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FRINGILLIDAE - Finches, Euphonias and Hawaiian Honeycreepers1 (57:221)
FRINGILLINAE
FRINGILLA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758; type by Linnaean tautonymy   
Fringilla coelebs2 Common Chaffinch
gengleri O. Kleinschmidt, 1909 British Isles
coelebs Linnaeus, 17583 δEurope (except Sardinia), W and C Siberia to Lake Baikal, N Turkey, NW Iran, Caucasus area >> N Africa, SW Asia4
solomkoi Menzbier & Sushkin, 1913 Crimea, SW Caucasus
sarda Rapine, 1925 vSardinia
syriaca J.M. Harrison, 19455 vCyprus, Levant, SE Turkey, N Iraq
alexandrovi Sarudny, 19166 δN Iran >> Middle East
transcaspia Sarudny, 19167 δvNE Iran, SW Turkmenistan
africana J.J.R. Levaillant, 18508 vNW Africa east to extreme NW Tunisia
spodiogenys Bonaparte, 1841 Tunisia, NW Libya
moreletti Pucheran, 1859 Azores
maderensis Sharpe, 1888 vMadeira
canariensis Vieillot, 1817 vGran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera (Canary Is.)
ombriosa E. Hartert, 1913 vEl Hierro (Canary Is.)
palmae Tristram, 1889 La Palma (Canary Is.)
Fringilla teydea Blue Chaffinch
teydea Webb, Berthelot & Moquin-Tandon, 18369 vTenerife (Canary Is.)
polatzeki E. Hartert, 1905 Gran Canaria (Canary Is.)
Fringilla montifringilla   Linnaeus, 1758 Brambling
iN Europe, Siberia east to Kamchatka and Sakhalin, south to Altai, Baikal, N Russian Far East, NE Mongolia >> N Africa, Eurasia south to Mediterranean, SW and C Asia, S China
EUPHONIINAE
CHLOROPHONIA Bonaparte, 1851 F - Tanagra viridis Vieillot, 1819; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 74). = Pipra cyanea Thunberg, 1822  
Chlorophonia flavirostris   P.L. Sclater, 1861 Yellow-collared Chlorophonia
vE Panama, W slope of W Andes of Colombia (from Risaralda), W Ecuador (to Pichincha)
Chlorophonia cyanea Blue-naped Chlorophonia
psittacina Bangs, 190210 vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
frontalis (P.L. Sclater, 1851) vN Venezuela (mountains from Lara to Miranda)
minuscula Hellmayr, 1922 vNE Venezuela (mountains of Anzoátegui, Monagas, Sucre)
roraimae Salvin & Godman, 1884 S Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar), the Guianas, NW Brazil
intensa J.T. Zimmer, 1943 vW Colombia (W slope of W Andes in Caldas, Valle)
longipennis (Du Bus, 1855) vAndes from W Venezuela (S Lara) to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
cyanea (Thunberg, 1822)11 vSE Brazil (S Bahia to Paraná), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys   (P.L. Sclater, 1851) Chestnut-breasted Chlorophonia
iW Venezuela, N Colombia to Peru (N Cajamarca)
Chlorophonia occipitalis 12  (Du Bus, 1847) Blue-crowned Chlorophonia
vSE Mexico (Veracruz) to N Nicaragua
Chlorophonia callophrys 13,14  (Cabanis, 1861) α Golden-browed Chlorophonia
iMountains of Costa Rica to W Panama
EUPHONIA Desmarest, 1806 F - Euphonia olivacea Desmarest, 1806; type by monotypy = Euphonia minuta Cabanis, 1849  
Euphonia jamaica   (Linnaeus, 1766) Jamaican Euphonia
Jamaica
Euphonia plumbea   Du Bus, 1855 Plumbeous Euphonia
vE Colombia (Caquetá to Vichada, Guainía), N Brazil (upper R. Negro), S Venezuela, the Guianas
Euphonia affinis15 Scrub Euphonia
1 godmani Brewster, 1889 W Mexico (Pacific slope from SE Sonora to C Guerrero)
2 olmecorum Dickerman, 198116 E Mexico (Gulf slope from S Tamaulipas to N Chiapas) [Dickerman, 1981 #1333]
2 affinis (Lesson, 1842) vSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.) to N Honduras; Pacific slope from S Mexico (Chiapas) to NW Costa Rica
Euphonia luteicapilla 17  (Cabanis, 1861) α Yellow-crowned Euphonia
iCaribbean lowlands from E Nicaragua to NW Panama, Pacific slope from NW Costa Rica to E Panama
Euphonia chlorotica18 Purple-throated Euphonia
cynophora (Oberholser, 1918) vS Venezuela (S Táchira, Amazonas, Bolívar), E Colombia (Meta), N Brazil (Roraima)
chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) vThe Guianas, N and E Brazil (Amapá, south of R. Amazon from R. Tapajós to Bahia, Espírito Santo)
amazonica Parkes, 1969 vR. Amazon from NE Peru, SE Colombia to N Brazil (east to R. Tapajós)
taczanowskii P.L. Sclater, 1886 N Peru (R. Marañón); SE Peru, N Bolivia
serrirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 vSE Bolivia, S Brazil (S Mato Grosso to Rio de Janeiro), Paraguay, Uruguay, N Argentina
Euphonia trinitatis   Strickland, 1851 Trinidad Euphonia
iN Colombia (Atlántico to Antioquia, middle Magdalena valley), Venezuela; Trinidad
Euphonia concinna   P.L. Sclater, 1855 Velvet-fronted Euphonia
vC Colombia (N Tolima to SW Huila)
Euphonia saturata 19  (Cabanis, 1861) α Orange-crowned Euphonia
vColombia (both slopes of W Andes in Valle) to W Ecuador, NW Peru (Tumbes)
Euphonia finschi   P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1877 Finsch's Euphonia
iSE Venezuela (SE Bolívar), N Brazil (Roraima), the Guianas
Euphonia violacea Violaceous Euphonia
rodwayi (T.E. Penard, 1919) E Venezuela (Sucre to N Amazonas), Trinidad
violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) vThe Guianas, N Brazil (north of Amazon from R. Nhamundá, south of Amazon from R. Madeira to Maranhão)
aurantiicollis W. Bertoni, 1901 vE Brazil (Piauí to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Euphonia laniirostris20 Thick-billed Euphonia
1 crassirostris P.L. Sclater, 1857 vPacific slope of Costa Rica, Panama (both slopes) to N Venezuela (south to R. Orinoco)
1 melanura P.L. Sclater, 1851 vE Colombia (Vichada) to E Peru (San Martín, Ucayali), C Brazil (to W Pará)
2 hypoxantha von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 188421 αvW Ecuador to NW Peru (S Cajamarca)
2 zopholega (Oberholser, 1918)22 vEC Peru (Junín, Cuzco)
2 laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 vSE Peru, N Bolivia, C Brazil (SE Amazonas, C Mato Grosso)
Euphonia hirundinacea Yellow-throated Euphonia
suttoni A.R. Phillips, 196623 NE Mexico (SW Tamaulipas) [Phillips, 1986 #3071]
caribbaea A.R. Phillips, 196624 vSE Mexico (Oaxaca) [Phillips, 1986 #3071]
hirundinacea Bonaparte, 183825 vE Mexico (from San Luis Potosí to Yucatan Pen.), Belize to E Nicaragua
gnatho (Cabanis, 1861)26 αNW Nicaragua to W Panama (Chiriquí)
Euphonia chalybea   (Mikan, 1825) Green-throated Euphonia
vSE Brazil (Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes)
Euphonia elegantissima27 Elegant Euphonia
rileyi (van Rossem, 1942)28 αNW Mexico (SE Sonora, NE Sinaloa)
elegantissima (Bonaparte, 1838) vC Mexico (S Sinaloa, S Tamaulipas) to NC Nicaragua
vincens E. Hartert, 191329 SW Nicaragua to W Panama (Veraguas)
Euphonia cyanocephala30 Golden-rumped Euphonia
pelzelni P.L. Sclater, 1886 S Colombia, W Ecuador (to Chimborazo)
insignis P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1877 vS Ecuador (E slope of Andes in Azuay, Loja)
cyanocephala (Vieillot, 1819)31,32 vSouth America (except Chile, S Argentina) [Vieillot, 1819 #4013]
Euphonia musica33 Antillean Euphonia
musica (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vHispaniola incl. Ile de la Gonâve
sclateri (P.L. Sclater, 1854) Puerto Rico
flavifrons (Sparrman, 1789) Lesser Antilles
Euphonia fulvicrissa34 Fulvous-vented Euphonia
fulvicrissa P.L. Sclater, 1857 C Panama to NW Colombia (N Chocó)
omissa E. Hartert, 191335 αvW and NC Colombia (Antioquia to Norte de Santander and S Chocó to Cauca)
purpurascens E. Hartert, 1901 SW Colombia (Nariño) to NW Ecuador (Manabí)
Euphonia imitans   (Hellmayr, 1936) Spot-crowned Euphonia
iPacific slope of Costa Rica to W Panama (Chiriquí)
Euphonia gouldi Olive-backed Euphonia
gouldi P.L. Sclater, 1857 SE Mexico (Caribbean slope from S Veracruz), Belize, N Guatemala, Honduras
praetermissa (J.L. Peters, 1929) vSE Honduras to NW Panama (NW Veraguas)
Euphonia chrysopasta Golden-bellied Euphonia/White-lored Euphonia
chrysopasta P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869 vSE Colombia (Meta) to N Bolivia, W and C Brazil (to R. Xingu, R. Tocantins)
nitida (T.E. Penard, 1923) vE Colombia, S Venezuela (south of R. Orinoco), the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
Euphonia mesochrysa Bronze-green Euphonia
mesochrysa Salvadori, 1873 vC Colombia (Huila, E slope of E Andes from Cundinamarca, Meta) to E Ecuador
media (J.T. Zimmer, 1943) vN and C Peru (E slope of Andes in Amazonas to Cuzco)
tavarae (Chapman, 1925) SE Peru (Puno), E slope of Andes in Bolivia (to Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz)
Euphonia minuta White-vented Euphonia
humilis (Cabanis, 1861)36 αvSE Mexico (Chiapas), Belize to Panama, SW Colombia, NW Ecuador (Pichincha)
minuta Cabanis, 184937,38 αvSE Colombia (Meta) to C Bolivia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonian Brazil
Euphonia anneae Tawny-capped Euphonia
anneae Cassin, 1865 Caribbean foothills from Costa Rica to W Panama
rufivertex Salvin, 1866 Panama (from Veraguas) to NW Colombia (Cerro Tacarcuna)
Euphonia xanthogaster39,40 Orange-bellied Euphonia
oressinoma Olson, 198141 vW and C Andes of Colombia [Olson, 1981 #2842]
chocoensis Hellmayr, 1911 vW Panama, SW Colombia (Pacific coast), NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Imbabura)
badissima Olson, 198142 vE Colombia (Cesar to Boyacá), W Venezuela (Andes from Lara to Táchira) [Olson, 1981 #2842]
quitensis (Nelson, 1912) vW Ecuador, NW Peru
dilutior (J.T. Zimmer, 1943) vSE Colombia, NE Peru (Ucayali valley)
cyanonota Parkes, 1969 vW and C Brazil (R. Juruá, R. Purus to R. Tapajós)
brunneifrons Chapman, 1901 SE Peru (Cuzco, Puno)
ruficeps d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 W Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
brevirostris Bonaparte, 1851 vE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru (west of Ucayali valley), S Venezuela, C Guyana, NW Brazil
exsul von Berlepsch, 1912 NE Colombia, N Venezuela (Carabobo to N Monagas)
xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834 E Brazil (coast from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro)
Euphonia rufiventris Rufous-bellied Euphonia
rufiventris (Vieillot, 1819) vE Colombia to N Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Xingu)
carnegiei Dickerman, 198843 S Venezuela [Dickerman, 1988 #1341]
Euphonia pectoralis 44  (Latham, 1801) α Chestnut-bellied Euphonia
