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THRAUPIDAE - Typical Tanagers and allies1 (98:371)
CYANICTERUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Pyranga cyanictera Vieillot, 1819; type by monotypy and tautonymy   2
Cyanicterus cyanicterus   (Vieillot, 1819) Blue-backed Tanager
iE Venezuela (Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil (Amazonas)
NEMOSIA Vieillot, 1816 F - Tangara à coëffe noire de Cayenne Buffon; type by monotypy = Tanagra pileata Boddaert, 1783  
Nemosia pileata Hooded Tanager
hypoleuca Todd, 1916 vN Colombia (from Córdoba), N Venezuela (to N Bolívar)
surinamensis J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vGuyana, Surinam
pileata (Boddaert, 1783) vFrench Guiana, C Brazil (R. Madeira to R. Tapajós), N Bolivia
interna J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vNC Brazil (lower R. Negro, upper R. Branco)
nana von Berlepsch, 1912 NE Peru (Amazon basin), W Brazil (east to lower R. Madeira)
caerulea (zu Wied, 1831) vE and S Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east of R. Tapajós), SE Peru (Madre de Dios) to E Bolivia, Paraguay, NW and NE Argentina
Nemosia rourei   Cabanis, 1870 Cherry-throated Tanager
iE Brazil (Espírito Santo)
COMPSOTHRAUPIS Richmond, 1915 F - Tanagra rubrigularis von Spix, 1825; type by monotypy = Tanagra loricata M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1819  3
Compsothraupis loricata   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1819) Scarlet-throated Tanager
vE Brazil (E Maranhão, Ceará to WC Goiás, Minas Gerais)
SERICOSSYPHA Lesson, 1844 F - Sericossypha somptuosa Lesson, 1844; type by original designation = Tanagra (Lamprotes) albocristatus Lafresnaye, 1843  4
Sericossypha albocristata   (Lafresnaye, 1843) White-capped Tanager
vSW Venezuela (Táchira), Colombia (from Norte de Santander) to C Peru (Junín)
ORCHESTICUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Orchesticus occipitalis Cabanis, 1851; type by monotypy = Pyrrhula abeillei Lesson, 1839  
Orchesticus abeillei   (Lesson, 1839) Brown Tanager
iSE Brazil (S Bahia to NE Santa Catarina)
PARKERTHRAUSTES Remsen, 1997 M - Pytilus humeralis Lawrence, 1867; type by monotypy   5,6
Parkerthraustes humeralis   (Lawrence, 1867) Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak
vS Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, Brazil (S Amazonia to S Pará, NW Mato Grosso), N Bolivia
CATAMBLYRHYNCHUS Lafresnaye, 1842 M - Catamblyrhynchus diadema Lafresnaye, 1842; type by monotypy   7,8
Catamblyrhynchus diadema Plushcap
federalis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953 vN Venezuela (coastal mountains of Aragua, Distrito Federal)
diadema Lafresnaye, 18429 W Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá, Andes from Trujillo) to S Ecuador
citrinifrons von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 Andes of Peru to Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz), NW Argentina (Jujuy)
CHLOROPHANES Reichenbach, 1853 M - Coereba atricapilla Vieillot, 1817; type by monotypy = Motacilla spiza Linnaeus, 1758  
Chlorophanes spiza Green Honeycreeper
guatemalensis P.L. Sclater, 1861 vS Mexico (Caribbean slope of Oaxaca, Chiapas), Belize, E Guatemala, Honduras
argutus Bangs & Barbour, 192210 δvE Honduras to Panama, NW Colombia (Chocó)
exsul von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 188411 αPacific coast of SW Colombia (Valle) to SW Ecuador
subtropicalis Todd, 1924 vColombia (all slopes of Andes, Sierra de Perijá) SW Venezuela (Andes of Mérida, Táchira)
spiza (Linnaeus, 1758) Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, E Colombia, N Brazil (to E Maranhão)
caerulescens Cassin, 186412 Colombia (from Arauca) to C Bolivia and WC Brazil (to N Mato Grosso)
axillaris J.T. Zimmer, 1929 vCoastal E Brazil (Pernambuco to Santa Catarina)
IRIDOPHANES Ridgway, 1901 M - Dacnis pulcherrima P.L. Sclater, 1853; type by original designation   
Iridophanes pulcherrimus Golden-collared Honeycreeper
pulcherrimus (P.L. Sclater, 1853) vColombia (from Huila) to Peru (to Cuzco)
aureinucha (Ridgway, 1879) W Colombia (W slope of W Andes in Valle) to NW Ecuador (to Pichincha)
