensland (W Cape York Pen.)

1 The subfamilies are based on the two major clades identified in Sorenson et al. (2004) [Sorenson, 2004 #3684]. See also Arnaiz-Villena et al. (2009) [Arnaiz-Villena, 2009 #12012].
2 Considered to form a superspecies with L. nitidula by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
3 For treatment as a race of L. rufopicta; see e.g. Dowsett et al. (2008) [Dowsett, 2008 #12725].
4 Includes guineensis Hald-Mortensen, 1970 [Hald-Mortensen, 1970 #1877]; see implicitly Payne (2004) [Payne, 2004 #15655].
5 Includes kikuyuensis see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
6 Includes confidens Clancey, 1979 [Clancey, 1979 #902]; see implicitly Mills in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
7 For recognition see Dowsett et al. (2008) [Dowsett, 2008 #12725].
8 Includes L. rhodopareia bruneli Érard & Roche, 1977 = 1978 [Érard, 1978 #1524]; umbrinodorsalis is an applicable prior name see Payne & Louette (1983) [Payne, 1983 #2968] and not a synonym of L. rubricata ugandae as shown by Mayr et al. (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #2565].
9 Includes ugandae; see Payne (2004) [Payne, 2004 #15655].
10 Considered a monotypic species by Mayr et al. (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #2565]. For treatment within L. rubricata; see Payne (2004) [Payne, 2004 #15655].
11 For treatment as broad species including vinacea; see Payne (2004) [Payne, 2004 #15655].
12 For recognition; see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190]. But see Payne (2004) [Payne, 2004 #15655].
13 For treatment as a separate species from P. phoenicoptera see Nicolai (1968) [Nicolai, 1968 #2766].
14 Considered to form a superspecies with P. lineata and P. phoenicoptera by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
15 The name flavicaudata Welch & Welch, 1986 [Welch, 1986 #15649] has been applied to birds in Djibouti with much yellow in plumage. These and apparently identical birds in South Africa are considered by Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492] to be aberrant birds or morphs.
16 Considered to form a superspecies with P. hypogrammica by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
17 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2010) [Dickinson, 2010 #12496].
18 Includes thamnophila see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
19 For date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
20 Considered to form a superspecies with H. niveoguttatus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
21 Includes idius and interior, see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190]; and probably baddeleyi Wolters, 1972 [Wolters, 1972 #4257], see Keith (2004) [Keith, 2004 #15651].
22 Considered to form a superspecies with E. dybowskii by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
23 For recognition see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503]. But see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
24 Considered to form a superspecies with G. ianthinogaster by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
25 Implicitly includes siccatus and retusus, see Nuttall in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
26 Treated as monotypic by White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190], Zimmerman et al. (1986) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492]; thus roosevelti and rothschildi are synonyms.
27 Introduced to São Tomé and Príncipe.
28 Introduced to Hawaiian Is. (Hawaii).
29 Includes littoralis; see Payne (2004) [Payne, 2004 #15655].
30 Correct original spelling. Spelling ugogoensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
31 Considered to form a superspecies with S. ruficapilla by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. For suggested treatment as conspecific, see Louette (1988) [Louette, 1988 #6894].
32 Sherborn (1927) [Sherborn, 1927 #15744] dates this post 1807.
33 Includes kilgoris Cunningham-van Someren & Schifter, 1981 [Cunningham-van Someren, 1981 #1103] see Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328].
34 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
35 Forms a superspecies with P. sanguineus and P. minor; see Keith & Smith (2004) [Keith, 2004 #15651].
36 Includes rothschildi and frommi see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190]. Also includes large-billed maximus now considered a morph; see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
37 For treatment as a separate species from P. ostrinus, see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Keith & Smith (2004) [Keith, 2004 #15651] who implicitly include 'coccineus' as a small-billed morph.
38 Considered to form a superspecies with E. perreini by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
39 Introduced to Hawaiian Is. (Oahu, Hawaii).
40 Includes poliogastra and torrida Clancey, 1974 [Clancey, 1974 #870]; see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
41 For treatment as a separate species from E. paludicola see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887].
42 Considered to form a superspecies with E. poliopareia by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
43 Treated as a separate species by Wolters (1979) [Wolters, 1979 #4454] and, within a superspecies, by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
44 For monotypic treatment see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503]; thus includes tschadensis.
45 Introduced to Spain, Hawaiian Is. (Oahu, Maui), Puerto Rico and Bermuda.
46 Introduced to Spain, Hawaiian Is. (Hawaii), Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles (Martinique).
47 The article in which this and four other new names appeared begins without any author's name; each of the new names is attributed to Jardine & Fraser. Art. 50.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] is here applied on the basis that those attributions demonstrate that the paper involved both authors and that long-standing attribution of these names to both should be sustained.
