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ICTERIDAE - New World Blackbirds1 (31:105)
ICTERIINAE
ICTERIA Vieillot, 1807 F - Icteria dumicola Vieillot, 1807; type by monotypy = Turdus virens Linnaeus, 1758  2,3
Icteria virens Yellow-breasted Chat
auricollis (Deppe, 1830) vSW Canada (S British Columbia, Saskatchewan), W USA, C Mexico >> Guatemala
virens (Linnaeus, 1758)4 SE Canada (SE Ontario), E USA (North Dakota, S Great Lakes to Texas, N Florida), NE Mexico >> Panama
ICTERINAE
XANTHOCEPHALUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Psarocolius perspicillatus Wagler, 1829; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Icterus xanthocephalus Bonaparte, 1826  5
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus   (Bonaparte, 1826) Yellow-headed Blackbird
vS Canada (British Columbia to Manitoba), W USA (California to Michigan), N Mexico (N Baja California)
DOLICHONYX Swainson, 1827 M - Fringilla oryzivora Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy   6
Dolichonyx oryzivorus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Bobolink
vS Canada to N USA (Oregon to Virginia) >> C South America (south to N Argentina)
STURNELLA Vieillot, 1816 F - Stourne, ou Merle à fer-à-cheval Buffon; type by monotypy = Alauda magna Linnaeus, 1758  
Sturnella magna7 Eastern Meadowlark
1 magna (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE Canada (from S Ontario) E USA (Minnesota, Maine to Texas, North Carolina)
1 argutula Bangs, 1899 vS USA (South Carolina to E Texas, Florida)
1 hippocrepis (Wagler, 1832) Cuba, including Isla de la Juventud
2 lilianae Oberholser, 19308 SW USA (C Arizona to W Texas), NW Mexico (N Sonora, C Chihuahua)
1 hoopesi Stone, 1897 S USA (S Texas), NE Mexico (N Tamaulipas)
1 auropectoralis G.B. Saunders, 1934 vC Mexico (highlands from Sinaloa to México and coastal Nayarit)
1 saundersi Dickerman & A.R. Phillips, 19709 S Mexico (Pacific lowlands of SE Oaxaca) [Dickerman, 1970 #1327]
1 alticola Nelson, 1900 Highlands of S Mexico (Chiapas) to Costa Rica
1 mexicana P.L. Sclater, 1861 vE Mexico (coastal N Veracruz) to Guatemala (Petén)
1 griscomi Van Tyne & Trautman, 1941 SE Mexico (coast of N Yucatán)
1 inexspectata Ridgway, 188810 δvHonduras, NE Nicaragua
1 subulata Griscom, 1934 vPanama (Pacific slope)
1 meridionalis P.L. Sclater, 1861 vNE Colombia (Andes of Santander, Cundinamarca), NW Venezuela (Trujillo)
1 paralios Bangs, 1901 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts. to W base of E Andes), S Venezuela (SE Bolívar)
1 praticola C. Chubb, 1921 E Colombia (Meta, Vichada), SE Venezuela (Mt. Roraima), the Guianas
1 monticola C. Chubb, 192111,12 Highlands of S Venezuela (Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil (Roraima, Amapá)
Sturnella neglecta Western Meadowlark
neglecta Audubon, 1844 vSW Canada, W USA (to W Iowa, except Pacific slope of Cascade Mts.), NW Mexico (to Guanajuato) >> Gulf Coast13
confluenta Rathbun, 191714 vPacific slope west of Cascade Mts., in SW Canada (SW British Columbia), W USA (SW Washington to Oregon)
LEISTES Vigors, 1825 M - Oriolus americanus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by original designation = Emberiza militaris Linnaeus, 175815,16,17
Leistes militaris 18  (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-breasted Blackbird
vCentral America (from SE Nicaragua) to N South America south to NE Bolivia (Pando, Beni)
Leistes superciliaris 19,20  (Bonaparte, 1850) α White-browed Blackbird
vSE Peru, E Bolivia, C and E Brazil, Paraguay, N and C Argentina, Uruguay
Leistes bellicosus21 Peruvian Meadowlark
bellicosus (de Filippi, 1847) vSW Colombia (Nariño) to C Peru (to Junín)
albipes R.A. Philippi, Sr. & Landbeck, 1861 Pacific slope of Andes of SW Peru (south of Ica) to N Chile
Leistes defilippii 22,23  (Bonaparte, 1850) α Pampas Meadowlark
C and E Argentina (La Pampa, Río Negro, Buenos Aires), N Uruguay
Leistes loyca Long-tailed Meadowlark
loyca (G.I. Molina, 1782)24 S Chile (from S Atacama), C and S Argentina (from Córdoba) [Molina, 1782 #2697]
catamarcanus (Zotta, 1937) vNW Argentina (Jujuy to La Rioja)
obscurus (Nores & Yzurieta, 1979)25 vC Argentina (Córdoba, San Luis) [Nores, 1979 #2776]
falklandicus (Leverkühn, 1889) vFalkland Is.
AMBLYCERCUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Amblyramphus prevostii Lesson, 1831; type by original designation = Sturnus holosericeus Deppe, 1830  26
Amblycercus holosericeus27,28 Yellow-billed Cacique
1 holosericeus (Deppe, 1830) vE Mexico (S Tamaulipas) to NW Colombia (to Sucre)
1 flavirostris Chapman, 1915 vPacific lowlands of W Colombia (Chocó) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
2 australis Chapman, 1919 vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts., Sierra de Perijá), NC Venezuela; Andes of SW Venezuela to C Bolivia
CASSICULUS Swainson, 1827 M - Cassiculus coronatus Swainson, 1827; type by monotypy = Icterus melanicterus Bonaparte, 182529
Cassiculus melanicterus   (Bonaparte, 1825) Yellow-winged Cacique
Pacific slope of W Mexico (Sonora to Chiapas), S Guatemala, El Salvador
PSAROCOLIUS Wagler, 1827 M - Oriolus cristatus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 68). = Xanthornus decumanus Pallas, 176930
Psarocolius wagleri31 Chestnut-headed Oropendola
wagleri (G.R. Gray, 1844)32 αSE Mexico (Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to NE Nicaragua, on Atlantic slope
ridgwayi (van Rossem, 1934) E Nicaragua to W Colombia, W Ecuador (to Manabí)
Psarocolius atrovirens   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) Dusky-green Oropendola
iE slope of Andes from C Peru (Huánuco) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)
Psarocolius angustifrons33 Russet-backed Oropendola
salmoni (P.L. Sclater, 1883) C Colombia (on both slopes of W and C Andes)
atrocastaneus (Cabanis, 1873) vW Ecuador
sincipitalis (Cabanis, 1873) vNC Colombia (W slope of E Andes, head of Magdalena valley)
neglectus (Chapman, 1914) vE Colombia (E slope of E Andes, Sierra de Perijá), W Venezuela (W Andes in Lara to Táchira)
oleagineus (P.L. Sclater, 1883)34 vNC Venezuela (coastal mountains from Carabobo to Miranda, mountains of Aragua)
angustifrons (von Spix, 1824) Foothills of E Andes of Colombia (from Meta), E Ecuador, NE Peru (to R. Ucayali), W Brazil (to R. Purus)
alfredi (Des Murs, 1856) E slopes of Andes of SE Ecuador, E Peru, E Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)
Psarocolius decumanus Crested Oropendola
melanterus (Todd, 1917) vPanama, Colombia (west of E Andes)
insularis (Dalmas, 1900) vTrinidad, Tobago
decumanus (Pallas, 1769) East of Andes in Colombia to N Peru (R. Huallaga), Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (to R. Amazon)
maculosus (Chapman, 1920)35 vE Peru to Paraguay, N Argentina (Salta to Misiones), E Brazil (Paraná, São Paulo)
Psarocolius viridis   (Statius Muller, 1776) Green Oropendola
vSE Bolivia (Vichada to Amazonas), Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil (Amazonas), E Ecuador to E Bolivia
Psarocolius bifasciatus36,37 Olive Oropendola
1 yuracares (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838)38 E of Andes in S Colombia, S Venezuela to Peru, W Brazil (east to R. Negro, R. Madeira) to E Bolivia
1 neivae (E. Snethlage, 1925)39 C Brazil (S Pará between R. Tapajós and R. Tocantins, to N Goiás and Mato Grosso)
2 bifasciatus (von Spix, 1824) vE Brazil (south of R. Amazon, from R. Tocantins east to Maranhão)
Psarocolius montezuma 40  (Lesson, 1830) Montezuma Oropendola
iE Mexico (Atlantic slope from San Luis Potosí to Quintana Roo), Caribbean slope from Belize to W Panama
Psarocolius guatimozinus   (Bonaparte, 1853) Black Oropendola
vE Panama (Panamá, Darién), W Colombia (Chocó, Antioquia, Caldas)
Psarocolius cassini   (Richmond, 1898) Baudo Oropendola
iCoastal W Colombia (Chocó to Valle)
PROCACICUS Fraga, 2005 M - Cassicus solitarius Vieillot, 1816; type by monotypy
Procacicus solitarius 41  (Vieillot, 1816) Solitary Cacique
vAmazonia from S Venezuela to E Peru, Brazil to E Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina (Santa Fé), W Uruguay
CACICUS Lacépède, 1799 M - Oriolus haemorrhous Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent monotypy (Zimmer, 1930, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 17, no. 7, p. 434).   42
Cacicus chrysopterus 43  (Vigors, 1825) Golden-winged Cacique
vE Bolivia (Santa Cruz), S Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro), N Argentina, NW Uruguay
Cacicus koepckeae   Lowery & O'Neill, 1965 Selva Cacique
iE Peru (Ucayali, Cuzco, Madre de Dios), W Brazil (Acre)
Cacicus sclateri   (A.J.C. Dubois, 1887) Ecuadorian Cacique
iS Colombia (from Meta), E Ecuador, N Peru (Loreto)
Cacicus cela44 Yellow-rumped Cacique
1 vitellinus Lawrence, 1864 vC Panama to N and C Colombia (Santa Marta to Tolima)
1 flavicrissus (P.L. Sclater, 1860) W Ecuador, NW Peru (Tumbes)
2 cela (Linnaeus, 1758) E of Andes from Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Trinidad to C Bolivia (Santa Cruz), S Brazil
Cacicus uropygialis45 Scarlet-rumped Cacique/Subtropical Cacique
1 microrhynchus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1865)46 αvCaribbean lowlands of E Honduras to E Panama (Comarca Guna Yala)
2 pacificus Chapman, 1915 vE Panama (Darién), W Colombia (Chocó), SW Ecuador (to El Oro)
3 uropygialis Lafresnaye, 1843 vW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá, Táchira), Colombia, Peru (E slope of Andes), NW Bolivia (La Paz)
Cacicus chrysonotus47 Mountain Cacique
1 leucoramphus (Bonaparte, 1845)48,49 αvW Venezuela (Táchira), Colombia to SE Ecuador (Loja)
1 peruvianus J.T. Zimmer, 1924 vE slope of Andes of Peru (Amazonas to Junín)
2 chrysonotus d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 vAndes of C Peru (Junín) to C Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
Cacicus latirostris 50  Swainson, 1838 Band-tailed Oropendola
vNE Ecuador, NE Peru (Loreto, Ucayali), W Brazil (SW Amazonas, W Acre)
Cacicus oseryi 51  Deville, 1849 Casqued Oropendola
E Ecuador (Sucumbíos), SE Colombia (Amazonas) to E Peru (Cuzco, Madre de Dios), W Brazil, N Bolivia
Cacicus haemorrhous Red-rumped Cacique
haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766) E Colombia, S Venezuela, the Guianas to E Ecuador, N Brazil (Roraima)
pachyrhynchus von Berlepsch, 188952,53 vBrazil (Amazonas to Pará, Rondônia to Mato Grosso), E Peru, N Bolivia [von Berlepsch, 1889 #4041]
affinis Swainson, 1834 vE Brazil (S Tocantins to Pernambuco south to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Corrientes)
ICTERUS Brisson, 1760 M - Icterus Brisson; type by tautonymy = Oriolus icterus Linnaeus, 1766  54
Icterus parisorum   Bonaparte, 1838 Scott's Oriole
iSW USA (S California to Texas), W and C Mexico (to S Baja California, Oaxaca) >> Mexico
Icterus chrysater Yellow-backed Oriole
chrysater (Lesson, 1844) vS Mexico (S Veracruz, C and S Yucatan Pen., Chiapas) to N Nicaragua
mayensis van Rossem, 1938 vSE Mexico (N Yucatan Pen.)
giraudii Cassin, 184855 Panama (on both coasts), W, N and C Colombia, N Venezuela (Miranda), NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
Icterus graduacauda Audubon's Oriole
audubonii Giraud, 1841 S USA (S Texas), N Mexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas)
nayaritensis van Rossem, 1938 vWC Mexico (Nayarit, W Jalisco)
dickeyae van Rossem, 193856 SW Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental in Guerrero, Oaxaca)
graduacauda Lesson, 1839 E Mexico (San Luis Potosí to NW Veracruz)
Icterus leucopteryx Jamaican Oriole
lawrencii Cory, 1887 Isla de San Andrés (W Caribbean)
†? bairdi Cory, 1886 Grand Cayman (Cayman Is.)