CHRYSOTHLYPIS von Berlepsch, 1912 F - Tachyphonus chrysomelas P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869; type by original designation   
Chrysothlypis chrysomelas Black-and-yellow Tanager
titanota Olson, 198113 vE Costa Rica (Caribbean slope) [Olson, 1981 #2841]
chrysomelas (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869) WC Panama (to Panamá)
ocularis Nelson, 1912 vE Panama (E Panamá) to W Colombia (N Chocó)
Chrysothlypis salmoni 14  (P.L. Sclater, 1886) Scarlet-and-white Tanager
iW Colombia (to Antioquia) to NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
HETEROSPINGUS Ridgway, 1898 M - Tachyphonus rubrifrons Lawrence, 1865; type by original designation   
Heterospingus rubrifrons   (Lawrence, 1865) Sulphur-rumped Tanager
iE Costa Rica, W and C Panama (east to Panamá)
Heterospingus xanthopygius15 Scarlet-browed Tanager
xanthopygius (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vE Panama (Darién) to N Colombia (to Antioquia)
berliozi Wetmore, 196616 Pacific coast of W Colombia (Chocó) to WC Ecuador (to Chimborazo)
HEMITHRAUPIS Cabanis, 1851 F - Hylophilus ruficeps zu Wied, 1831; type by original designation = Nemosia ruficapilla Vieillot, 1818  17
Hemithraupis guira18 Guira Tanager
nigrigula (Boddaert, 1783) Venezuela (east of Andes), the Guianas, NE Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
roraimae (Hellmayr, 1910) SE Venezuela (Mt. Roraima), SW Guyana
guirina (P.L. Sclater, 1856) vColombia, W Ecuador (west of Andes), NW Peru (NW Tumbes)
huambina Stolzmann, 1926 vS Colombia (Nariño) to E Peru and W Brazil (east to R. Madeira)
boliviana J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vE Bolivia, NW Argentina
amazonica J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vC Brazil south of Amazon (R. Madeira to R. Tapajós)
guira (Linnaeus, 1766) EC Brazil (R. Tocantins, Ceará to Goiás, NW Bahia); NE Brazil (Paraíba to Alagoas)
fosteri (Sharpe, 1905) E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones), SE Brazil (Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul)
Hemithraupis ruficapilla Rufous-headed Tanager
bahiae J.T. Zimmer, 194719 E Brazil (SE Bahia)
ruficapilla (Vieillot, 1818) SE Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo to Santa Catarina)
Hemithraupis flavicollis Yellow-backed Tanager
ornata Nelson, 1912 vPacific slope of E Panama (E Darién) to W Colombia (N Chocó)
albigularis (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vN Colombia (Antioquia, Santander)
peruana Bonaparte, 1851 vColombia (Meta), E Ecuador, NE Peru (north of R. Marañón, R. Amazon in Amazonas, Loreto)
sororia J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vN and E Peru (south of R. Marañón)
centralis (Hellmayr, 1907) vSE Peru, N and C Bolivia, SC Brazil (to N Mato Grosso)
aurigularis Cherrie, 1916 vSE Colombia, S Venezuela, N Brazil (R. Negro)
hellmayri von Berlepsch, 1912 SE Venezuela (E Bolívar), W Guyana
flavicollis (Vieillot, 1818) vSurinam, French Guiana, NE Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
obidensis Parkes & Humphrey, 1963 vNE Brazil (N bank of lower R. Amazon)
melanoxantha (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vE Brazil (coastal Pernambuco, Bahia)
insignis (P.L. Sclater, 1856)20 vSE Brazil (Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro)
CONIROSTRUM d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 N - Conirostrum cinereum d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838; type by monotypy   21,22
Conirostrum speciosum Chestnut-vented Conebill
guaricola W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949 NE Venezuela (E Guárico, W Anzoátegui)
amazonum (Hellmayr, 1917) E Colombia, W Venezuela; E Ecuador, E Peru; the Guianas, N Brazil (E Amazonas to Pará)
speciosum (Temminck, 1824) vSE Peru, E Bolivia, SC Brazil (Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Paraná), N Argentina (Jujuy to Misiones)
Conirostrum leucogenys White-eared Conebill
panamense (Griscom, 1927) vE Panama (Darién), NW Colombia (Córdoba)