48 For date correction see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12713].
49 A replacement name for nyansae Neumann, 1907, preoccupied in a broad genus Estrilda by nyansae Neumann, 1905; replaced prior to 1961 and permanently invalid.
50 Includes schoutedeni; see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
51 For treatment within E. astrild, see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492]. But see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
52 Correct original spelling. Spelling neidiecki in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
53 For recognition see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492] who includes ngamiensis.
54 Implicitly includes sousae, see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
55 Introduced to Portugal, Spain, Azores (São Miguel, Terceira), Madeira, Canary Is. (Gran Canaria), Cape Verde Is. (Santiago), Ascension I., St. Helena I., Ile Amsterdam, Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, Seychelles, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Society Is., Hawaiian Is. (Oahu), Puerto Rico and Brazil.
56 Includes eisentrauti, see Louette (1981) [Louette, 1981 #13691].
57 Treated as two species by Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503] but Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492] although accepting two species refers to unpublished molecular studies that suggest species limits here are not well resolved.
58 For treatment within E. atricapilla, see Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328]. But see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
59 For determination that graueri, a name given to adult birds, is a junior synonym of this taxon, whose name was based on a juvenile see Prigogine (1975) [Prigogine, 1975 #15733].
60 Includes soligena, see Nuttall in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
61 Includes pallidior see Zimmermann et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328].
62 For treatment of this and subspecies kiwanuka within E. erythronotus, see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
63 For recognition see Keith (2004) [Keith, 2004 #15651]. But Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492] places this in schlegeli.
64 Considered to form a superspecies with C. salvadorii by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
65 For recognition, see Keith (2004) [Keith, 2004 #15651].
66 Includes homogenes Clancey, 1971 [Clancey, 1971 #856]; see Bowie in Hockey (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
67 Includes crystallochresta Desfayes (1975) [Desfayes, 1975 #1314] see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
68 Subsumed in Estrilda in Mayr et al. (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #2565]; for recognition see Peters, for recognition see Sorenson et al. (2004) [Sorenson, 2004 #3684].
69 For dates of parts of this publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
70 Treatment as a subspecies of C. melanotis follows Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503]. But see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
71 Considered to form a superspecies with C. melanotis by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
72 For treatment as a separate species from C. melanotis, see Clancey (1966) [Clancey, 1966 #828].
73 Dated '1851?' in Mayr et al. (1968:) [Mayr, 1968 #2565], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
74 Previously listed under C. melanotis but see Goodwin (1982) [Goodwin, 1982 #1738] for an indication of its affinity.
75 Considered to form a superspecies with N. shelleyi by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
76 For recognition see Keith (2004) [Keith, 2004 #15651].
77 Correct original spelling. Spelling emilae in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
78 Implicitly includes sparsimguttata; although recognised by Mayr et al. (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #2565] later authors such as Goodwin (1982) [Goodwin, 1982 #1738] have withheld recognition.
79 Considered to form a superspecies with P. rubrifrons (including jamesoni) by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
80 For treatment as a separate species from P. rubrifrons see Woodcock (2003) [Woodcock, 2003 #4269] and Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
81 Placement here follows Goodwin (1982) [Goodwin, 1982 #1738] and Baptista et al. (1999) [Baptista, 1999 #207].
82 Considered to form a superspecies with A. fasciata by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
83 For recent recognition see Tree in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724]. But see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
84 Considered to form a superspecies with O. gabonensis (and by extension fuscocrissa) by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
85 For evidence supporting recognition as a separate species from O. atricollis, see Payne & Sorenson (2007) [Payne, 2007 #9428].
86 For recognition as a separate species from O. atricollis, see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503]. But see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
87 Placed in this species following Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
88 For recognition see Nuttall in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724]. But placed in muelleri by Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
89 Introduced to Portugal, Spain, Italy, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Japan (Honshu, Shikoku), Philippines (Luzon), Singapore, Fiji, Hawaiian Is., Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Martinique).