leucopteryx (Wagler, 1827) Jamaica
Icterus auratus 57  Bonaparte, 1850 Orange Oriole
vSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.), NE Belize; Isla Mujeres, off NE Quintana Roo
Icterus gularis Altamira Oriole
mentalis Lesson, 183158,59 vS USA (S Texas), S and E Mexico (to Yucatan Pen., S Chiapas), Guatemala, Belize
gularis (Wagler, 1829)60 vPacific lowlands of S Mexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas), Guatemala to W Nicaragua
flavescens A.R. Phillips, 1966 SW Mexico (Guerrero)
Icterus nigrogularis Yellow Oriole
nigrogularis (Hahn, 1819) vColombia (Caribbean region; Meta, Vichada), N Venezuela (north of R. Orinoco), the Guianas, N Brazil
curasoensis Ridgway, 1884 vNetherlands Antilles (Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire)
helioeides A.H. Clark, 1902 Isla de Margarita (off N Venezuela)
trinitatis E. Hartert, 191361 αNE Venezuela (Paria Pen.), Trinidad
Icterus bullockiorum 62,63,64,65  (Swainson, 1827) Bullock's Oriole
iSW Canada, W USA (east to SW North Dakota), N Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila) >> NW Costa Rica
Icterus pustulatus66 Streak-backed Oriole
1 graysonii Cassin, 1867 Islas Marías (off W Mexico)
2 microstictus Griscom, 193467 vW Mexico (Sonora, W Chihuahua to Jalisco)
2 pustulatus (Wagler, 1829)68 vS Mexico (Colima to Puebla, W Veracruz, N Oaxaca) [Wagler, 1829 #10304]
3 formosus Lawrence, 187269 vS Mexico (S Oaxaca, Chiapas), NW Guatemala
3 alticola W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925 Guatemala, W Honduras
3 pustuloides van Rossem, 192770 El Salvador (Volcán San Miguel) [van Rossem, 1927 #3921]
3 sclateri Cassin, 1867 Pacific coast from El Salvador to NW Costa Rica
3 maximus Griscom, 193071 vNC Guatemala (R. Negro valley) [Griscom, 1930 #1824]
Icterus abeillei 72  (Lesson, 1839) Black-backed Oriole
iC Mexico (Durango, Nuevo León to Michoacán, Veracruz) >> to Oaxaca
Icterus galbula   (Linnaeus, 1758) Baltimore Oriole
iEast of Rocky Mts. in S Canada, C and E USA (south to C Texas, N Georgia) >> to Colombia, Venezuela
Icterus mesomelas Yellow-tailed Oriole
mesomelas (Wagler, 1829) S Mexico (Veracruz) to Honduras
salvinii Cassin, 1867 Nicaragua to W Panama (Caribbean lowlands)
carrikeri Todd, 1917 E Panama (east from C Panamá) to N and W Colombia, NW Venezuela (Zulia, Mérida, Táchira)
taczanowskii Ridgway, 1901 Coastal W Ecuador, NW Peru (Tumbes; upper Marañón valley)
Icterus pectoralis Spot-breasted Oriole
carolynae Dickerman, 198173 S Mexico (Pacific slope of Guerrero, Oaxaca) [Dickerman, 1981 #1334]
pectoralis (Wagler, 1829) vS Mexico (E Oaxaca, C Chiapas)
guttulatus Lafresnaye, 184474 vS Mexico (Chiapas) to NW Nicaragua [Lafresnaye, 1844 #2308]
espinachi Ridgway, 1882 SW Nicaragua (Rivas), NW Costa Rica (Guanacaste)
Icterus graceannae   Cassin, 1867 White-edged Oriole
iCoastal Ecuador (from Manabí) to W Peru (to La Libertad)
Icterus jamacaii 75,76  (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) δ Campo Troupial
E Brazil (Maranhão, Tocantins to Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, south to N Minas Gerais)
Icterus icterus77 Venezuelan Troupial
ridgwayi (E. Hartert, 1902) N Colombia (Guajira), N Venezuela (to Sucre, Isla de Margarita); Aruba, Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)
icterus (Linnaeus, 1766) N and C Venezuela (Carabobo, W Apure to S Monagas, N Bolívar)78
metae W.H. Phelps, Jr. & Aveledo, 1966 W Venezuela (S Apure), NE Colombia (Arauca, Vichada)
Icterus croconotus79 Orange-backed Troupial
croconotus (Wagler, 1829) S Guyana, N Brazil (Roraima); SE Colombia to E Peru, Brazil (south of Amazon to Pará) to NW Bolivia
strictifrons Todd, 192480 E Bolivia (Beni, Santa Cruz) to C Brazil (Mato Grosso), south to N Argentina (Salta, Formosa, Chaco)
Icterus maculialatus   Cassin, 1848 Bar-winged Oriole
vPacific slope of S Mexico (E Oaxaca, Chiapas), C Guatemala, N El Salvador
Icterus wagleri Black-vented Oriole
castaneopectus Brewster, 1888 NW Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, W Chihuahua)
wagleri P.L. Sclater, 1857 Highlands of W and S Mexico (from Coahuila to Chiapas), mountains of Guatemala to W Nicaragua
Icterus cucullatus81 Hooded Oriole
1 nelsoni Ridgway, 1885 SW USA (California to W New Mexico), NW Mexico (N Baja California, S Sonora) >> W Mexico (to Sinaloa)
1 trochiloides G.B. Grinnell, 1927 NW Mexico (S Baja California)
2 sennetti Ridgway, 1901 S USA (S Texas) to E Mexico (S Tamaulipas) >> S Mexico (Guerrero)
2 cucullatus Swainson, 1827 vS USA (S Texas) to S Mexico (to S Veracruz) >> S Mexico (to S Oaxaca)
2 igneus Ridgway, 1885 vS Mexico (coastal Yucatan Pen., including offshore islands), N Belize
Icterus prosthemelas82 Black-cowled Oriole
prosthemelas (Strickland, 1850) Caribbean slope of SE Mexico (S Veracruz, Yucatan Pen.) to C Costa Rica
praecox A.R. Phillips & Dickerman, 1965 SE Costa Rica (Limón), W Panama (Bocas del Toro, Coclé)
Icterus spurius83 Orchard Oriole
1 spurius (Linnaeus, 1766)84 vS Canada (S Saskatchewan to SE Ontario), USA, W Mexico (to Michoacán) >> Central America, Colombia
2 fuertesi Chapman, 191185 Caribbean coast of E Mexico (S Tamaulipas to S Veracruz) >> S Mexico (to W Chiapas)
Icterus northropi 86  J.A. Allen, 1890 Bahama Oriole
Andros, Great Abaco (Bahamas)
Icterus melanopsis 87  (Wagler, 1829) Cuban Oriole
vCuba, Isla de la Juventud
Icterus bonana 88  (Linnaeus, 1766) Martinique Oriole
iMartinique (Lesser Antilles)
Icterus portoricensis 89  H. Bryant, 1866 Puerto Rican Oriole
vPuerto Rico
Icterus oberi   Lawrence, 1880 Montserrat Oriole
iMontserrat (Lesser Antilles)
Icterus laudabilis   P.L. Sclater, 1871 St. Lucia Oriole
vSt. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
Icterus dominicensis 90  (Linnaeus, 1766) Hispaniolan Oriole
vHispaniola and offshore islands (Ile de la Tortue, Ile de la Gonâve, Ile-à-Vache, Isla Saona)
Icterus auricapillus   Cassin, 1848 Orange-crowned Oriole
iE Panama (Panamá, Darién),, N Colombia (south to Huila, N Meta), N Venezuela (south to N Bolívar)
Icterus pyrrhopterus91 Variable Oriole
pyrrhopterus (Vieillot, 1819)92 vBolivia, S Brazil (Mato Grosso to Minas Gerais, south to Rio Grande do Sul), NE Argentina, Uruguay
tibialis Swainson, 1838 vE Brazil (Maranhão to Ceará, south to Rio de Janeiro)
Icterus cayanensis Epaulet Oriole
cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766) vThe Guianas, N Brazil (Roraima to Amapá, N Pará), E Peru (to Madre de Dios), N Bolivia (La Paz, Beni)
chrysocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766)93 vE Colombia, S Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil (R. Negro, R. Branco; Tocantins; R. Amazon), E Ecuador, NE Peru
NESOPSAR P.L. Sclater, 1859 M - Icterus nigerrimus Osburn, 1859; type by original designation   
Nesopsar nigerrimus   (Osburn, 1859) Jamaican Blackbird
vJamaica
AGELAIUS Vieillot, 1816 M - Troupiale Commandeur Buffon; type by original designation = Oriolus phoeniceus Linnaeus, 1766  
Agelaius phoeniceus94 Red-winged Blackbird
arctolegus Oberholser, 190795 vSE Alaska, W Canada (to C Manitoba), NC USA (E Montana to Iowa) >> S USA
nevadensis G.B. Grinnell, 1914 vSW Canada (E British Columbia), W USA (Washington to C California, S Nevada)
fortis Ridgway, 190196,97 vWC USA (east of Rocky Mts. to W Kansas, south to New Mexico) >> Gulf Coast
caurinus Ridgway, 1901 vCoastal SW Canada (SW British Columbia) to N California
phoeniceus (Linnaeus, 1766) vSE Canada (from S Québec), E USA (from Wisconsin, E Nebraska, to NE Texas, C Florida) >> Gulf Coast
mearnsi A.H. Howell & van Rossem, 192898 SC Florida
floridanus Maynard, 189599 vS Florida incl. Florida Keys
littoralis A.H. Howell & van Rossem, 1928 vGulf Coast of Texas to Florida
mailliardorum van Rossem, 1926 SW USA (coastal C California)
californicus Nelson, 1897 vSW USA (C California, in Central Valley)
aciculatus J.W. Mailliard, 1915 vSW USA (S California, in Kern County)
neutralis Ridgway, 1901 vSW USA (coastal S California), NW Mexico (N Baja California)
sonoriensis Ridgway, 1887 vSW USA (SE California, S Nevada) to N Mexico (N Sonora)
megapotamus Oberholser, 1919 S USA (S Texas), E Mexico (to N Veracruz)
gubernator (Wagler, 1832)100 C Plateau of Mexico (Durango to Puebla)
nelsoni Dickerman, 1965 SC Mexico (Morelos, Puebla)
nyaritensis Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 vW Mexico (Pacific coast from Nayarit) to W El Salvador
richmondi Nelson, 1897101 S Mexico (S Veracruz) to N Costa Rica (Limón)
pallidulus Van Tyne & Trautman, 1946102 vSE Mexico (N Yucatan Pen.)
arthuralleni Dickerman, 1974103 N Guatemala (Petén) [Dickerman, 1974 #1329]
grinnelli A.H. Howell, 1917 El Salvador, NW Costa Rica (Guanacaste)
bryanti Ridgway, 1887 NW Bahamas
Agelaius assimilis 104,105,106  Lembeye, 1850 Red-shouldered Blackbird
vW Cuba, Isla de la Juventud
Agelaius tricolor   (Audubon, 1837) Tricolored Blackbird
iW USA (from S Washington to California), NW Mexico (N Baja California)
Agelaius humeralis107 Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
humeralis (Vigors, 1827) vCuba (including offshore islands), W Hispaniola
scopulus Garrido, 1970108 Cayo Cantiles (east of Isla de la Juventud) [Garrido, 1970 #1666]
Agelaius xanthomus Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
xanthomus (P.L. Sclater, 1862) vPuerto Rico
monensis Barnés, 1945 vIsla Mona, off W Puerto Rico
MOLOTHRUS Swainson, 1832 M - Fringilla pecoris J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation = Oriolus ater Boddaert, 1783  
Molothrus rufoaxillaris   Cassin, 1866 Screaming Cowbird
vSE Bolivia, C and S Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, NE and C Argentina (south to Río Negro)
Molothrus oryzivorus109 Giant Cowbird
impacifus (J.L. Peters, 1929)110 δCaribbean slope of S Mexico (Veracruz) to W Panama
oryzivorus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vE Panama (east from C Panamá), Trinidad, Tobago, N South America (to N Argentina, S Brazil (Santa Catarina))
Molothrus aeneus111 Bronzed Cowbird
1 loyei Parkes & Blake, 1965 SW USA (S California to W Texas), NW Mexico (N Baja California, south to Nayarit)
1 assimilis (Nelson, 1900) vSW Mexico (Jalisco to Chiapas)
1 aeneus (Wagler, 1829) vS USA (S Texas to Florida), E Mexico (incl. Yucatan Pen.) to C Panama
2 armenti Cabanis, 1851112 N Colombia (Caribbean coast from N Bolívar to Magdalena)
Molothrus bonariensis Shiny Cowbird
cabanisii Cassin, 1866 E Costa Rica to W Colombia
aequatorialis Chapman, 1915 vSW Colombia, W Ecuador
occidentalis von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1892 vSW Ecuador (Loja), W Peru (to Lima)
venezuelensis Stone, 1891 vNE Colombia, N Venezuela
minimus Dalmas, 1900 vSE USA (Florida), West Indies, Trinidad, Tobago, the Guianas, N Brazil (Roraima)
riparius Griscom & Greenway, 1937 vE Ecuador, E Peru, N Brazil (Amazon valley east to W Pará)
bonariensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vBrazil (south of R. Amazon), E Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina (to C Santa Cruz), Uruguay113
Molothrus ater Brown-headed Cowbird
artemisiae G.B. Grinnell, 1909 SW Canada (to SC Manitoba), W USA (to California, New Mexico) >> Mexico (to Michoacán)
obscurus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vS Alaska, SW Canada, W USA, Mexico (N Baja California, to Oaxaca) >> NW Mexico (S Baja California)
ater (Boddaert, 1783) vSE Canada (from S Ontario), E USA (to C Texas, Gulf Coast, C Florida) >> Mexico (Oaxaca)
DIVES Cassin, 1867 M - Lampropsar dives Bonaparte, 1850; type by tautonymy = Icterus dives Deppe, 1830  114
Dives dives 115  (Deppe, 1830) Melodious Blackbird
iE Mexico (Caribbean coast from Tamaulipas) south to both coasts of Guatemala to Costa Rica
Dives warczewiczi116,117 Scrub Blackbird
1 warczewiczi (Cabanis, 1861)118 δW Ecuador (S Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (La Libertad)
2 kalinowskii von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1892119 W Peru (La Libertad to Ica, Cajamarca, Huancavelica)
PTILOXENA Chapman, 1892 F - Quiscalus atroviolaceus d'Orbigny, 1839; type by monotypy120
Ptiloxena atroviolacea   (d'Orbigny, 1839) Cuban Blackbird
vCuba
EUPHAGUS Cassin, 1867 M - Psarocolius cyanocephalus Wagler, 1829; type by monotypy   
Euphagus carolinus Rusty Blackbird
carolinus (Statius Muller, 1776) vNW Alaska, Canada, NE USA (New York to C Maine) >> E USA
nigrans T.D. Burleigh & H.S. Peters, 1948 SE Canada (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick) >> E USA
Euphagus cyanocephalus   (Wagler, 1829) Brewer's Blackbird
vS Canada (to S Ontario), W USA (to California), NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> S Mexico
QUISCALUS Vieillot, 1816 M - Gracula quiscula Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 41).   