vSE Brazil (Alagoas; C Mato Grosso, S Bahia to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Euphonia cayennensis 45  (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Golden-sided Euphonia
vSE Venezuela (E Bolívar), the Guianas, NE Brazil (from Manaus to Pará, N Maranhão)
CARDUELINAE46,47

Tribe COCCOTHRAUSTINI46,47
MYCEROBAS Cabanis, 1847 M - Coccothraustes melanozanthos Hodgson, 1836; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 71).   48
Mycerobas icterioides   (Vigors, 1831) Black-and-yellow Grosbeak
iNE Afghanistan and Himalayas east to W Nepal
Mycerobas affinis   (Blyth, 1855) Collared Grosbeak
vSE Xizang, SW China, Himalayas east from Himachal Pradesh, NE Myanmar
Mycerobas melanozanthos   (Hodgson, 1836) Spot-winged Grosbeak
iSE Xizang, SW and WC China, Himalayas east from N Pakistan, NE India in E and SE Assam, NW and N Myanmar
Mycerobas carnipes White-winged Grosbeak
speculigerus (von Brandt, 1841) vSW Turkmenistan, NE Iran, N Afghanistan, NW Pakistan
merzbacheri Schalow, 190849 C Asia from Pamir to Tien Shan ranges, NW China in W and C Xinjiang [Schalow, 1908 #3487]
carnipes (Hodgson, 1836) S and E Xizang, WC to NC China from N Yunnan to Gansu and Ningxia, NE Afghanistan and Himalayas, far-N Myanmar
HESPERIPHONA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Fringilla vespertina W. Cooper, 1825; type by monotypy   50
Hesperiphona vespertina Evening Grosbeak
vespertina (W. Cooper, 1825) vC and E Canada (from Alberta), NE USA (Maine) >> S USA (to Texas, N Florida)
brooksi G.B. Grinnell, 1917 W Canada (British Columbia), W USA (W Montana to California, New Mexico) >> SW USA (SW Texas)
montana Ridgway, 1874 vSW USA (SE Arizona), W Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental to Michoacán; Hidalgo to N Oaxaca)
Hesperiphona abeillei Hooded Grosbeak
pallida Nelson, 1928 vNW Mexico (S Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango)
saturata Sutton & T.D. Burleigh, 1939 vN Mexico (E San Luis Potosí)
abeillei (Lesson, 1839) C and S Mexico (Michoacán, Veracruz to N Oaxaca)
cobanensis Nelson, 1928 vS Mexico (SE Chiapas), SW Guatemala
COCCOTHRAUSTES Brisson, 1760 M - Coccothraustes Brisson; type by tautonymy = Loxia coccothraustes Linnaeus, 1758  
Coccothraustes coccothraustes Hawfinch
coccothraustes (Linnaeus, 1758) Europe, Siberia east and south to Altai and Baikal, N Mongolia >> N Africa, Europe to NE China
buvryi Cabanis, 186251 NW Africa
nigricans Buturlin, 1908 Crimea, Caucasus area, N and NE Iran >> Middle East
humii Sharpe, 1886 C Asia east from E Uzbekistan >> Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas east to Kashmir
shulpini H. Johansen, 194452,53 Russian Far East, N Korea, NE China >> NE China
japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 vE Siberia in S Kamchatka and Sakhalin, N Japan >> S Japan, Korea, E China to Taiwan
EOPHONA Gould, 1851 F - Loxia melanura J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 71). = Eophona sowerbyi Riley, 1915  54
Eophona migratoria Yellow-billed Grosbeak/Chinese Grosbeak
migratoria E. Hartert, 1903 vRussian Far East, Korea, far-NE China >> E and S China
sowerbyi Riley, 1915 C and EC China
Eophona personata Japanese Grosbeak
personata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)55 αvJapan south to C Honshu >> Japan to Ryukyu Is.
magnirostris E. Hartert, 1896 vSakhalin, E Russian Far East, N Korea, NE China >> S China
Tribe DREPANIDINI56
MELAMPROSOPS Casey & J.D. Jacobi, 1974 M - Melamprosops phaeosoma Casey & J.D. Jacobi, 1974; type by original designation and monotypy   
†? Melamprosops phaeosoma   Casey & J.D. Jacobi, 1974 Poo-uli
iMaui (Hawaiian Is.) [Casey, 1974 #671]
PAROREOMYZA Perkins, 1901 F - Himatione maculata Cabanis, 1851; type by original designation   
†? Paroreomyza maculata 57,58  (Cabanis, 1851) Oahu Alauahio
vOahu (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Paroreomyza flammea 59  (S.B. Wilson, 1890) Kakawahie
vMolokai (Hawaiian Is.)
Paroreomyza montana60 Maui Alauahio
†? montana (S.B. Wilson, 1890)61 αvLanai (Hawaiian Is.)
newtoni (Rothschild, 1893)62 Maui (Hawaiian Is.)
DYSMORODREPANIS Perkins, 1919 F - Dysmorodrepanis munroi Perkins, 1919; type by monotypy   
†? Dysmorodrepanis munroi 63  Perkins, 1919 δ Lanai Hookbill
iLanai (Hawaiian Is.)
RHODACANTHIS Rothschild, 1892 F - Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild, 1892; type by subsequent designation (Bryan & Greenway, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 94, p. 135).   64
†? Rhodacanthis flaviceps   Rothschild, 1892 Lesser Koa Finch
iHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Rhodacanthis palmeri   Rothschild, 1892 Greater Koa Finch
iHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
CHLORIDOPS S.B. Wilson, 1888 M - Chloridops kona S.B. Wilson, 1888; type by monotypy   65
†? Chloridops kona   S.B. Wilson, 1888 Kona Grosbeak
iHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
TELESPIZA S.B. Wilson, 1890 F - Telespiza cantans S.B. Wilson, 1890; type by monotypy   66,67
Telespiza cantans 68  S.B. Wilson, 1890 Laysan Finch
iLaysan (Hawaiian Is.)
Telespiza ultima 69  Bryan, 1917 Nihoa Finch
vNihoa (Hawaiian Is.)
LOXIOIDES Oustalet, 1877 M - Loxioides bailleui Oustalet, 1877; type by monotypy   
Loxioides bailleui 70  Oustalet, 1877 Palila
iN Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
PSITTIROSTRA Temminck, 1820 F - Loxia psittacea J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy   
†? Psittirostra psittacea   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Ou
vKauai, Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
OREOMYSTIS Stejneger, 1903 F - Oreomyza bairdi Stejneger, 1887; type by original designation   
Oreomystis bairdi 71  (Stejneger, 1887) Akikiki
iKauai (Hawaiian Is.)
MAGUMMA Mathews, 1925 F - Himatione parva Stejneger, 1887; type by original designation72
Magumma parva   (Stejneger, 1887) Anianiau
vKauai (Hawaiian Is.)
LOXOPS Cabanis, 1847 M - Fringilla coccinea J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation   
Loxops caeruleirostris 73  (S.B. Wilson, 1890) Akekee
vKauai (Hawaiian Is.)
Loxops coccineus   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Hawaii Akepa
vHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Loxops ochraceus 74  Rothschild, 1893 Maui Akepa
vMaui (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Loxops wolstenholmei 75,76  Rothschild, 1893 Oahu Akepa
Oahu (Hawaiian Is.) [Rothschild, 1893 #3391]
MANUCERTHIA H.D. Pratt, 2009 F - Himatione mana S.B. Wilson, 1891; type by original designation and monotypy77
Manucerthia mana 78  (S.B. Wilson, 1891) Hawaii Creeper
Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
CHLORODREPANIS Perkins , 1899 F - Himatione stejnegeri S.B. Wilson, 1890; type by subsequent designation (Richmond, 1902, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 673).79,80
Chlorodrepanis virens81 Hawaii Amakihi
wilsoni (Rothschild, 1893) Molokai, Maui (Hawaiian Is.)
virens (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
Chlorodrepanis flava 82  (Bloxam, 1827) Oahu Amakihi
vOahu (Hawaiian Is.) [Anson, 1827 #90]
†? Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri 83,84  (S.B. Wilson, 1890) Kauai Amakihi
vKauai (Hawaiian Is.)
HEMIGNATHUS M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1839 M - Hemignathus lucidus M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1839; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1841, A List of the Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 16).   85
†? Hemignathus lucidus   M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1839 Oahu Nukupuu
vOahu (Hawaiian Is.)
† Hemignathus hanapepe 86  S.B. Wilson, 1889 Kauai Nukupuu
Kauai (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Hemignathus affinis 87  Rothschild, 1893 Maui Nukupuu
vMaui (Hawaiian Is.)
Hemignathus wilsoni 88  (Rothschild, 1893) Akiapolaau
iHawaii (Hawaiian Is.) [Pratt, 1979 #3117]
VIRIDONIA Rothschild, 1892 F - Viridonia sagittirostris Rothschild, 1892; type by monotypy
†? Viridonia sagittirostris 89  Rothschild, 1892 Greater Amakihi
vHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
AKIALOA Olson & James, 1995 F - Certhia obscura J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by original designation90
†? Akialoa obscura   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Lesser Akialoa
vHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Akialoa ellisiana 91,92,93  (G.R. Gray, 1860) α Oahu Akialoa
vOahu (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Akialoa lanaiensis 94  (Rothschild, 1893) Lanai Akialoa
vLanai (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Akialoa stejnegeri 95  (S.B. Wilson, 1889) α Kauai Akialoa
Kauai (Hawaiian Is.) [Wilson, 1889 #4229]
PSEUDONESTOR Rothschild, 1893 M - Pseudonestor xanthophrys Rothschild, 1893; type by monotypy   
Pseudonestor xanthophrys   Rothschild, 1893 Maui Parrotbill
iMaui (Hawaiian Is.)
VESTIARIA Jarocki, 1821 F - Certhia vestiaria Latham, 1790; type by tautonymy = Certhia coccinea J.G. Forster, 1780  
Vestiaria coccinea   (J.G. Forster, 1780) α Iiwi
vKauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.) [Forster, 1780 #15685]
HIMATIONE Cabanis, 1851 F - Certhia sanguinea J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 19).   96
Himatione sanguinea   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Apapane
vKauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, Maui, Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Himatione fraithii 97,98  Rothschild, 1892 δ Laysan Honeycreeper
Laysan (Hawaiian Is.)
PALMERIA Rothschild, 1893 F - Palmeria mirabilis Rothschild, 1893; type by monotypy = Himatione dolei S.B. Wilson, 1891  
Palmeria dolei   (S.B. Wilson, 1891) Akohekohe/Crested Honeycreeper
iMaui (Hawaiian Is.)
CIRIDOPS A. Newton, 1892 M - Fringilla anna Dole, 1878; type by monotypy   
†? Ciridops anna 99  (Dole, 1878) α Ula-ai-hawane
iHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
DREPANIS Temminck, 1820 F - Certhia pacifica J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 12).   
†? Drepanis pacifica   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Hawaii Mamo
vHawaii (Hawaiian Is.)
†? Drepanis funerea 100  A. Newton, 1894 α Black Mamo
vMolokai (Hawaiian Is.)