90 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
91 Dated 1831 by Mayr et al. (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #2565], no doubt a typographical error.
92 Includes niethammeri Wolters, 1969 [Wolters, 1969 #4255], see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
93 Treated as a species in the genus Ortygospiza by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] but see Payne & Sorenson (2003) [Payne, 2003 #2976].
94 Sequence of genera based on Sorenson et al. (2004) [Sorenson, 2004 #3684].
95 Introduced to Puerto Rico.
96 Includes tessellatus; see Nuttall in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
97 Includes stigmatophorus see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
98 Includes minor see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
99 Includes pica Clancey, 1987 [Clancey, 1987 #937]; see Nuttall in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
100 For treatment in this genus see the molecular results of Sorenson et al. (2004) [Sorenson, 2004 #3684].
101 Includes Pitylia caniceps Reichenow, 1879 which was preoccupied in a broad genus Lonchura by Munia caniceps Salvadori, 1876. Reichenow's name was replaced prior to 1961 and is permanently invalid, but it is still the type species.
102 Not preoccupied by Lepidopygia Sclater, 1862 which was an unjustified emendation of Lepidopyga Reichenbach, 1855.
103 For dates of parts of this publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
104 Introduced to Hawaiian Is.
105 Considered to form a superspecies with E. cantans by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
106 Introduced to S France, Sinai Pen., Israel and Puerto Rico.
107 Some species previously treated in a broader Lonchura are now treated in Spermestes, Odontospiza, Lepidopygia and Euodice based on Payne & Sorenson (2003) [Payne, 2003 #2976] and Sorenson et al. (2004) [Sorenson, 2004 #3684] who found Padda best included.
108 Sequence of species derived from Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
109 Subsumes the genus Padda see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754].
110 Considered to form a superspecies with L. leucogastroides by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
111 Introduced to Okinawa Is. (Okinawa).
112 Includes sumatrensis Restall, 1995 [Restall, 1995 3256]. This population was first named sumatrensis Chasen, 1939, which was found to be preoccupied by Munia sumatrensis Bartlett, 1888, and renamed explita Chasen, 1940 [Chasen, 1940 #15648].
113 Ascribed to Horsfield & Moore (1856) by Mayr et al. (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #2565] but reference to the original shows that Moore claimed sole authorship of this name.
114 For date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
115 Introduced to extreme S Thai-Malay Pen.
116 But not the main Sulu archipelago.
117 Includes vagans and propinqua; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194]; but for recognition of the latter see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094]. Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492] recognised propinqua.
118 For discussion of validity and possible limitation to Réunion see Safford & Hawkins (2013) [Safford, 2013 #14829].
119 Introduced to United Arab Emirates, Oman, Japan (Amami Is., Ryukyu Is.), E Australia, Hawaiian Is., Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe).
120 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
121 Includes yunnanensis; see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
122 Includes fortior see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194]; also includes fretensis, baweana and holmesi Restall, 1992 [Restall, 1992 #3255]; see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
123 Includes jagori; see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
124 For correct date of publication see Burg et al. (1994) [Burg, 1994 #15647].
125 Although it has been suggested by LeCroy (1999) [LeCroy, 1999 #2353] that this is an erroneous spelling, Art. 31.1.2 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] does not seem to mandate its correction. The name bigilalae Restall, 1995 [Restall, 1995 #3256], and similarly uncorrectable, is not included pending further evidence of wild provenance.
126 Existing specimens offer some support for the view that this taxon is to be found where suggested.
127 For reasons to include this taxon here see Coates (1990) [Coates, 1990 #1003].
128 We follow White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194] in treating this as monotypic (variation being either individual or perhaps clinal). Includes sumbae Restall, 1995 [Restall, 1995 #3256], which is a preoccupied name, see LeCroy (1999) [LeCroy, 1999 #2353]; see also Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
129 Subspecies groups based on Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492], who treated the three as species. Payne (op. cit.) also noted that in captivity atricapilla and malacca mate assortatively and that in DNA sequences atricapilla is closer to ferruginosa than either is to malacca. Fuller DNA data needs to be published to allow determination of whether the three subspecies groups represent species.
130 The species Lonchura pallidiventer Restall, 1996 [Restall, 1996 #3257] was thought by van Balen (1998) [van Balen, 1998 #3907] to be a hybrid. Not since found in the wild (Smythies, 1999) [Smythies, 1999 #3667].