Quiscalus quiscula121 Common Grackle
1 versicolor Vieillot, 1819 S Canada, USA (east of Rocky Mts. to C Texas, W Mississippi) >> S Texas to South Carolina
1 stonei Chapman, 1935122 E USA (Pennsylvania to Louisiana, Georgia)
2 quiscula (Linnaeus, 1758) SE USA (Atlantic and Gulf coast from North Carolina to Louisiana, Florida incl. Florida Keys)
Quiscalus nicaraguensis   Salvin & Godman, 1891 Nicaraguan Grackle
vS Nicaragua, N Costa Rica
Quiscalus lugubris123,124,125 Carib Grackle
1 guadeloupensis Lawrence, 1879 vNC Lesser Antilles (Montserrat to Martinique)
1 inflexirostris Swainson, 1838 vSt. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
1 luminosus Lawrence, 1878126 αvThe Grenadines, Grenada (S Lesser Antilles); Islas Los Testigos (off NE Venezuela)
1 orquillensis (Cory, 1909) vIslas Los Hermanos (off N Venezuela)
1 insularis Richmond, 1896 vIsla de Margarita (off Venezuela)
1 lugubris Swainson, 1838 vNE Colombia, N Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, coasts of the Guianas to NE Brazil (Amapá)
2 contrusus (J.L. Peters, 1925) vSt. Vincent (Lesser Antilles)
2 fortirostris Lawrence, 1869 αvBarbados (Lesser Antilles)
Quiscalus niger127 Greater Antillean Grackle
caribaeus (Todd, 1916) vW Cuba, including Isla de la Juventud and nearby cays
gundlachii Cassin, 1867128 αArch. de los Jardines de la Reina (off S Cuba)
caymanensis Cory, 1886 vGrand Cayman (Cayman Is.)
bangsi (J.L. Peters, 1921) Little Cayman (Cayman Is.)
crassirostris Swainson, 1838 vJamaica
niger (Boddaert, 1783) vHispaniola
brachypterus Cassin, 1867129 αvPuerto Rico, Vieques I.
Quiscalus major Boat-tailed Grackle
torreyi (Harper, 1934)130 αCoastal E USA (Long I. to N Florida)
westoni (Sprunt, 1934)131 SE USA (Florida Pen.)
alabamensis H.M. Stevenson, 1978132 vCoastal SE USA (S Mississippi to NW Florida) [Stevenson, 1978 #3733]
major Vieillot, 1819 vCoastal S USA (Texas to SW Mississippi)
Quiscalus mexicanus133,134 Great-tailed Grackle
1 nelsoni (Ridgway, 1901) SW USA (C California to SW Arizona), NW Mexico (N Baja California, N Sonora)
1 graysoni P.L. Sclater, 1884 W Mexico (coastal Sinaloa)
2 obscurus Nelson, 1900 vW Mexico (coastal Nayarit to Guerrero)
2 monsoni (A.R. Phillips, 1950) SW USA (California to Colorado south to W Texas), C Mexico (to Zacatecas)
2 prosopidicola (Lowery, 1938) C and S USA (Nebraska to Texas), NE Mexico (Coahuila to Tamaulipas)
2 mexicanus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vC Mexico (Jalisco to Tamaulipas) to Nicaragua
2 loweryi (Dickerman & A.R. Phillips, 1966) SE Mexico (Yucatan Pen., Isla de Cozumel), Belize
2 peruvianus Swainson, 1838 vCosta Rica to NW Venezuela (Zulia) and NW Peru (Tumbes)
†? Quiscalus palustris   (Swainson, 1827) Slender-billed Grackle
vC Mexico (México)
HYPOPYRRHUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Cassicus pyrohypogaster de Tarragon, 1847; type by monotypy   135
Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster   (de Tarragon, 1847) Red-bellied Grackle
iColombia (Andes from Antioquia to Putumayo)
LAMPROPSAR Cabanis, 1847 M - Lampropsar guianensis Cabanis, 1849; type by subsequent monotypy (Cabanis, 1849, in Schomburgk, Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, 3 (1848), p. 6).   