Tribe CARPODACINI
ERYTHRINA C.L. Brehm, 1828 F - Erythrina albifrons Brehm, 1828; type by monotypy = Loxia erythrina Pallas, 1770101
Erythrina erythrina Common Rosefinch
erythrina (Pallas, 1770) vN and C Europe, Siberia east to Lena and Kolyma basins, south to Mongolia >> Nepal, Bhutan, N and C India, N continental SE Asia
grebnitskii (Stejneger, 1885) Siberia (east of erythrina), south to N Sakhalin, Russian Far East, N Korea, N Mongolia, NE China >> SE China
kubanensis (Laubmann, 1915) vSE Europe and Turkey to NE Iran >> Pakistan, Nepal
ferghanensis Kozlova, 1939 vN Afghanistan and C Asia to Tien Shan, NW China in W Xinjiang, NW Pakistan and Himalayas east to Ladakh >> N and C India
roseata (Blyth, 1842) vE Xizang, WC to NW and NC China (east to S Nei Mongol), Himalayas east from Ladakh >> SW China, C and S India, W and N continental SE Asia
HAEMATOSPIZA Blyth, 1845 F - Haematospiza boetonensis Blyth, 1845; type by monotypy = Corythus sipahi Hodgson, 1836  
Haematospiza sipahi   (Hodgson, 1836) Scarlet Finch
iHimalayas east from Himachal Pradesh, NE India, W and N Myanmar >> N continental SE Asia
CHAUNOPROCTUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Fringilla papa von Kittlitz, 1830; type by monotypy = Coccothraustes ferreorostris Vigors, 1829102
†? Chaunoproctus ferreorostris 103  (Vigors, 1829) α Bonin Grosbeak
vOgasawara Is. (Japan)
CARPODACUS Kaup, 1829 M - Fringilla rosea Pallas, 1776; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1842, Appendix to a list of the Genera of Birds, p. 11).   104
Carpodacus synoicus   (Temminck, 1825) Sinai Rosefinch
vSinai, S Israel, SW Jordan, NW Saudi Arabia
Carpodacus stoliczkae105 Pale Rosefinch
salimalii (R. Meinertzhagen, 1938) N and C Afghanistan
stoliczkae (Hume, 1874) NW China in S Xinjiang and NW Qinghai
beicki (Stresemann, 1930) NC China in NE Qinghai and NW Gansu
Carpodacus roborowskii 106  (Przevalski, 1887) Roborovski's Rosefinch/Tibetan Rosefinch
NC China in C and E Qinghai
Carpodacus rubicilloides Streaked Rosefinch
lucifer R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 1926 vS and SE Xizang, Himalayas from Ladakh to Bhutan
rubicilloides Przevalski, 1876 E Xizang, NC China in NE Qinghai and Gansu >> WC China
Carpodacus rubicilla107 Great Rosefinch
1 rubicilla (Güldenstädt, 1775) Caucasus
2 diabolicus (Koelz, 1939) vNE Afghanistan, C Asia to W Pamir and Alai ranges
2 kobdensis (Sushkin, 1925) vSC Siberia in Altai and Sayan ranges, W Mongolia
2 severtzovi Sharpe, 1886 C Asia from E Pamir Mts. to Tien Shan Mts., Xizang, NW to NC China in S Xinjiang and Qinghai, Himalayas east to Sikkim
Carpodacus sibiricus108 Long-tailed Rosefinch
sibiricus (Pallas, 1773) vSC Siberia east to Baikal, N Russian Far East, N Mongolia, far-NE China >> C Asia
ussuriensis (Buturlin, 1915) vS Russian Far East, N Korea, NE China (south of sibiricus) >> C and E China
sanguinolentus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848) vSakhalin south to N Japan >> C Japan
lepidus (David & Oustalet, 1877) vNC China from SE Gansu to S Shanxi
henrici (Oustalet, 1892)109 αE Xizang, WC China from NW Yunnan to N Sichuan
Carpodacus puniceus Red-fronted Rosefinch
kilianensis Vaurie, 1956 vE Pamir to Tien Shan ranges, SW Xizang, NW China in SW Xinjiang
humii (Sharpe, 1888) Himalayas east to Uttarakhand
puniceus (Blyth, 1845) vS Xizang, Himalayas east from Nepal
sikangensis Vaurie, 1956 vWC China in NW Yunnan and SW Sichuan
longirostris (Przevalski, 1876)110 vNC and WC China from E Qinghai and Gansu to N Sichuan
Carpodacus subhimachalus 111  (Hodgson, 1836) Crimson-browed Finch
vS and SE Xizang, WC China in N Yunnan and S Sichuan, Himalayas east from WC Nepal >> W and N Myanmar
Carpodacus roseus Pallas's Rosefinch
roseus (Pallas, 1776)112 vSiberia from mid Yenisey east to Kolyma Mts., south to Baikal, W Russian Far East >> SE Siberia, Russian Far East, Korea, NE China
portenkoi Browning, 1988113 Sakhalin >> N Japan [Browning, 1988 #537]
Carpodacus trifasciatus 114  J. Verreaux, 1871 α Three-banded Rosefinch
vE Xizang, WC to NC China from N Yunnan to Gansu and Shaanxi >> SE Xizang, Nepal
Carpodacus thura Himalayan White-browed Rosefinch
blythi (Biddulph, 1882) NE Afghanistan?, Himalayas east to E Uttarakhand
thura Bonaparte & Schlegel, 1850 Himalayas from W Nepal to E Bhutan
Carpodacus dubius115 Chinese White-browed Rosefinch
femininus Rippon, 1906 vSE Xizang, WC China in N Yunnan and W Sichuan
dubius Przevalski, 1876 vWC and NC China from N Sichuan and E Qinghai to Ningxia
deserticolor (Stegmann, 1931) NE Qinghai
Carpodacus rhodochlamys 116  (von Brandt, 1843) Red-mantled Rosefinch
iC Asia from Pamirs to Tien Shan, N Mongolia, NW China in N Xinjiang
Carpodacus grandis 117  Blyth, 1849 Blyth's Rosefinch
vN Afghanistan, NW Pakistan, Himalayas east to Uttarakhand
Carpodacus davidianus 118,119  A. Milne-Edwards, 1865 α Père David's Rosefinch
vC Mongolia, NC China in Shaanxi, S Nei Mongol, W Hebei
Carpodacus pulcherrimus Beautiful Rosefinch
pulcherrimus (F. Moore, 1856) vHimalayas from Uttarakhand to Bhutan, NE India in Assam hills
argyrophrys Berlioz, 1929 WC and NC China from W Sichuan and Qinghai east to Ningxia
Carpodacus waltoni120 Pink-rumped Rosefinch
waltoni (Sharpe, 1905) S and E Xizang
eos (Stresemann, 1930) E Xizang, WC and NC China from N Yunnan and W Sichuan to S Qinghai
Carpodacus edwardsii Dark-rumped Rosefinch
edwardsii J. Verreaux, 1871121 αE Xizang, SW to NC China from W Yunnan to W Sichuan and Qinghai
rubicundus (Greenway, 1933) vSE Xizang, Himalayas east from C Nepal, N Myanmar
Carpodacus verreauxii 122  (David & Oustalet, 1877) Sharpe's Rosefinch
WC China in N Yunnan and SW Sichuan, N Myanmar
Carpodacus rodochroa   (Vigors, 1831) Pink-browed Rosefinch
iS Xizang, Himalayas east to Sikkim
Carpodacus rodopeplus   (Vigors, 1831) Spot-winged Rosefinch
vS Xizang, Himalayas from W Uttarakhand to E Nepal
Carpodacus formosanus 123  Ogilvie-Grant, 1911 Taiwan Rosefinch
vTaiwan
Carpodacus vinaceus 124  J. Verreaux, 1871 α Vinaceous Rosefinch
vSE Xizang, NC to SW and SC China from Gansu to Yunnan and Guizhou, Himalayas from Uttarakhand to E Nepal >> N and NE Myanmar
Tribe PYRRHULINI
PINICOLA Vieillot, 1807 F - Pinicola rubra Vieillot, 1807; type by monotypy = Loxia enucleator Linnaeus, 1758  125
Pinicola enucleator Pine Grosbeak
enucleator (Linnaeus, 1758) N Fenno-Scandia to NW Siberia >> S Sweden to SW Siberia
kamtschatkensis (Dybowski, 1883)126 vSiberia from Yenisey and Altai east to Anadyrland, Kamchatka >> N China
sakhalinensis Buturlin, 1915 vSakhalin south to Hokkaido (N Japan)
leucura (Statius Muller, 1776)127 vC Alaska, W, C and E Canada >> south to NE USA
flammula von Homeyer, 1880 S Alaska (incl. Kodiak I.), W Canada (NW British Columbia) >> south to SW Canada
carlottae A. Brooks, 1922 Queen Charlotte Is. (off W Canada)
montana Ridgway, 1898 vRocky Mts. from SW Canada (N British Columbia) to WC USA (E Arizona, W New Mexico)
californica W.W. Price, 1897 vSW USA (E California)
PYRRHULA Brisson, 1760 F - Pyrrhula Brisson; type by tautonymy = Loxia pyrrhula Linnaeus, 1758  128
Pyrrhula nipalensis Brown Bullfinch
nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 vHimalayas east from Himachal Pradesh
ricketti La Touche, 1905 SE Xizang, WC, S and SE China, mountains of NW Vietnam
victoriae Rippon, 1906 Uplands of SE Assam and W Myanmar
uchidai N. Kuroda, Sr., 1916 Taiwan
waterstradti E. Hartert, 1902 Mountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
Pyrrhula leucogenis White-cheeked Bullfinch
leucogenis Ogilvie-Grant, 1895129 δvMountains of N Luzon (Philippines)
steerei Mearns, 1909130 Mountains of Mindanao (Philippines)
Pyrrhula aurantiaca   Gould, 1858 Orange Bullfinch
vHimalayas east to W Uttarakhand
Pyrrhula erythrocephala   Vigors, 1832 Red-headed Bullfinch
vHimalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan
Pyrrhula erythaca131 Grey-headed Bullfinch
erythaca Blyth, 1862132 E and SE Xizang, WC and NC China from NW Yunnan, Sichuan and Qinghai to S Shaanxi, Himalayas east from C Nepal
owstoni Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1907 Taiwan
Pyrrhula murina 133  Godman, 1866 Azores Bullfinch
vSão Miguel (Azores)
Pyrrhula pyrrhula134 Eurasian Bullfinch
1 pileata W. MacGillivray, 1837135 vBritish Isles
1 pyrrhula (Linnaeus, 1758) N, EC and SE Europe, W and C Siberia east to Yakutia, south to N Mongolia and Baikal area >> S Europe, SW and C Asia
1 cassinii S.F. Baird, 1869 NE Siberia from Koryakland to Kamchatka and Okhotsk coast >> Russian Far East, Japan, NE China
1 europaea Vieillot, 1816136 αvW Europe (W and C France and Italy to W Denmark)
1 iberiae Voous, 1952137 αN Iberia, S France
1 rossikowi Derjugin & Bianchi, 1900138 Asia Minor, Caucasus area >> NW Iran
1 caspica Witherby, 1908 vN Iran
2 cineracea Cabanis, 1872 vSC Siberia to N Mongolia and Transbaikalia
3 griseiventris Lafresnaye, 1841 vC and S Kuril Is., Hokkaido
3 rosacea Seebohm, 1882139 vSakhalin to Russian Far East, NE China >> Japan, Korea, E China
RHODOPECHYS Cabanis, 1851 M - Fringilla sanguinea Gould, 1838; type by original designation   140
Rhodopechys sanguineus141 Crimson-winged Finch
alienus Whitaker, 1897 vMorocco, NE Algeria
sanguineus (Gould, 1838) vAsia Minor, Levant, Caucasus area, Iran, mts. of WC Asia
BUCANETES Cabanis, 1851 M - Pyrrhula payraudaei Audouin, 1826; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 81). = Fringilla githaginea M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823  
Bucanetes githagineus Trumpeter Finch
amantum (E. Hartert, 1903) C and E Canary Is.