131 Considered to form a superspecies with L. quinticolor by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
132 Introduced to Japan (atricapilla on Honshu, Shikoku, Ryukyu Is.; malacca on Honshu, Ryukyu Is.), Hawaiian Is. (atricapilla), Vanuatu (atricapilla), Guam (ferruginosa), Palau (ferruginosa), Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles (Martinique).
133 Includes obscura Restall, 1995 [Restall, 1995 #3256], and selimbaue Restall, 1995 [Restall, 1995 #3256]. If a name, other than or in addition to jagori, is to be used for Bornean birds it will be necessary to consider gregalis for the reasons explained by LeCroy (1999) [LeCroy, 1999 #2353] - a point not discussed in Smythies (1999) [Smythies, 1999 #3667].
134 Also includes brunneiceps; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194], although recognised by Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
135 Includes vietnamensis Restall, 1995 [Restall, 1995 #3256], of which no type material survives. The taxon can be evaluated when fresh material is collected.
136 Includes subcastanea; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
137 Considered to form a superspecies with L. vana by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
138 Includes sepikensis Jonkers & Roersma, 1990 [Jonkers, 1990 #2154]; see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
139 Includes gajduseki see Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
140 Considered to form a superspecies with L. hunsteini by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
141 Validity questionable as reported introduced as late as the 1920s, but accepted by Baker (1951) [Baker, 1951 #165].
142 Includes assimilis see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
143 Introduced to Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Society Is. and Iles Marquises.
144 The name myolae Restall, 1995, has been discussed by LeCroy (1999) [LeCroy, 1999 #2353]; at least one type is a topotype of monticola. Birds from Myola, if different, require a new name.
145 Considered to form a superspecies with L. fuscata by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
146 Introduced to Zanzibar, Pemba I., St. Helena I., Vietnam, Myanmar, SE China, Hong Kong, S Thai-Malay Pen., Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), Philippines, Christmas I., Fiji, Hawaiian Is. and Puerto Rico.
147 Previously treated within the genus Lonchura, but see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754].
148 For separation from Emblema see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753]; [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492]. Once placed within the genus Emblema; but see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
149 Species treated as monotypic by Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
150 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
151 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
152 For treatment as monospecific see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
153 Includes Aidesmoyne, Aegintha and Bathilda; see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
154 For placement in Neochmia, see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
155 Includes loftyi see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
156 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
157 Introduced to Society Is. and Iles Marquises.
158 Includes albiventer see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
159 For placement in Neochmia, see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
160 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
161 For placement in Neochmia, see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
162 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
163 Considered to form a superspecies with P. acuticauda by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
164 Includes nigrotecta see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
165 Previously placed in the genus Poephila, but see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
166 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
167 We tentatively follow Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] who view this as approaching speciation.
168 For inclusion in Taeniopygia see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
169 Original spelling; for a review and rejection of proposed emendation see Schodde & Longmore (2015) [Schodde, 2015 #15831].
170 Original spelling Erythura; the emended spelling as used to derive a family-group name is accepted here in the interests of stability.
171 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
172 Includes ernstmayri; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
173 Includes obscura see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194]; but see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
174 Considered to form a superspecies with E. viridifacies by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
175 Movements or migrations not yet understood.
176 Considered to form a superspecies with E. coloria and E. trichroa by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and by Mayr et al. (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #2565].
177 Spelled sigillifera in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]; but see David & Gosselin (2011) [David, 2011 #13197].
178 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524].
179 For correct date see Dickinson & Daneliya (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12678].
180 For substantiation of dual authorship see LeCroy (2013) [LeCroy, 2013 #15329].
181 For evidence of dual authorship see LeCroy (2013) [LeCroy, 2013 #15329].
182 Treatment as three species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], here signalled as subspecies groups.
183 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
184 Recognition follows phylogenetic branching in Sorenson et al. (2004) [Sorenson, 2004 #3684] and Arnaiz-Villena et al. (2009) [Arnaiz-Villena, 2009 #12012]; but see Christidis (1987a, b) [Christidis, 1987 #753], [Christidis, 1987 #754], Schodde & Mason (1999) [Schodde, 1999 #3524] and Payne (2010) [Payne, 2010 #13492].
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