Lampropsar tanagrinus136,137 Velvet-fronted Grackle
1 guianensis Cabanis, 1849138 vNE Venezuela (Sucre to NE Bolívar; NW Amazonas), NW Guyana, E Colombia (NE Vichada), N Brazil (Roraima)
1 tanagrinus (von Spix, 1824) vAmazon Basin in E Ecuador, S Colombia, NE Peru (Loreto, Ucayali) and W Brazil (east to R. Negro, R. Madeira)
1 macropterus Gyldenstolpe, 1945 vW Brazil (upper R. Juruá, W Amazonas)
2 boliviensis Gyldenstolpe, 1941139 αvE Bolivia (Beni, Santa Cruz)
3 violaceus Hellmayr, 1906 vWC Brazil (NW Mato Grosso)
GYMNOMYSTAX Reichenbach, 1850 M - Agelaius melanicterus Vieillot, 1819; type by subsequent monotypy (Cabanis, 1851, Museum Heineanum, 1, p. 189). = Oriolus mexicanus Linnaeus, 1766  140
Gymnomystax mexicanus   (Linnaeus, 1766) Oriole Blackbird
vW and N Venezuela to NE Guyana, E Colombia (east of Andes), E Ecuador and NE Peru along R. Amazon through Brazil to French Guiana
MACROAGELAIUS Cassin, 1866 M - Quiscalus subalaris Boissonneau, 1840; type by monotypy   
Macroagelaius subalaris 141  (Boissonneau, 1840) Mountain Grackle
vC Colombia (W slope of E Andes from Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca)
Macroagelaius imthurni 142  (P.L. Sclater, 1881) Golden-tufted Grackle
iS Venezuela (Amazonas, SE Bolívar), N Brazil (Roraima), W Guyana
CURAEUS P.L. Sclater, 1862 M - Turdus curaeus G.I. Molina, 1782; type by monotypy and tautonymy   
Curaeus curaeus Austral Blackbird
curaeus (G.I. Molina, 1782) C and S Chile (Coquimbo to Straits of Magellan, Isla de Chiloé), SW Argentina (Neuquén to Santa Cruz)
reynoldsi (W.L. Sclater, 1939)143 S Chile and extreme S Argentina (Tierra del Fuego and nearby islands)
Curaeus forbesi 144  (P.L. Sclater, 1886) Forbes's Blackbird
iNE Brazil (Pernambuco and Alagoas; Minas Gerais)
AMBLYRAMPHUS Leach, 1814 M - Amblyramphus bicolor Leach, 1814; type by monotypy = Xanthornus holosericeus Scopoli, 1786  
Amblyramphus holosericeus   (Scopoli, 1786) Scarlet-headed Blackbird
vNE Bolivia, Paraguay and S Brazil (S Mato Grosso and Santa Catarina to Rio Grande do Sul), NW and E Argentina (N Salta, Córdoba and E Chaco to Buenos Aires), Uruguay
GNORIMOPSAR Richmond, 1908 M - Agelaius chopi Vieillot, 1819; type by monotypy   
Gnorimopsar chopi Chopi Blackbird
megistus (Leverkühn, 1889)145 vExtreme SE Peru (Pampas de Heath) to E Bolivia (La Paz, Beni and Santa Cruz) [Leverkühn, 1889 #15712]
chopi (Vieillot, 1819) C and E Brazil (C Mato Grosso to Goiás, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo), NE Argentina (south to Santa Fé and Entre Ríos) and Uruguay
sulcirostris (von Spix, 1824) vNE Brazil (east from Maranhão and Ceará, south to Bahia and N Minas Gerais)
OREOPSAR W.L. Sclater, 1939 M - Oreopsar bolivianus W.L. Sclater, 1939; type by monotypy   
Oreopsar bolivianus 146  W.L. Sclater, 1939 Bolivian Blackbird
vC Bolivia (Cochabamba to Potosí, Chuquisaca)
AGELAIOIDES Cassin, 1866 M - Agelaius badius Vieillot, 1819; type by subsequent designation (P.L. Sclater, 1884, Ibis, 1884 [26], p. 3).   147
Agelaioides badius148 Baywing Blackbird
1 fringillarius (von Spix, 1824)149 vNE Brazil (Piauí, Ceará to Minas Gerais)
2 badius (Vieillot, 1819) vE Bolivia (Beni), S Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay to S Argentina (Chubut)
2 bolivianus (Hellmayr, 1917) vHighlands of C and S Bolivia (La Paz to Chuquisaca)
AGELASTICUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Turdus thilius Molina, 1782; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 69).150
Agelasticus xanthophthalmus   (Short, 1969) Pale-eyed Blackbird
vLocally in E Ecuador (Napo) and E Peru (San Martín, Huánuco and Madre de Dios) [Short, 1969 #3617]
Agelasticus cyanopus151 Unicolored Blackbird
xenicus (Parkes, 1966) vN Brazil (Amapá, NE Pará and N Maranhão)
atroolivaceus (zu Wied, 1831) vCoastal E Brazil (Espírito Santo to Paraná)
beniensis (Parkes, 1966) vN Bolivia (Beni)
cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819) E Bolivia (Santa Cruz), C and S Brazil (from Mato Gross, W São Paulo) to NE Argentina, W Uruguay
Agelasticus thilius Yellow-winged Blackbird
alticola (Todd, 1932) S Peru (Cuzco, Puno), W Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, Oruro)
thilius (G.I. Molina, 1782) Chile (south from Atacama)
petersii (Laubmann, 1934) Argentina, Uruguay, SE Brazil (Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul)
CHRYSOMUS Swainson, 1837 M - Oriolus icterocephalus Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 42).   152
Chrysomus ruficapillus Chestnut-capped Blackbird
frontalis (Vieillot, 1819) vFrench Guiana (coastal), E Brazil (Amapá to Rio Grande do Norte, south to São Paulo)
ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819) E Bolivia (Santa Cruz), S Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro), NE Argentina, Uruguay
Chrysomus icterocephalus Yellow-hooded Blackbird
bogotensis (Chapman, 1914) vC Colombia (Cundinamarca)
icterocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) N Colombia (south to Boyacá), Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, N Brazil, NE Peru (Loreto)
XANTHOPSAR Ridgway, 1901 M - Oriolus flavus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by original designation   153
Xanthopsar flavus 154  (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Saffron-cowled Blackbird
vSE Paraguay, SE Brazil (from Santa Catarina), NE Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Ríos), Uruguay
PSEUDOLEISTES P.L. Sclater, 1862 M - Pseudoleistes viridis P.L. Sclater, 1862; type by subsequent designation (P.L. Sclater, 1884, Ibis, 1884 [26], p. 19). = Agelaius guirahuro Vieillot, 1819  
Pseudoleistes guirahuro   (Vieillot, 1819) Yellow-rumped Marshbird
iSE Brazil (Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Corrientes), N Uruguay
Pseudoleistes virescens   (Vieillot, 1819) Brown-and-yellow Marshbird
iS Paraguay, SE Brazil (Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul), EC Argentina (Buenos Aires), Uruguay

1 Sequence of genera follows Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
2 Ranked at full family level by Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348] and monotypic.
3 Dated 1808 by Lowery & Monroe (1968) [Lowery, 1968 #2448], but see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542]. But true date unknown see Dickinson (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12761].
4 Includes danotia Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809], see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
5 Dated '1851?' by Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
6 Formerly placed in a separate subfamily, Dolichonychinae, but see Lanyon & Omland (1999) [Lanyon, 1999 #2331] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
7 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
8 May be a separate species; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Barker et al. (2008) [Barker, 2008 #13315] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
9 For recognition, see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
10 Correct original spelling. Spelling inexpectata in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
11 For recognition see Dickerman (1989) [Dickerman, 1989 #1343] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
12 Includes quinta Dickerman, 1989 [Dickerman, 1989 #1343]; see Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
13 Introduced to Hawaiian Is. (Kauai).
14 For recognition see Davis & Lanyon (2008) [Davis, 2008 #15535]. But see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
15 The name militaris was used by Linnaeus (1758) [Linnaeus, 1758 #4355] for one species of Emberiza included here under that name, and by Linnaeus (1771) [Linnaeus, 1770-71 #5118] for a species of Sturnus now necessarily called L. loyca.