zedlitzi (Neumann, 1907) S Spain, NW Africa to Libya and NW Sudan
githagineus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vEgypt, NC and NE Sudan
crassirostris (Blyth, 1847) vSW Asia from S Turkey, Sinai and N Arabia east to Iran, Afghanistan, C Asia to Uzbekistan, Pakistan >> NW India
EREMOPSALTRIA Kirwan & Gregory, 2005 F - Carpodacus mongolicus Swinhoe, 1870; type by original designation and monotypy
Eremopsaltria mongolica 142  (Swinhoe, 1870) Mongolian Finch
vE Turkey and N and E Iran through WC Asia to Qinghai, W Hebei, Mongolia and S and E Kazakhstan
AGRAPHOSPIZA Zuccon, Prŷs-Jones, Rasmussen & Ericson, 2012 F - Procarduelis rubescens Blanford, 1872; type by original designation143
Agraphospiza rubescens   (Blanford, 1872) Blanford's Rosefinch
SE Xizang, WC China in N Yunnan, Himalayas east from E Nepal
CALLACANTHIS Reichenbach, 1850 F - Carduelis burtoni Gould, 1838; type by subsequent monotypy (Bonaparte, 1850, Conspectus Generum Avium, 1, p. 507).   144
Callacanthis burtoni   (Gould, 1838) Spectacled Finch
iNW Pakistan, Himalayas east to Nepal
PYRRHOPLECTES Hodgson, 1844 M - Pyrrhula epauletta Hodgson, 1836; type by monotypy   
Pyrrhoplectes epauletta   (Hodgson, 1836) Golden-naped Finch
iSE Xizang, WC China in NW Yunnan, Himalayas east from Nepal >> NE Myanmar
PROCARDUELIS Blyth, 1843 F - Linota saturata Blyth, 1842; type by monotypy = Carduelis nipalensis Hodgson, 1836145
Procarduelis nipalensis Dark-breasted Rosefinch
kangrae Whistler, 1939 Himalayas from Kashmir to Uttarakhand
nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836)146 vWC, NC and C China in N Yunnan, Sichuan and E Qinghai, and Henan, Himalayas east from W Nepal, N Myanmar, NW Vietnam >> E Myanmar, NW Thailand
LEUCOSTICTE Swainson, 1832 F - Linaria (Leucosticte) tephrocotis Swainson, 1832; type by monotypy   
Leucosticte nemoricola Plain Mountain Finch
altaica (Eversmann, 1848) vSC Siberia from Altai to S Baikal, NE Afghanistan and C Asia, NW China in W Xinjiang, Himalayas east to Uttarakhand
nemoricola (Hodgson, 1836) E Xizang, NC China from N Qinghai to S Shaanxi, Himalayas east from Nepal
Leucosticte brandti147 Brandt's Mountain Finch
margaritacea (von Madarász, 1904) vTarbagatay Mts., SE Russian Altai, W Mongolia
brandti Bonaparte, 1850148 αC Asia in Tien Shan, NW China in NW and C Xinjiang >> N Pakistan
pamirensis Severtsov, 1883 vC and NE Afghanistan, C Asia from Pamir to Tien Shan ranges, NW China in SW Xinjiang >> N Pakistan
pallidior Bianchi, 1908149 αvNW and NC China from S Xinjiang to N Qinghai and Ningxia
haematopygia (Gould, 1851)150 αvW Himalayas east E Nepal [Gould, 1851 #15761]
walteri (E. Hartert, 1904) E Xizang and WC China to N Sichuan
intermedia Stegmann, 1932 vNC China in Qinghai and SW Gansu
audreyana Stresemann, 1939151 SE Xizang, and Sikkim; perhaps Bhutan
Leucosticte sillemi   Roselaar, 1992 Sillem's Mountain Finch
iW Xizang [Roselaar, 1992 #3380]
Leucosticte arctoa152 Asian Rosy Finch
arctoa (Pallas, 1811) vSC Siberia in Altai and Sayan ranges, NW Mongolia >> NW China in NW Xinjiang
cognata (von Madarász, 1909) vE Sayan to S Baikal Mts. and Hövsgöl area (N Mongolia)
sushkini Stegmann, 1932 Hangayn Nuruu (N Mongolia)
gigliolii Salvadori, 1869153 αN Baikal Mts. to W Stanovoi Mts. (SW Yakutia)
brunneonucha (von Brandt, 1842) NE Siberia (Lena delta) south to Okhotsk coast and N Russian Far East >> Sakhalin, Russian Far East, N Japan, NE China
Leucosticte tephrocotis Gray-crowned Rosy Finch
maxima W.S. Brooks, 1915154 vCommander Is. [Brooks, 1915 #532]
griseonucha (von Brandt, 1842) Aleutian Is, Alaska Pen. >> south to Kodiak I.
umbrina Murie, 1944 vHall I., St. Matthew I., Pribilof Is.
littoralis S.F. Baird, 1869 vSC Alaska, W Canada (SW Yukon, NW British Columbia), W USA (Washington, N California) >> C New Mexico
tephrocotis (Swainson, 1832)155 vAlaska, NW Canada (C Yukon, British Columbia, W Alberta), NW USA (NW Montana) >> to N New Mexico
dawsoni G.B. Grinnell, 1913 E California
wallowa A.H. Miller, 1939 NW USA (NE Oregon) >> WC Nevada
atrata Ridgway, 1874156 vWC USA (SC Montana to N Nevada, W Wyoming) >> SC USA
australis Ridgway, 1874157,158 αvW USA (Rocky Mts. from S Wyoming to N New Mexico)
Tribe CARDUELINI
HAEMORHOUS Swainson, 1837 M - Fringilla purpurea J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 12, p. 387).159
Haemorhous mexicanus House Finch
frontalis (Say, 1822)160,161 αvS Canada, W USA (Idaho, W Nebraska to California, Texas; San Clemente I.), NW Mexico (C Baja California, Islas Los Coronados, Sonora)
amplus (Ridgway, 1876) vGuadalupe I. (off W Baja California)
†? mcgregori (Anthony, 1897) Islas Benito, ? Isla Cedros (off Baja California)
ruberrimus (Ridgway, 1887) vNW Mexico (S Baja California)
sonoriensis (Ridgway, 1901)162 vNW Mexico (S Sonora, SW Chihuahua, N Sinaloa) [Ridgway, 1901 #14923]
coccineus (R.T. Moore, 1939) vSW Mexico (mountains of S Nayarit to W Michoacán)
potosinus (Griscom, 1928) vNC Mexico (C Chihuahua to SW Tamaulipas)
centralis (R.T. Moore, 1937) vC Mexico (Guanajuato, Querétaro)
mexicanus (Statius Muller, 1776) vSC Mexico (E Michoacán to Puebla, Morelos and N Oaxaca)163
griscomi (R.T. Moore, 1939) SC Mexico (Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero)
roseipectus (Sharpe, 1888)164 S Mexico (C Oaxaca)
Haemorhous cassinii   (S.F. Baird, 1854) Cassin's Finch
SW Canada (S British Columbia, SW Alberta), W USA, NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> C Mexico
Haemorhous purpureus Purple Finch
purpureus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vS Canada (except British Columbia), NE USA >> SE USA
californicus (S.F. Baird, 1858) vSW Canada (British Columbia), W USA (to California) >> SW USA, NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
RHODOSPIZA Sharpe, 1888 F - Fringilla obsoleta M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823; type by monotypy   165
Rhodospiza obsoleta   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Desert Finch
vSW Asia from SE Turkey and N Arabia east to C Asia, NW China in Xinjiang, W Pakistan >> SW Asia
RHYNCHOSTRUTHUS P.L. Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 M - Rhynchostruthus socotranus P.L. Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881; type by monotypy   
Rhynchostruthus socotranus   P.L. Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 Socotra Grosbeak
vSocotra
Rhynchostruthus louisae 166  Lort Phillips, 1897 Somali Grosbeak
N Somalia
Rhynchostruthus percivali 167  Ogilvie-Grant, 1900 Arabian Grosbeak
SW Saudi Arabia, E Yemen, S Oman
CHLORIS Cuvier, 1800 F - Verdiers Cuvier; type by tautonymy = Loxia chloris Linnaeus, 1758168
Chloris chloris European Greenfinch
harrisoni Clancey, 1940169 British Isles (excl. N Scotland), Ireland
chloris (Linnaeus, 1758) N France, N Scotland and Norway to W Siberia >> S Europe170
muehlei Parrot, 1905171 Serbia, Macedonia and Romania to E Greece, Cyprus and W Asia Minor
aurantiiventris (Cabanis, 1851) vS Europe (C Spain and S France to Croatia and W Greece)
madaraszi von Tschusi, 1911172 Corsica, Sardinia
vanmarli Voous, 1952173,174 αNW Morocco, Portugal, NW Spain
voousi (Roselaar, 1993) Algeria, C Morocco [Roselaar, 1993 #3381]
chlorotica (Bonaparte, 1850)175 αvSC Turkey, Levant, W Jordan, NE Egypt
bilkevitchi Sarudny, 1911176,177 δNE Turkey, Caucasus area, N Iran, SW Turkmenistan
turkestanica Sarudny, 1907 vC Asia in W and N Tien Shan >> Afghanistan
Chloris sinica Grey-capped Greenfinch
ussuriensis E. Hartert, 1903178 vS Russian Far East, Korea, far-NE China
kawarahiba (Temminck, 1836)179,180 αE Siberia in Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Kuril Is., N Hokkaido >> Japan to Ryukyu Is., SE China
minor (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848)181 vJapan (except far N) including Tsushima and Izu Is.
kittlitzi (Seebohm, 1890) Ogasawara Is. and Iwo Is. (Japan)
sinica (Linnaeus, 1766) vChina (except NW, NE and SW), EC Vietnam
Chloris spinoides Yellow-breasted Greenfinch
spinoides (Vigors, 1831) SE Xizang, Himalayas
heinrichi (Stresemann, 1940) Uplands of SE Assam and W Myanmar
Chloris monguilloti 182  (Delacour, 1926) Vietnamese Greenfinch
Langbian mountains (SC Vietnam)
Chloris ambigua Black-headed Greenfinch
taylori (Kinnear, 1939) SE Xizang >> NE India in N Assam
ambigua (Oustalet, 1896) vSW China north to S Sichuan, far-N continental SE Asia east from NE Myanmar >> N continental SE Asia
LINURGUS Reichenbach, 1850 M - Coccothraustes olivaceus Fraser, 1843; type by subsequent monotypy (Sharpe, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 12, p. 431).   