16 When the first militaris was treated in Leistes and the second in Pezites, as in Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], each was called militaris, Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533], noting that the former was being treated in Sturnella by the A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] placed both species there and adopted the two differing specific epithets.
17 For restoration of this genus and inclusion therein of Pezites, see Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
18 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies groups with L. superciliaris and L. bellicosus; but see Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
19 For treatment as a separate species from L. militaris, see Short (1968) [Short, 1968 #7894] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
20 Dated '1851?' by Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
21 For treatment as a separate species from what is now L. loyca, see Short (1968) [Short, 1968 #7894].
22 For treatment as a separate species from what is now L. loyca, see Short (1968) [Short, 1968 #7894].
23 Dated '1851?' by Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
24 The name Sturnus militaris Linnaeus, 1771, is available in the genus Pezites as in Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], but when that genus is submerged in Sturnella it is preoccupied by Emberiza militaris Linnaeus, 1758, and the name loyca must be used.
25 For recognition, see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
26 For elevation from a subgenus of Cacicus, see e.g. A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Freeman & Zink (1995) [Freeman, 1995 #4383] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
27 May comprise more than one species; see Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
28 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
29 Formerly placed in Cacicus, but see Price & Lanyon (2004) [Price, 2004 #10027], Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
30 Sequence of species follows Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
31 Returned to monotypic genus Zarhynchus by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], but see Price & Lanyon (2002) [Price, 2002 #3130] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
32 For correct date see dates of the parts of Gray's Genera of Birds in Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
33 May comprise more than one species; see Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], Price & Lanyon (2004) [Price, 2004 #10027] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
34 Song differs from that of nominate angustifrons, alfredi and atrocastaneus; see Price & Lanyon (2002) [Price, 2002 #15570]. Potentially a separate species.
35 Treated as a synonym of nominate decumanus by Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
36 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
37 Considered by Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with P. montezuma, P. guatimozinus and P. cassini.
38 For treatment of this and neivae as subspecies of P. bifasciatus, see Haffer (1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271]; but see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
39 Possibly represents a hybrid swarm between nominate bifasciatus and yuracares; see Haffer (1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870] and Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
40 For date used here see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
41 For erection of new monotypic genus Procacicus Fraga, 2005 [Fraga, 2005 #1594], see also Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525], based on results of Price & Lanyon (2002) [Price, 2002 #3130] and Price & Lanyon (2004) [Price, 2004 #10027]. No need seen by Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383] to use this but the branch appears deep.
42 Sequence of species follows Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
43 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with C. koepckeae, but see Cardiff & Remsen (1994) [Cardiff, 1994 #14439] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
44 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
45 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
46 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
47 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
48 For treatment of leucoramphus and peruvianus as conspecific with C. chrysonotus, see e.g. Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271]. But see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
49 The reunion was held in 1844 and the proceedings date from 1845; see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
50 For placement in this genus, see Price & Lanyon (2004) [Price, 2004 #10027] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
51 For placement in this genus, see Price & Lanyon (2004) [Price, 2004 #10027] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
52 For recognition, see Parkes (1970) [Parkes, 1970 #15569].
53 Evidence of receipt of this issue of the Journal für Ornithologie by the Zoological Society of London in August 1890 (see Ibis, 1891, p. 616) strongly suggests delayed publication.
54 Sequence of species follows Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
55 Includes hondae; see Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525]. See also Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2841].
56 Includes richardsoni; see Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863] and Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110]. But see Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323].
57 Dated '1851?' by Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
58 For recognition see Dickerman (2007) [Dickerman, 2007 #11707].
59 Includes yucatanensis, tamaulipensis and troglodytes; see Dickerman (2007) [Dickerman, 2007 #11707].
60 Includes gigas; see Dickerman (2007) [Dickerman, 2007 #11707].
61 Published in issue No. CXCIII dated Dec. 23, 1913.
62 Includes eleutherus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
63 Includes parvus; see Rising (1970) [Rising, 1970 #3342]. But see Rising & Williams (1999) [Rising, 1999 #15538] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
64 For treatment as a separate species from I. galbula, see Freeman & Zink (1995) [Freeman, 1995 #4383], Monroe et al. (1995) [Monroe, 1995 #15089] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. See also Sturge et al. (2009) [Sturge, 2009 #12077] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
65 The proposal to emend the name to bullockorum see Chesser (2013) [Chesser, 2013 #15410] was corrected, see Chesser (2015) [Chesser, 2015 #15832].
66 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
67 Includes yaegeri A.R. Phillips, 1995 [Phillips, 1995 #3074]; see Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525]. See also Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
68 Includes dickermani A.R. Phillips, 1995 [Phillips, 1995 #3074] and interior A.R. Phillips, 1995 [Phillips, 1995 #3074]; see Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525]. See also Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
69 For continued recognition see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525]. But see Phillips (1995) [Phillips, 1995 #3074].
70 For recognition see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
71 For recognition, see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110], Dickerman (2007) [Dickerman, 2007 #11707] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
72 For treatment as a separate species from I. galbula, see Monroe et al. (1995) [Monroe, 1995 #15089].
73 For recognition, see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303], Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
74 For recognition see Dickerman (1981) [Dickerman, 1981 #1334].
75 For treatment as separate species from I. icterus see e.g. Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
76 Correct original spelling. Spelling jamaicaii in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
77 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with I. jamacaii; which would take in I. croconotus.
78 Introduced to Puerto Rico.
79 For treatment as a separate species from I. icterus, see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
80 For placement in this species, see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
81 Subspecies groups follow Pleasants & Albano (2001) [Pleasants, 2001 #15537].
82 For treatment as a separate species from I. dominicensis, see Hellmayr (1937) [Hellmayr, 1937 #10408], Phillips & Dickerman (1965) [Phillips, 1965 #15543], Omland et al. (1999) [Omland, 1999 #2865], Banks et al. (2000) [Banks, 2000 #10] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
83 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
84 Includes phillipsi; see Baker et al. (2003) [Baker, 2003 #4352] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
85 May deserve treatment as a separate species; see Baker et al. (2003) [Baker, 2003 #4352], Kiere et al. (2007) [Kiere, 2007 #9923] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
86 For treatment as a separate species from I. dominicensis, see Garrido et al. (2005) [Garrido, 2005 #9867], Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12460] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
87 For treatment as a separate species from I. dominicensis, see Garrido et al. (2005) [Garrido, 2005 #9867], Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12460] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
88 For continued treatment of this, I. laudabilis and I. oberi as separate species from I. dominicensis, see Lovette et al. (1999) [Lovette, 1999 #15545] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
89 For treatment as a separate species from I. dominicensis, see Garrido et al. (2005) [Garrido, 2005 #9867], Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12460] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
90 Garrido et al. (2005) [Garrido, 2005 #9867] proposed that this species forms a superspecies with I. northropi, I. melanopsis, I. portoricensis, I. oberi, I. bonana and I. laudabilis, but see Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
91 For treatment as a separate species from I. cayanensis, see Omland et al. (1999) [Omland, 1999 #2865], D'Horta et al. (2008) [D'Horta, 2008 #10986] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
92 Includes valenciobuenoi and periporphyrus; see D'Horta et al. (2008) [D'Horta, 2008 #10986]. But see Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