Linurgus olivaceus Oriole Finch
olivaceus (Fraser, 1843)183 αvBioko; SE Nigeria, Cameroon
prigoginei Schouteden, 1950 E DR Congo
elgonensis van Someren, 1918 vSE South Sudan, W and C Kenya
kilimensis (Reichenow & Neumann, 1895) vS Kenya, Tanzania, N Malawi
CRITHAGRA Swainson, 1827 F - Loxia sulphurata Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 12, p. 348).184
Crithagra citrinelloides African Citril
citrinelloides (Rüppell, 1840) Highlands of Eritrea and Ethiopia
kikuyensis (Neumann, 1905) vW and C Kenya
Crithagra hyposticta185 Southern Citril
brittoni (Traylor, 1970) SE South Sudan, extreme W Kenya [Traylor, 1970 #3868]
hyposticta (Reichenow, 1904)186 vW Ethiopia, S Kenya, Tanzania, E Zambia, Malawi, N Mozambique
Crithagra frontalis   (Reichenow, 1904) Western Citril
vE DR Congo to W Uganda, W Tanzania, NE Zambia
Crithagra capistrata Black-faced Canary
capistrata Finsch, 1870187 vGabon to N Angola, S and E DR Congo, N Zambia
hildegardae (Rand & Traylor, 1959) C Angola
Crithagra koliensis   (C.H.B. Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1952) Papyrus Canary
vUganda, W Kenya, Rwanda
Crithagra scotops Forest Canary
kirbyi Dowsett, 2012188 NE South Africa (E Limpopo and N Mpumalanga highlands) [Dowsett, 2012 #13676]
umbrosa (Clancey, 1964) vS and E South Africa (coastal Western Cape to upland W KwaZulu-Natal and S Mpumalanga)
scotops Sundevall, 1850 SE South Africa (coastal Eastern Cape to S KwaZulu-Natal)
Crithagra leucopygia White-rumped Canary
riggenbachi (Neumann, 1908) Senegal to Chad, Central African Republic, SW Sudan
pallens (Vaurie, 1956) Niger
leucopygia Sundevall, 1850 vN Eritrea, C and W Ethiopia, E Sudan to NW Uganda
Crithagra atrogularis Black-throated Canary
somereni (E. Hartert, 1912) E DR Congo, W Uganda, W Kenya
lwenarum (C.M.N. White, 1944) S DR Congo, C Angola, N and C Zambia
atrogularis (A. Smith, 1836) vZimbabwe, S Botswana, N and NE South Africa
impigra (Clancey, 1959) vC, S and E South Africa
semideserti (Roberts, 1932) SE Angola, NE Namibia, SW Zambia, N and E Botswana, W Zimbabwe
deserti (Reichenow, 1918) SW Angola, W and S Namibia, NW South Africa
Crithagra reichenowi 189  (Salvadori, 1888) Reichenow's Canary
SE South Sudan, S and C Ethiopia, Somalia to Kenya, NE and C Tanzania
Crithagra xanthopygia 190  (Rüppell, 1840) Yellow-rumped Canary
vEritrea, N and W Ethiopia
Crithagra rothschildi 191  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1902) Arabian Serin/Olive-rumped Canary
W Saudi Arabia, W Yemen
Crithagra flavigula 192  (Salvadori, 1888) Yellow-throated Canary
C Ethiopia
Crithagra xantholaema 193  (Salvadori, 1896) Salvadori's Canary
vS and E Ethiopia [Salvadori, 1896 #3465]
Crithagra citrinipectus   (Clancey & W. Lawson, 1960) Lemon-breasted Canary
S Malawi, SE Zimbabwe, C and S Mozambique and adjacent South Africa
Crithagra mozambica Yellow-fronted Canary
caniceps (d'Orbigny, 1839) Senegal to Nigeria, N Cameroon
punctigula (Reichenow, 1898) C and S Cameroon
grotei (W.L. Sclater & Mackworth-Praed, 1931)194 αSE Sudan, E South Sudan to W Ethiopia
gommaensis (C.H.B. Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1945) vNW Ethiopia, N Eritrea
barbata von Heuglin, 1864 vS Chad to W and S South Sudan, N DR Congo, W Kenya, NW and C Tanzania
santhome (Bannerman, 1921)195 São Tomé
tando (W.L. Sclater & Mackworth-Praed, 1918) Gabon, SW DR Congo, N Angola
samaliyae (C.M.N. White, 1947) SE DR Congo, SW Tanzania, NE Zambia
vansoni (Roberts, 1932) SE Angola, NE Namibia, W Zambia, N Botswana
mozambica (Statius Muller, 1776) vE Kenya to Mozambique, Zimbabwe, SE Botswana and NE South Africa196
granti (Clancey, 1957) S Mozambique (Maputo) E South Africa (SE Mpumalanga to Eastern Cape)
Crithagra donaldsoni   (Sharpe, 1895) Northern Grosbeak Canary
Somalia, E and S Ethiopia, N Kenya
Crithagra buchanani 197  (E. Hartert, 1919) Southern Grosbeak Canary
S Kenya, NE Tanzania
Crithagra flaviventris Yellow Canary
damarensis (Roberts, 1922) vSW Angola, Namibia, Botswana, NW South Africa (N Northern Cape).
flaviventris (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)198,199,200 vW and S South Africa, extreme S Namibia [Gmelin, 1789 #1715]201
guillarmodi (Roberts, 1936) Lesotho
marshalli (Shelley, 1902) C South Africa (E Northern Cape to Gauteng and Free State)
Crithagra dorsostriata202 White-bellied Canary
maculicollis (Sharpe, 1895)203 αvS Ethiopia, Somalia, N, C and SE Kenya, NE Tanzania
dorsostriata Reichenow, 1887 vSE Uganda, SW Kenya, NW Tanzania
taruensis (van Someren, 1921)204 C, S and SE Kenya, NE Tanzania
Crithagra sulphurata Brimstone Canary
sharpii (Neumann, 1900)205 Kenya, E DR Congo and Angola to Zambia, and N Mozambique
wilsoni Roberts, 1936 Zimbabwe, S Mozambique, E South Africa
sulphurata (Linnaeus, 1766) vS South Africa
Crithagra albogularis White-throated Canary
crocopygia (Sharpe, 1871) vSW Angola, N Namibia
sordahlae (Friedmann, 1932) C and S Namibia, NW South Africa (to C Northern Cape)
orangensis Roberts, 1937 vC South Africa (E Northern Cape to Free State)
albogularis A. Smith, 1833206 vW and S South Africa (N and W Northern Cape, Western and Eastern Cape)
Crithagra reichardi   (Reichenow, 1882) Reichard's Canary
S DR Congo, Zambia to C Tanzania, N Mozambique
Crithagra striatipectus 207  (Sharpe, 1891) Abyssinian Canary
SE South Sudan, S Ethiopia, W Kenya
Crithagra gularis Streaky-headed Canary
benguellensis (Reichenow, 1904) vC Angola, W Zambia
mendosa (Clancey, 1966) vNE Botswana, Zimbabwe
gularis (A. Smith, 1836) vSE Botswana, N South Africa (to North West Province and Limpopo)
endemion (Clancey, 1952) S Mozambique, E South Africa (Gauteng, Mpumalanga to E Eastern Cape)
humilis (Bonaparte, 1850)208 αvS South Africa (Western Cape to C Eastern Cape)
Crithagra canicapilla209 Senegal Canary
canicapilla (Du Bus, 1855) Sierra Leone to N Cameroon
montanorum (Bannerman, 1923) SE Nigeria and W Cameroon
elgonensis (Ogilvie-Grant, 1912) vS Chad to N DR Congo, S South Sudan, Uganda, W Kenya
Crithagra mennelli   (E.C. Chubb, 1908) Black-eared Canary
E Angola to SE Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
Crithagra tristriata   (Rüppell, 1840) Brown-rumped Canary
vEritrea, Ethiopia, NW Somalia
Crithagra ankoberensis   (Ash, 1979) Ankober Serin
vC Ethiopia [Ash, 1979 #103]
Crithagra menachensis   (Ogilvie-Grant, 1913) Yemen Serin
vSW Saudi Arabia, Yemen, S Oman
Crithagra striolata Streaky Canary
striolata (Rüppell, 1840)210 vEritrea, Ethiopia to Kenya, N Tanzania
graueri (E. Hartert, 1907) E DR Congo, SW Uganda, Rwanda
whytii (Shelley, 1897)211 S Tanzania, N Malawi
Crithagra burtoni Thick-billed Canary
burtoni (G.R. Gray, 1862) E Nigeria, Cameroon
tanganjicae (Granvik, 1923) E DR Congo to SW Uganda; W Kenya; WC Angola
kilimensis Richmond, 1897 vS Kenya, N Tanzania
albifrons Sharpe, 1891 C Kenya
Crithagra melanochroa 212  (Reichenow, 1900) Kipengere Canary
vS Tanzania
Crithagra rufobrunnea Principe Canary
rufobrunnea (G.R. Gray, 1862) vPríncipe
fradei (Naurois, 1975) Ilha Bone de Jókei (off S Príncipe) [Naurois, 1975 #1145]
thomensis (Bocage, 1888) vSão Tomé
Crithagra leucoptera   Sharpe, 1871 Protea Canary
vS South Africa (Western Cape, SW Eastern Cape)
Crithagra totta   (Sparrman, 1786) Cape Siskin
S South Africa (Western Cape, SW Eastern Cape)
Crithagra symonsi 213  (Roberts, 1916) Drakensberg Siskin
Lesotho to E South Africa (W KwaZulu-Natal, NE Eastern Cape)
NEOSPIZA Salvadori, 1903 F - Amblyospiza concolor Bocage, 1888; type by monotypy   
Neospiza concolor   (Bocage, 1888) São Tomé Grosbeak
São Tomé
LINARIA Bechstein, 1802 F - Fringilla cannabina Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 78).214
Linaria flavirostris Twite
pipilans (Latham, 1787)215 N British Isles, Ireland
flavirostris (Linnaeus, 1758) vNorway, Kola Pen. (Russia) >> W, C and SE Europe
brevirostris (Bonaparte, 1855)216 αvS and E Turkey, Caucasus area, NW and N Iran
kirghizorum (Sushkin, 1925)217 N Kazakhstan
korejevi (Sarudny & Härms, 1914) SW Siberia, C Asia in E Kazakhstan and C and E Tien Shan, NW China in NW Xinjiang
altaica (Sushkin, 1925) vRussian Altai Mts., Mongolia, Tuva Republic
montanella (Hume, 1873)218 vPamir-Alai, NW Pakistan, NW China (S Xinjiang)
miniakensis (Jacobi, A., 1923) vE Xizang, NC China in Qinghai and Gansu
rufostrigata (Walton, 1905) vW and S Xizang, Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal
Linaria cannabina Common Linnet
autochthona (Clancey, 1946) vScotland
cannabina (Linnaeus, 1758) vW, C and N Europe, W and SC Siberia to N Altai >> N Africa, SW Asia
bella (C.L. Brehm, 1845) vCrimea, Asia Minor and Levant to Caucasus area and Iran; Turkmenistan and N Afghanistan through Tien Shan to SW Altai
mediterranea (von Tschusi, 1903)219 vSpain and NW Africa to W Asia Minor, Crete and Libya
guentheri (Wolters, 1953)220 Portugal, Madeira
meadewaldoi (E. Hartert, 1901) W and C Canary Is.
harterti (Bannerman, 1913) E Canary Is.
Linaria yemenensis 221  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1913) δ Yemen Linnet
vSW Saudi Arabia, W Yemen
Linaria johannis   (Stephenson Clarke, 1919) Warsangli Linnet
NE Somalia
ACANTHIS Borkhausen, 1797 F - Fringilla linaria Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (A.O.U., 1910, Check List, 3rd ed., p. 247). = Fringilla flammea Linnaeus, 1758222
Acanthis flammea Common Redpoll
cabaret (Statius Muller, 1776)223 British Isles, Denmark, SE Norway, S Sweden and Poland to the Alps and N Carpathian Mts. >> W and S Europe
flammea (Linnaeus, 1758) vN continental Eurasia south to Baikal, Sakhalin, N Russian Far East; Alaska, Canada >> Europe, C Asia, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, NE China; N and C USA224
rostrata (Coues, 1861)225,226 αvNE Canada (Baffin I., Labrador), Greenland, Iceland >> E Canada (from Manitoba), NE USA, NW Europe
Acanthis hornemanni227 Arctic Redpoll/Hoary Redpoll
1 exilipes (Coues, 1861)228 αExtreme N continental Eurasia, Alaska, NW Canada (east to N Manitoba) >> N Europe, S Siberia, Russian Far East, N Mongolia, NE China; E Canada, NE USA
2 hornemanni (Holboell, 1843) N Canada, Greenland >> south to NE Canada (N Québec, Labrador) and NE USA (New England)
LOXIA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758; type by Linnaean tautonymy   
Loxia pytyopsittacus   Borkhausen, 1793 Parrot Crossbill
iN Europe, W Siberia
Loxia scotica   E. Hartert, 1904 Scottish Crossbill
vScotland
Loxia curvirostra229 Red Crossbill
curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758 W, C and N Europe south to N Spain and C Italy, N and NE Siberia to N Amurland
balearica (von Homeyer, 1862) vBalearic Is.
corsicana von Tschusi, 1912 vCorsica
poliogyna Whitaker, 1898 vNW Africa
guillemardi von Madarász, 1903230 E Balkans, Cyprus, Crimea, Turkey, Caucasus area
altaiensis Sushkin, 1925 vAltai and Sayan Mts., W and N Mongolia
tianschanica Laubmann, 1927 vC Asia in Tien Shan, NW China in NW Xinjiang
himalayensis Blyth, 1845 vSE and E Xizang, WC and NC China from N Yunnan and Sichuan to Qinghai and Gansu, Himalayas east from Lahul, N Myanmar
meridionalis Robinson & Kloss, 1919 vMountains of SC Vietnam
japonica Ridgway, 1884231 αvRussian Far East, N Japan >> Sakhalin and Kuril Is.?, S Japan, Korea, NE and E China
luzoniensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 vMountains of N Luzon (Philippines)
pusilla Gloger, 1834232 vE Canada (Newfoundland) >> NE USA (to Virginia)
minor (C.L. Brehm, 1846)233 vSE Canada (from Ontario), NE USA (to West Virginia) >> E USA (to Florida)
bendirei Ridgway, 1884234 Alaska, W Canada (S Yukon, British Columbia), W USA (south to NW California) >> to S USA
vividior A.R. Phillips, 1981235 vSW USA (Colorado) [Monson, 1981 #2708]
reai A.R. Phillips, 1981 W USA (Idaho) [Monson, 1981 #2708]
grinnelli Griscom, 1937 SW USA (California, Nevada) >> NW Mexico
stricklandi Ridgway, 1885 SW USA (Arizona, New Mexico) >> S Mexico
mesamericana Griscom, 1937 vBelize, Guatemala to N Nicaragua
Loxia leucoptera White-winged Crossbill
bifasciata (C.L. Brehm, 1827)236 vFar-N continental Eurasia south to Altai, N Baikal, N Russian Far East >> C Europe, Sakhalin, N Japan, Korea, NE China
leucoptera J.F. Gmelin, 1789 vAlaska, S Canada, N USA >> N USA (to Pennsylvania)
Loxia megaplaga 237  Riley, 1916 Hispaniola Crossbill
Hispaniola
CHRYSOCORYTHUS Wolters, 1967 M - Serinus mindanensis Ripley & Rabor, 1961; type by original designation238
Chrysocorythus estherae Mountain Serin
vanderbilti (Meyer de Schauensee, 1939) Mountains of N Sumatra
estherae (Finsch, 1902) Mountains of W Java
orientalis (Chasen, 1940)239 vMountains of E Java
renatae (Schuchmann & Wolters, 1982) Mt. Rantekombola (WC Sulawesi) [Schuchmann, 1982 #3532]
mindanensis (Ripley & Rabor, 1961) vMountains of C Mindanao (Philippines)
CARDUELIS Brisson, 1760 F - Carduelis Brisson; type by tautonymy = Fringilla carduelis Linnaeus, 1758  
Carduelis carduelis240 European Goldfinch
1 britannica (E. Hartert, 1903) vBritish Isles, W Netherlands to NW France >> SW Europe
1 carduelis (Linnaeus, 1758) Denmark, S Fenno-Scandia and C Russia to C France and Italy >> S Europe241
1 parva von Tschusi, 1901 vW Mediterranean, Azores, Canary Is.
1 tschusii Arrigoni, 1902 Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
1 balcanica Sachtleben, 1919 vBalkans, Greece
1 niediecki Reichenow, 1907 Cyprus, W and SC Asia Minor, Levant >> SW Iran, Egypt
1 brevirostris Sarudny, 1889242 E Turkey, Transcaucasia, N Iran
1 colchica Koudashev, 1915243 δvCrimea, N Caucasus area [Koudashev, 1915 #2266]
1 volgensis Buturlin, 1906244 vS Ukraine, SE Russia, NW Kazakhstan
1 frigoris Wolters, 1953245 SW and SC Siberia >> E Europe, SW Asia
2 paropanisi Kollibay, 1910 E Iran and N Afghanistan, C Asia from W Turkmenistan to Tien Shan, NW China in NW Xinjiang >> S Iran, S Afghanistan, NW Pakistan
2 subulata (Gloger, 1833) vAltai and W Mongolia to Lake Baikal >> SW and C Asia
2 caniceps Vigors, 1831 SW Xizang, W and N Pakistan, Himalayas east to C Nepal
2 ultima Koelz, 1949246 vSE Fars, Kirman (S Iran)
Carduelis citrinella247 Citril Finch
citrinella (Pallas, 1764) Spain, France, Alps
corsicana (A.F. Koenig, 1899)248 vCorsica, Sardinia
SERINUS Koch, 1816 M - Serinus hortulanus Koch, 1816; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Fringilla serinus Linnaeus, 1766  249
Serinus serinus 250  (Linnaeus, 1766) European Serin
iW and C Europe, Asia Minor, N Africa
Serinus canaria   (Linnaeus, 1758) Atlantic Canary
iCanary Is., Azores and Madeira251
Serinus syriacus 252  Bonaparte, 1850 α Syrian Serin
vLebanon, Syria >> Iraq, Egypt
Serinus pusillus   (Pallas, 1811) Red-fronted Serin
vCaucasus east to N Afghanistan, C Asia to Tien Shan, Himalayas from Kashmir to Lahul >> E Mediterranean to Afghanistan, N Pakistan
Serinus alario Black-headed Canary
leucolaemus (Sharpe, 1903) vNamibia, adjacent NW South Africa
alario (Linnaeus, 1758) W and S South Africa (W Northern Cape and Western Cape to S Free State)
Serinus canicollis Cape Canary
griseitergum Clancey, 1967 E Zimbabwe
thompsonae Roberts, 1924 NE and E South Africa
canicollis (Swainson, 1838) vSE and S South Africa253
Serinus flavivertex254 Yellow-crowned Canary
flavivertex (Blanford, 1869) Highlands of Ethiopia, Eritrea, W Kenya, N Tanzania
sassii Neumann, 1922 E DR Congo, SW Uganda to N Malawi, SW Tanzania
huillensis de Sousa, 1889 vC Angola
Serinus nigriceps   Rüppell, 1840 Ethiopian Siskin
iN and C Ethiopia
SPINUS Koch, 1816 M - Fringilla spinus Linnaeus, 1758; type by tautonymy255,256
Spinus thibetanus 257  (Hume, 1872) Tibetan Siskin
vSE Xizang, WC China in N Yunnan, Himalayas east from Nepal, NE Myanmar
Spinus spinus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian Siskin
N Eurasia from Europe to Yakutia and Okhotsk coast, Sakhalin, Russian Far East, N Japan >> N Africa, Europe, SW and C Asia, Japan, Korea, E and SE China
Spinus pinus Pine Siskin
pinus (A. Wilson, 1810) Alaska,, S Canada (from S Yukon, C Manitoba to C Québec, Newfoundland), W and NE USA >> C Mexico
macropterus (Bonaparte, 1850)258 αvNW and C Mexico (N Baja California, S Sonora, Chihuahua to Michoacán, Veracruz)
perplexus van Rossem, 1938259 vS Mexico (mountains of C Chiapas), W Guatemala
Spinus tristis American Goldfinch
tristis (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE Canada (from Ontario), C and E USA (from SE Minnesota to E Texas, N South Carolina) >> to C Mexico
pallidus Mearns, 1890 vSW Canada (SC British Columbia to W Ontario), WC USA (to E Oregon, NW Nebraska) >> to NC Mexico
jewetti van Rossem, 1943 SW Canada (SW British Columbia), W USA (to C California)
salicamans G.B. Grinnell, 1897 SW USA (California) >> NW Mexico (N Baja California)
Spinus psaltria Lesser Goldfinch
hesperophilus (Oberholser, 1903) vW USA (from Washington, east to Utah, Arizona), NW Mexico (Baja California, Sonora)
witti P.R. Grant, 1964 Islas Marías (off W Mexico)
psaltria (Say, 1822)260 αSC USA (Colorado, W Oklahoma) to S Mexico (C Veracruz, Oaxaca)
jouyi (Ridgway, 1898) SE Mexico (N Yucatan Pen., incl. Isla Mujeres), NW Belize
colombianus (Lafresnaye, 1843)261 αvS Mexico (Chiapas) to NW Peru, N Venezuela
Spinus lawrencei 262  (Cassin, 1850) α Lawrence's Goldfinch
SW USA (California), NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> NW Mexico (Sonora)
Spinus atriceps   (Salvin, 1863) Black-capped Siskin
SE Mexico (mountains of S Chiapas), W Guatemala
Spinus spinescens Andean Siskin
spinescens (Bonaparte, 1850)263,264 αColombia (Santa Marta Mts., Sierra de Perijá, E Andes), W Venezuela (Trujillo to Táchira; Aragua)
nigricauda Chapman, 1912265 W Colombia (W and C Andes from N Antioquia) N Ecuador (Carchi)
Spinus yarrellii   (Audubon, 1839) Yellow-faced Siskin
NE Brazil (Ceará, Paraíba to NC Bahia)
Spinus cucullatus   (Swainson, 1820) Red Siskin
vNE Colombia (Norte de Santander), N and W Venezuela, S Guyana
Spinus crassirostris Thick-billed Siskin
amadoni George, 1964 SE Peru (Andes of Tacna, Puno)
crassirostris (Landbeck, 1877) vMountains of S Bolivia (Potosí), NW Argentina (to Mendoza), C Chile (Valparaíso, Santiago)
Spinus magellanicus Hooded Siskin
capitalis (Cabanis, 1866) vSW Colombia (Nariño), Ecuador, NW Peru (to La Libertad)
paulus Todd, 1926 vS Ecuador to SW Peru (Arequipa)
peruanus von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 vC Peru (Huánuco to Ayacucho, Cuzco)
urubambensis Todd, 1926 vS Peru (Cuzco) to N Chile (Tarapacá)
santaecrucis Todd, 1926 EC Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
bolivianus (Sharpe, 1888) vS Bolivia
hoyi (C. Koenig, 1981) NW Argentina (C Andes of Jujuy) [König, 1981 #2267]
tucumanus Todd, 1926 vW Andes and foothills of N Argentina (Jujuy to E Mendoza)
alleni Ridgway, 1899 SE Bolivia, Paraguay, NE Argentina (Formosa, Chaco)
ictericus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vSE Brazil (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul), E and S Paraguay
magellanicus (Vieillot, 1805) vUruguay, E Argentina (S Corrientes to Río Negro)
longirostris (Sharpe, 1888) vSE Venezuela (La Gran Sabana in SE Bolívar), W Guyana, N Brazil
Spinus dominicensis 266  (H. Bryant, 1867) α Antillean Siskin
vHispaniola
Spinus siemiradzkii 267  (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884) α Saffron Siskin
SW Ecuador (from Guayas) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
Spinus olivaceus   von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 Olivaceous Siskin
vE slope of Andes from E Ecuador to WC Bolivia
Spinus notatus Black-headed Siskin
notatus (Du Bus, 1847) vE Mexico (San Luis Potosí) to N Guatemala
forreri (Salvin & Godman, 1886) W Mexico (S Sonora to Guerrero)
oleaceus Griscom, 1932 vS Belize to N Nicaragua
Spinus xanthogastrus Yellow-bellied Siskin
xanthogastrus (Du Bus, 1855) vCosta Rica, W Panama (Chiriquí), Colombia, N Venezuela, W Ecuador
stejnegeri (Sharpe, 1888) S Peru (Puno), W Bolivia
Spinus atratus   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Black Siskin
vS Peru (Huánuco), N Chile (Antofagasta), NW Argentina (Mendoza)
Spinus uropygialis   (P.L. Sclater, 1862) Yellow-rumped Siskin
vC Chile (Bíobío), NW Argentina (Mendoza) >> Peru (Arequipa, Puno), SW Bolivia
Spinus barbatus   (G.I. Molina, 1782) Black-chinned Siskin
vC and S Chile (Atacama to Magallanes), S Argentina (Neuquén to Tierra del Fuego); Falkland Is.