93 Treated as a separate species, by e.g. Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
94 Considered by A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] to form a superspecies with A. assimilis.
95 Treated as a synonym of nominate phoeniceus by Power (1970) [Power, 1970 #15540] and Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110], but not by Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
96 Tentatively includes stereus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809], zastereus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809], and heterurus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809], although see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
97 Treated as synonym of nominate phoeniceus by Power (1970) [Power, 1970 #15540] and Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110], but not by Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
98 Perhaps best treated as a synonym of nominate phoeniceus; see Stevenson & Anderson (1994) [Stevenson, 1994 #15571] and Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
99 Possibly better treated as a synonym of nominate phoeniceus; see Stevenson & Anderson (1994) [Stevenson, 1994 #15571] and Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
100 May merit treatment as a separate species, with mailliardorum and californicus as subspecies; see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
101 Includes brevirostris; see Dickerman (1974) [Dickerman, 1974 #1329] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
102 For recent recognition see Dickerman (1974) [Dickerman, 1974 #1329] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
103 For recognition, see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
104 For treatment as a separate species from A. phoeniceus see Garrido & Kirkconnell (1996) [Garrido, 1996 #1674], Banks et al. (1997) [Banks, 1997 #15549] and Barker et al. (2008) [Barker, 2008 #12047].
105 Includes subniger; see Garrido (1970) [Garrido, 1970 #1666].
106 Gundlach provided the MS name. This work has not been examined to see whether he provided descriptions that can be attributed to him, if so he may qualify as author of such names. Richmond (1992) [Richmond, 1992 #8978] did not suggest this.
107 Forms a superspecies with A. xanthomus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
108 For recognition, see Buden & Olson (1989) [Buden, 1989 #2854].
109 Formerly treated in a monotypic genus Scaphidura but see Lanyon (1992) [Lanyon, 1992 #2329] and Banks et al. (2000) [Banks, 2000 #10].
110 Original spelling; not Latin and thus not variable. Spelling impacifa in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
111 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
112 May merit treatment as a separate species; see e.g. Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525]. But see Dugand & Eisenmann (1983) [Dugand, 1983 #15547] and Ellison & Lowther (2009) [Ellison, 2009 #15536].
113 Introduced to Chile.
114 For the change in authorship and date, see Quaisser & Weller (2005) [Quaisser, 2005 #3173] and Chesser et al. (2009) [Chesser, 2009 #11793].
115 Forms a superspecies with D. warczewiczi; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
116 For treatment as a separate species from D. dives, see e.g. Eisenmann (1955) [Eisenmann, 1955 #1490], A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], Stiles & Skutch (1989) [Stiles, 1989 #13786], Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
117 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
118 Correct original spelling. Spelling warszewiczi in Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
119 Treated as a separate species by A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], but see Schulenberg & Parker (1981) [Schulenberg, 1981 #15542].
120 Formerly subsumed in Dives, but see Webster (2003) [Webster, 2003 #4096], Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
121 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
122 Validity questioned by Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
123 Generic name misspelled in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
124 May comprise more than one species, but more study is needed; see Powell et al. (2008) [Powell, 2008 #11752].
125 Subspecies groups follow Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
126 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287] and table 66 therein.
127 Considered by A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with Q. lugubris, but see Powell et al. (2008) [Powell, 2008 #11752].
128 Issue wrapper dated January 1867.
129 Issue wrapper dated January 1867.
130 For correct date see volume table of contents.
131 For recognition, see Stevenson (1978) [Stevenson, 1978 #3733], Post et al. (1996) [Post, 1996 #15572] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
132 For recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
133 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with Q. major. But see Powell et al. (2008) [Powell, 2008 #11752].
134 Subspecies groups based on Powell et al. (2008) [Powell, 2008 #11752] and DaCosta et al. (2008) [DaCosta, 2008 #11215]; and these may be species.
135 Dated '1851?' by Blake (1968) [Blake, 1968 #323], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
136 May comprise more than one species; see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
137 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
138 For retention of date 1849 see Evenhuis (1997) [Evenhuis, 1997 #12439] and Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
139 The issue includes Trykt den 26 juni 1941 i.e. printed 26 June 1941 and delayed publication has not been claimed.
140 This genus was found to be more closely related to Hypopyrrhus and Lampropsar than to Macroagelaius by Cadena et al. 2004 [Cadena, 2004 #648] but see Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
141 Forms a superspecies with M. imthurni; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
142 For treatment as a separate species from M. subalaris, see Meyer de Schauensee (1951) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1951 #15544].
143 Includes recurvirostris Markham, 1971 [Markham, 1971 #2494]; see Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525]. But see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
144 This species is paraphyletic in Curaeus see Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383]; they proposed a new genus which must date from 2014 as the electronic publication did not qualify under the Code and, unlike the phylogenetic information in there, this falls outside our cut-off date.
145 For recognition see Bond & Meyer de Schauensee (1942) [Bond, 1942 #14386] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
146 Includes Agelaioides oreopsar Lowther (2001) [Lowther, 2001 #2451], whose author suggested that this species might belong in Agelaioides and noticing that the name would then be preoccupied by Molothrus badius bolivianus proposed this substitute name.
147 Formerly placed in Molothrus but see Lanyon (1992) [Lanyon, 1992 #2329], Johnson & Lanyon (1999) [Johnson, 1999 #2133] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383].
148 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
149 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110] and Fraga (2008, 2011) [Fraga, 2008 #12058], [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
150 For treatment as separate from Agelaius, see Lowther et al. (2004) [Lowther, 2004 #2452] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
151 May comprise than one species; see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) [Jaramillo, 1999 #2110].
152 For treatment as separate from Agelaius, see Lowther et al. (2004) [Lowther, 2004 #2452] and Fraga (2011) [Fraga, 2011 #13525].
153 For continued recognition, see Johnson & Lanyon (1999) [Johnson, 1999 #2133] and Powell et al. (2014) [Powell, 2014 #15383]. But see Short (1975) [Short, 1975 #13726] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
154 Includes Icterus xantholemus; see Barreiro & Perez del Val (2000) [Barreiro, 2000 #221].
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