1 For inclusion of the euphonias in the Fringillidae see Burns (1997) [Burns, 1997 #583] and Klicka et al. (2000) [Klicka, 2000 #2237]. Sequence of fringillid subfamilies, tribes and genera follows Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
2 Comprises two or more subspecies groups but limits and taxonomic rank not settled; see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
3 Includes schiebeli and caucasica Serebrowski, 1925 [Serebrowski, 1925 #3569]; see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495]. But see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
4 Introduced to South Africa (Cape Pen.), New Zealand, Chatham Is., Auckland Is., Campbell Is. and Snares Is.
5 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
6 Correct original spelling. Spelling alesandrovi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
7 Original spelling transcaepius; the emended spelling by Mayr (1968) [Mayr, 1968 #4719] used 'pica' mistakenly for 'pia' from Transcaspia.
8 The dates of publication of this rare work have not been fully resolved.
9 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287]; based on Stearn (1937) [Stearn, 1937 #10910].
10 Considered doubtfully diagnosible see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
11 May form a separate species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
12 Forms a superspecies with C. callophrys; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
13 For treatment as a separate species from C. occipitalis, see e.g. Eisenmann (1955) [Eisenmann, 1955 #1490] and A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
14 Issue cover dated February 1861.
15 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
16 For recognition see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
17 Issue wrapper bears date February 1861.
18 Considered to form a superspecies with E. affinis, E. luteicapilla and E. trinitatis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
19 Issue wrapper bears date February 1861.
20 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
21 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
22 Diagnosibility doubtful, see Zimmer (1943) [Zimmer, 1943 #9677].
23 For recognition see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353]. But see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
24 Includes russelli; see Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353]. But see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
25 See comments on nomenclature in A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
26 Issue wrapper dated February 1861.
27 For treatment as a separate species from E. musica follows acceptance of a superspecies by A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
28 Date 1841 in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was miscopied.
29 Omitted in error by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
30 For treatment as a separate species from E. musica follows acceptance of a superspecies by A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
31 When the genus Euphonia was subsumed within Tanagra the name cyanocephala Vieillot, 1819 was preoccupied by cyanocephala Statius Muller, 1776, and the next oldest name was aureata Vieillot, 1822.
32 Following the suppression of Tanagra Linnaeus by Opinion 852, I.C.Z.N. (1968) [I.C.Z.N., 1968 #2052] the name cyanocephala has been restored to use; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8]. But see Art. 59.3 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
33 Forms a superspecies with E. elegantissima and E. cyanocephala; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
34 Considered to form a superspecies with E. imitans; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
35 Date 1901 in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was miscopied.
36 Issue cover dated February 1861.
37 The prior name E. olivacea Desmarest, 1806 was suppressed for the purpose of priority but remains a potential homonym, see Opinion 852 I.C.Z.N. (1968) [I.C.Z.N., 1968 #2052].
38 Sometimes dated 1848 but see Evenhuis in Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
39 Considered to form a superspecies with E. anneae; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
40 Thought likely to comprise two or more species by Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517] one being the nominate form; he also felt that all subspecific limits needed review.
41 For recognition, see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154] and Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967].
42 Includes lecroyana Aveledo & Perez, 1994 [Aveledo, 1994 #119]; see Rodner et al. (2000) [Rodner, 2000 #3369].
43 For recognition, see Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443].
44 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
45 Forms a superspecies with E. rufiventris and E. pectoralis; see Haffer (1970) [Haffer, 1970 #14779] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
46 The Hawaiian genera, previously treated as a subfamily Drepanidinae derive from a lineage within the Carduelinae, probably Carpodacus and are subsumed here; see Lerner et al. 2011 [Lerner, 2011 #13653] and Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528]. Placement of the whole group follows from their position in Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
47 Because of the involvement of extinct taxa, some unscreened, our species sequence is tentative.
48 For revived recognition of this genus see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
49 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. But see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
50 Included in Coccothraustes by Paynter in Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] and many subsequent authors, but see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]. For corroboration from molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
51 Correct original spelling. Spelling burryi in Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] was an ISS.
52 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]. Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] used an ISS.
53 Correct original spelling. Spelling schulpini in Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] was an ISS.
54 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
55 For correct date see Holthuis & Sakai (1970) [Holthuis, 1970 #1986].
56 Family name Drepanididae placed on the Official List; see Opinion 610 (I.C.Z.N., 1961) [I.C.Z.N., 1961 #9641].
57 Previously considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to have formed a superspecies with P. flammea and P. montana.
58 Date restored to 1851 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
59 For treatment as a separate species from P. maculata, see Pratt (1992) [Pratt, 1992 #3123].
60 For treatment as a separate species from P. maculata, see Pratt (1992) [Pratt, 1992 #3123].
61 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
62 Subspecific separation perhaps not warranted, see Pratt & Pratt (2001) [Pratt, 2001 #13455] and Pratt (2010) [Pratt, 2010 #13496].
63 Listed as a synonym of Psittirostra psittacea by Greenway (1968) [Greenway, 1968 #1813]; but see James et al. (1989) [James, 1989 #11194].
64 For separation of Rhodacanthis from Loxioides see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
65 For separation of Chloridops from Loxioides see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
66 Dual original spellings. Spelled Telespyza in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. For correct spelling see Olson & James (1986) [Olson, 1986 #9498] and David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
67 For recognition of Telespiza as distinct from Loxioides see Banks & Laybourne (1977) [Banks, 1977 #11448] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
68 Previously considered to form a superspecies with T. ultima; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
69 For treatment as a separate species from T. cantans, see Banks & Laybourne (1977) [Banks, 1977 #11448].
70 Incorrectly listed by Greenway (1968) [Greenway, 1968 #1813] as described in Psittirostra.
71 For treatment as a separate species from Paroreomyza maculata, and for recognition of genus Oreomystis and placement therein, see Pratt (1992) [Pratt, 1992 #3123].
72 For recognition of this monotypic genus, see Fleischer & McIntosh (2001) [Fleischer, 2001 #13779]. New name for Rothschildia Perkins, 1899, not Rothschildia Grote, 1896 [Lepidoptera].
73 For treatment as separate species from L. coccineus see Pratt (1989) [Pratt, 1989 #3122].
74 For treatment as a separate species from L. coccineus see Pratt (2010) [Pratt, 2010 #13496].
75 The earlier name rufa, based on Fringilla rufa Bloxam, 1827, is preoccupied in Fringilla and unavailable; see Olson (1986) [Olson, 1986 #14783] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
76 For treatment as a separate species from L. coccineus see Pratt (2010) [Pratt, 2010 #13496].
77 New genus proposed based on the molecular findings of Reding et al. (2008) [Reding, 2008 #11924]. However, this genus is subsumed in Loxops by Chesser et al. (2013) [Chesser, 2013 #14902].
78 For removal of this taxon from the genus Paroreomyza see Pratt (2009) [Pratt, 2009 #13456].
79 For recommended and actual restoration of use of this genus see Pratt (2009) [Pratt, 2009 #13456] and Pratt (2010) [Pratt, 2010 #13496].
80 The description of this genus is on p. xxi in the preliminary matter (Part VII) of the book Aves Hawaiiensis by S.B. Wilson & Evans; the name is credited to him and the description, in quotation marks, is evidently his.
81 Forms a superspecies with C. flava and C. stejnegeri; see Johnson et al. (1989) [Johnson, 1989 #14780], Tarr & Fleischer (1993) [Tarr, 1993 #3804] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
82 For treatment as a separate species from C. virens, see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. Includes chloris see Olson (1996) [Olson, 1996 #2859].
83 For treatment as a separate species from C. virens, see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
84 Includes Hemignathus kauaiensis H.D. Pratt, 1989 [Pratt, 1989 #3121]; a nomen novum not needed in Chlorodrepanis and thus not to be used therein, see Art. 59.4 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
85 The generic name Heterorhynchus Lichtenstein, 1839, is based on the same type species (but not specimen); see Olson & James (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2858].
86 For treatment as a separate species from H. lucidus see Pratt (2005) [Pratt, 2005 #11916] and Pratt (2010) [Pratt, 2010 #13496].
87 For treatment as a separate species from H. lucidus see Pratt (2005) [Pratt, 2005 #11916] and Pratt (2010) [Pratt, 2010 #13496].
88 The specific name munroi H.D. Pratt, 1979 [Pratt, 1979 #3117] proposed since 1961 as a substitute name and not now needed falls into synonymy. Art. 59.4 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] applies.
89 For suggested restoration of this genus, not used by A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], see Pratt (2001) [Pratt, 2001 #13458]. Treatment as monotypic follows Pratt (2009) [Pratt, 2009 #13456].
90 For reasons to separate this genus from Hemignathus see its authors.
91 Olson & James (1988) [Olson, 1988 #2848] noted that stejnegeri is a prior name and when united, as in A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], stejnegeri yields priority to ellisiana as the specific epithet.
92 For the identification of this name by lectotypification see Olson & James (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2858].
93 Published January 14, 1860 or later see Sherborn (1934) [Sherborn, 1934 #3608].
94 For treatment as a separate species from A. ellisiana see Olson & James (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2858].
95 For treatment as a separate species from A. ellisiana see Olson & James (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2858]. Includes procerus; see Olson & James (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2858], the publication of which appeared later than Wilson's paper.
96 For recommended date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
97 For treatment as a separate species from H. sanguinea, see Pratt & Pratt (2001) [Pratt, 2001 #13455] and Pratt (2005) [Pratt, 2005 #11916].
98 Correct original spelling. Spelling freethii in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS. See also Pyle (2011) [Pyle, 2011 #13294].
99 Published in the Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1879, but in late 1878 see Evenhuis in Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
100 Dated 1893 by Greenway (1968) [Greenway, 1968 #1813], but see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
101 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528]. See Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942] for revision of rosefinches and their allies.
102 Dated '1851?' by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
103 Dated 1828 (= 1829?) by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014]. The issue in which this article appears is that for Oct. 28, 1828 to Jan. 29, 1829; thus, the name can safely be dated 1829.
104 Species limits and sequence drawn from Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942]; thus excluding same species as excluded by Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
105 For treatment as a separate species from C. synoicus; see Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
106 Previously treated in the monotypic genus Kozlowia; see Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. But see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528] and Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
107 For treatment of subspecies severtzovi as a separate species from C. rubicilloides; see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]. But see also Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
108 Previously treated in the monotypic genus Uragus; see Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. But see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528] and Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
109 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
110 Tentatively includes szetschuana Bianchi, 1907, which was recognised by Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739].
111 Previously treated in the genus Pinicola; see Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. But see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528] and Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
112 Includes sachalinensis, found to be a migrant individual, see Browning (1988) [Browning, 1988 #537].
113 For recognition see Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
114 For reasons to retain date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
115 For treatment as a separate species from C. thura; see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]; corroborated by Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
116 Includes kotschubeii, considered doubtfully distinct by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014]; but see Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942] and Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
117 For treatment as separate species from C. rhodochlamys see Stepanyan (1983, 1990) [Stepanyan, 1983 #3718], [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
118 For treatment as a separate species from C. pulcherrimus; see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]; corroborated by Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
119 For correct date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
120 For new circumscription, involving transfer of waltoni from C. pulcherrimus, and precedence to waltoni over eos, see Tietze (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
121 For reasons to retain date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
122 For treatment as a separate species from C. rodopeplus; see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]; corroborated by Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
123 For treatment as a separate species from C. vinaceus; see Wu Hus-chun et al. (2011) [Wu Hsu-chun, 2011 #13670]; corroborated by Tietze et al. (2013) [Tietze, 2013 #14942].
124 For reasons to retain date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
125 Date changed to follow A.O.U. (1998) although shown to be incorrect, see Dickinson (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12761] but no correct date known.
126 Includes pacata see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] although recognised by Adkisson (1999) [Adkisson, 1999 #14790].
127 Includes alascensis and eschatosus; see Adkisson (1999) [Adkisson, 1999 #14790].
128 Species sequence follows Töpfer et al. (2011) [Töpfer, 2011 #12574].
129 For spelling see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
130 Includes apo and coriaria; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
131 Species apparently not monophyletic with respect to P. erythrocephala, see Töpfer et al. (2011) [Töpfer, 2011 #12574] but corroboration required.
132 Includes wilderi; see Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739]. But see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
133 For treatment at specific rank see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495]. Corroborated by Töpfer et al. (2011) [Töpfer, 2011 #12574].
134 Subspecies groups based on three species treatment of Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
135 Author's name sometimes spelled Macgillivray but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #8548] and Jobling (2010) [Jobling, 2010 #12492].
136 Correct original spelling. Spelling europoea in Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS. The source of this was a misread diphthong.
137 Issue cover dated Maart 1952.
138 Includes paphlagoniae Roselaar, 1995 [Roselaar, 1995 #3385]; see Kirwan (2006) [Kirwan, 2006 #10383].
139 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091] and Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875]. But see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
140 Treated as a broad genus by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] following Vaurie (1956, 1959) [Vaurie, 1956 #3955]; [Vaurie, 1959 #3961]. However, see e.g., Voous (1977) [Voous, 1977 #4062] and Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]. Scope of genus further reduced by Kirwan & Gregory (2005) [Kirwan, 2005 #9408].
141 For suggestion that this be treated as two allospecies see Kirwan et al. (2006) [Kirwan, 2006 #9927].
142 For a suggestion this could be replaced in Bucanetes see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
143 New genus proposed due to non-monophyly of Carpodacus; see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
144 Authorship and date corrected by Kirwan & Gregory (2005) [Kirwan, 2005 #9408]; who also revived this genus, bringing this species out of Bucanetes.
145 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
146 Includes intensicolor; see Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739]. But see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
147 Subspecies classification mainly follows Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014].
148 Dated '1851?' by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
149 Date corrected based on volume table of contents.
150 Cited from the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] but published two years earlier in Gould's Birds of Asia.
151 Previously omitted based on query in Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #]; but see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
152 Considered to form a superspecies with L. tephrocotis s.l., see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
153 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
154 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
155 Includes irvingi; see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
156 For inclusion in L. tephrocotis see Drovetski et al. (2009) [Drovetski, 2009 #11926].
157 For inclusion in L. tephrocotis see Drovetski et al. (2009) [Drovetski, 2009 #11926].
158 For date correction see Banks & Browning (1979) [Banks, 1979 #190].
159 For renewed recognition of this genus see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528] and Chesser et al. (2012) [Chesser, 2012 #14108]; species sequence follows Smith et al. (2013) [Smith, 2013 #14749].
160 Includes anconophila Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536]. Also includes clementis; see Badyaev et al. (2012) [Badyaev, 2012 #14789].
161 For date correction see Woodman (2010) [Woodman, 2010 #13512].
162 Includes rhodopnus and altitudinis see Badyaev et al. (2012) [Badyaev, 2012 #14789].
163 Introduced to Hawaiian Is.
164 For recognition see Binford (2000) [Binford, 2000 #304] and Badyaev et al. (2012) [Badyaev, 2012 #14789].
165 For recognition see Zamora et al. (2006) [Zamora, 2006 #10124].
166 For treatment as a separate species from R. socotranus see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
167 For recognition see Kirwan & Grieve (2007) [Kirwan, 2007 #10804] and Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
168 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
169 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
170 Introduced to Azores, SE Australia, New Zealand, Argentina and Uruguay.
171 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
172 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
173 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
174 The issue cover is dated Maart 1952.
175 Dated 1851? by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
176 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091]; see also Roselaar (1995) [Roselaar, 1995 #3385].
177 Correct original spelling. Spelling bilkevitschi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
178 Includes chabarovi; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. But see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
179 Tentatively includes sitchitoensis as in Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] and Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875].
180 Given as 1835 by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014], but see Dickinson (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1369].
181 Includes tokumii Mishima, 1961 [Mishima, 1961 #4413]; see Orn. Soc. Japan (1974) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 1974 #2874].
182 For treatment as a separate species from C. spinoides see Clement (1993) [Clement, 1993 #999] and Robson (2003) [Robson, 2000 #3368].
183 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
184 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
185 Treatment of this and C. frontalis as separate species from C. citrinelloides follows Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503]. But further field and molecular study is required to clarify relationships within the C. citrinelloides complex.
186 Placement herein of grey-faced birds from W Ethiopia is tentative, see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
187 Includes martinsi, see Dean (2000) [Dean, 2000 #14040], incorrectly placed in a broad species C. citrinelloides by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
188 Includes Serinus scotops transvaalensis Roberts, 1940, preoccupied by Poliospiza gularis transvaalensis Roberts, 1913 see Dowsett (2012) [Dowsett, 2012 #13676].
189 For treatment as a separate species from C. atrogularis see Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328].
190 For treatment as a separate species from C. atrogularis see Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417].
191 For treatment as separate species from C. atrogularis see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887].
192 For assignment of species rank out of synonymy of C. atrogularis xanthopygia see Érard (1974) [Érard, 1974 #1521].
193 For treatment as separate species from C. flavigula see Érard (1974) [Érard, 1974 #1521] and Ash & Gullick (1990) [Ash, 1990 #108].
194 Date 1918 in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was miscopied.
195 Not recognised by Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495], considered a recent introduction.
196 Introduced to Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, Seychelles and Hawaiian Is. (Oahu, Hawaii).
197 For treatment as separate species from C. donaldsoni see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887] and Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328].
198 Includes hesperus; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
199 Includes quintoni; see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190], but see also White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
200 Note corrected authorship and date.
201 Introduced to Ascension I. and St. Helena I.
202 For treatment as a separate species from C. flaviventris; see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887].
203 Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] gave 1859 as in Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014], but this was a typographical error.
204 For recognition see Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
205 Includes shelleyi and frommi; see Fry et al. (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
206 Includes hewitti; see Dean in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
207 For treatment as a separate species from C. reichardi see Turner (2013) [Turner, 2013 #15734]. But see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495].
208 Dated 1851? by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
209 For treatment as a separate species from C. gularis see Turner (2013) [Turner, 2013 #15734].
210 Implicitly includes affinis see White (1963) [White, 1963 #4190].
211 Treated as a separate species in Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887] and by various subsequent authors.
212 For treatment as a separate species from C. burtoni see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887] and Fry (2004) [Fry, 2004 #13503].
213 For treatment as a separate species from C. totta; see Hall & Moreau (1970) [Hall, 1970 #1887], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Dean in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
214 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
215 Includes bensonorum see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495]. But see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
216 For change of authorship and date see Kumerloeve (1967) [Kumerloeve, 1967 #12759] and Dickinson (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1388].
217 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
218 Includes pamirensis see Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495]; but Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
219 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
220 Includes nana Tschusi, 1901, preoccupied in a broad genus Carduelis by Chrysomitra nana Bonaparte, 1851. Tschusi's name, replaced before 1961, is permanently invalid; contra Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014].
221 Correct original spelling. Spelling yemensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
222 For renewed recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
223 For treatment as a separate species see Knox et al. (2001) [Knox, 2001 #2242] and Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495]. But see Ottvall et al. (2002) [Ottvall, 2002 #2883] and Marthinsen et al. (2008) [Marthinsen, 2008 #10811].
224 Introduced to New Zealand and Macquarie I.
225 Includes islandica; see Herremans (1990) [Herremans, 1990 #1953].
226 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
227 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
228 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
229 North American 'subspecies' are not satisfactorily resolved; see Adkisson (1996) [Adkisson, 1996 #15683] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. Retention here of those listed by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] is solely to avoid adding to the complex riddle. For rejection of recently described 'species' L. sinesciuris Benkman, 2009 [Benkman, 2009 #11797]; see Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12460].
230 Includes mariae; see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
231 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1375].
232 Includes percna Bent, 1912 [Bent, 1912 #15684]; see Deignan (1961) [Deignan, 1961 #1244].
233 Includes sitkensis; see Payne (1987) [Payne, 1987 #14785].
234 Includes benti; see Payne (1987) [Payne, 1987 #14785].
235 For recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
236 For suggestion that this be treated as a separate species based on vocal differences, see Elmberg (1993) [Elmberg, 1993 #14777].
237 For treatment as a separate species from L. leucoptera; see Benkman (1994) [Benkman, 1994 #14775], Smith (1997) [Smith, 1997 #14788] and Banks et al. (2003) [Banks, 2003 #202].
238 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
239 Includes Serinus e. chaseni Kinzelbach, Dickinson & Somadikarta, 2009; proposed as a nomen novum for use in Serinus where Chasen's name is preoccupied by Serinus orientalis C.L. Brehm, 1831; here Chasen's name is restored, see Art. 59.4 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
240 Subspecies groups follow Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
241 Introduced to Azores, SE Australia, New Zealand, Bermuda and Uruguay.
242 Includes loudoni which replaced brevirostris Sarudny, 1889 after 1961 when preoccupied by Linota brevirostris Bonaparte, 1855, due the placement of Acanthis in Carduelis; here restored, see Art. 59.4 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
243 Correct spelling. Gender agreement not followed by original author nor corrected by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
244 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
245 This name replaced major Taczanowski, 1879, a secondary homonym preoccupied when the genus Acanthis is submerged in Carduelis. As replacement was prior to 1961 the name major should not have been restored by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014]; see Art. 59.4 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
246 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1994) [Cramp, 1994 #1091].
247 Moved here from the genus Serinus following Arnaiz-Villena et al. (1998) [Arnaiz-Villena, 1998 #95]. Sangster et al. (2002) [Sangster, 2002 #3474] preferred to retain this in Serinus.
248 For treatment as a separate species see Sangster et al. (2002) [Sangster, 2002 #3474] and Clement (2010) [Clement, 2010 #13495]. See also Förschler & Kalko (2007) [Förschler, 2007 #9853] and Förschler et al. (2009) [Förschler, 2009 #11826].
249 Species sequence based on Arnaiz-Villena et al. (2007) [Arnaiz-Villena, 2007 #11693]; only S. nigriceps was unscreened. See also Cardoso et al. (2012) [Cardoso, 2012 #14738].
250 Presumably includes flaviserinus Trischitta, 1939 [Trischitta, 1939 #3879].
251 Introduced to Hawaiian Is.
252 Dated '1851?' by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
253 Introduced to Réunion.
254 For treatment as a separate species from S. canicollis see Zimmerman et al. (1996) [Zimmerman, 1996 #4328] and Fry (2000) [Fry, 2004 #13503]. Genetic results for the latter in Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528] presumed to relate to the historic broad species.
255 For recognition based on molecular evidence see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
256 Includes Sporagra and also Chionomitris Wolters, 1979 [Wolters, 1979 #4454]; see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528].
257 For placement in Spinus see Zuccon et al. (2012) [Zuccon, 2012 #13528]. Morphology suggests the use of the monotypic genus Chionomitris Wolters, 1979 [Wolters, 1979 #4454] may be warranted; DNA studies agree but without strong support.
258 Dated 1851? by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
259 This taxon may belong with S. atriceps; see Arnaiz-Villena et al. (2009) [Arnaiz-Villena, 2009 #12012]; however reported hybridisation may account for this, see van Rossem (1938) [van Rossem, 1938 #14787].
260 For correct date see Woodman (2010) [Woodman, 2010 #13512].
261 The citation of the original spelling as columbianus by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014] is incorrect and use of columbiana was an ISS.
262 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
263 Includes capitaneus; see Robbins et al. (1994) [Robbins, 1994 #14786].
264 Dated '1851?' by Howell et al. (1968) [Howell, 1968 #2014], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
265 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Robbins et al. (1994) [Robbins, 1994 #14786] and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
266 For corrected date see Bangs (1930) [Bangs, 1930 #187].
267 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
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