leucogenys (Lafresnaye, 1852) N Colombia (Sucre to Norte de Santander), NW Venezuela (to Carabobo)
cyanochroum (Todd, 1924) vW Venezuela (foothills of Sierra de Perijá, W base of Andes in Mérida)
Conirostrum bicolor Bicolored Conebill
bicolor (Vieillot, 1809)23 N Colombia, N Venezuela (incl. Isla de Margarita), Trinidad, N and E Brazil (to São Paulo; R. Branco)
minus (Hellmayr, 1935) vBoth banks of R. Amazon in NE Peru, SE Colombia, N Brazil (east to R. Tapajós)
Conirostrum margaritae   (Holt, 1931) Pearly-breasted Conebill
iNE Peru (Loreto), Amazonian Brazil (to W Amapá)
Conirostrum cinereum24 Cinereous Conebill
fraseri P.L. Sclater, 1859 SW Colombia (C and E Andes in Cauca) to S Ecuador
littorale von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 189625 αvW Peru (Cajamarca) to N Chile (Tarapacá)
cinereum d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 vS Peru (E slope of Andes in Huánuco) to Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, Potosí), N Chile
Conirostrum tamarugense 26  A.W. Johnson & Millie, 1972 Tamarugo Conebill
vSW Peru (highlands from Arequipa to Tacna), N Chile (Tarapacá) [Johnson, 1972 #2128]
Conirostrum ferrugineiventre 27  P.L. Sclater, 1855 α White-browed Conebill
vC and S Peru (E slope of Andes from San Martín) to Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz)
Conirostrum rufum   Lafresnaye, 1843 Rufous-browed Conebill
vSW Venezuela (S Táchira), E Colombia (Norte de Santander to Bogotá); N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
Conirostrum sitticolor28 Blue-backed Conebill
1 pallidum Aveledo & C.L. Pérez, 198929 δvSierra de Perijá on Colombia/Venezuela border [Aveledo, 1989 #117]
1 intermedium von Berlepsch, 1893 vW Venezuela (Andes from Trujillo to N Táchira)
1 sitticolor Lafresnaye, 1840 Andes of SW Venezuela (S Táchira), Colombia, Ecuador and N Peru (Piura, Cajamarca, Amazonas)
2 cyaneum Taczanowski, 1875 vE slope of Andes from C Peru (Huánuco) to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Conirostrum albifrons30 Capped Conebill
1 cyanonotum Todd, 1932 vN Venezuela (coastal mountains in Aragua, Distrito Federal)
1 albifrons Lafresnaye, 1842 SW Venezuela (Andes of S Táchira), E Colombia (W slope of W Andes to Bogotá)
1 centralandium Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 Colombia (C Andes from Antioquia to W Huila, E slope in Nariño)
2 atrocyaneum Lafresnaye, 1848 vW Andes of Colombia (Antioquia, on W slope to Nariño) to N Peru (Piura, Cajamarca)
2 sordidum von Berlepsch, 1901 vC Peru (Andes from Junín) to N Bolivia (La Paz)
2 lugens von Berlepsch, 1901 Bolivia (Andes of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz)
Conirostrum binghami 31,32  (Chapman, 1919) Giant Conebill
SW Colombia to N Chile (Tarapacá), Bolivia, NW Argentina
SICALIS Boie, 1828 F - Emberiza brasiliensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (Cabanis, 1845, in Tschudi, Unters. Fauna Peruana, Aves, p. 215).   33,34
Sicalis citrina35,36 Stripe-tailed Yellow Finch
browni Bangs, 1898 W and N Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, N Brazil (to Amapá)
citrina von Pelzeln, 1870 vE Brazil (S Pará, Piauí to E Mato Grosso, Paraná)
occidentalis Carriker, 1932 vSE Peru (Puno), NW Argentina (Salta to La Rioja)
Sicalis taczanowskii   Sharpe, 1888 Sulfur-throated Yellow Finch
iSW Ecuador (from Guayas), NW Peru (lowlands from Tumbes to La Libertad)
Sicalis uropygialis Bright-rumped Yellow Finch
sharpei (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894) WC Peru (Cajamarca to Junín)
uropygialis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)37,38 δvSE Peru (Puno), W Bolivia, N Chile (to Antofagasta), NW Argentina (Jujuy to Tucumán)
Sicalis lebruni 39  (Oustalet, 1891) Patagonian Yellow Finch
iS Argentina (from Río Negro) and S Chile (from NE Magallanes) to N Tierra del Fuego
Sicalis luteocephala   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Citron-headed Yellow Finch
iAndes of C Bolivia (Cochabamba to Tarija), NW Argentina (Jujuy)
Sicalis olivascens40 Greenish Yellow Finch
salvini (C. Chubb, 1919) N Peru (La Libertad to Huánuco)
chloris von Tschudi, 1846 W and S Peru (Ancash to Tacna), N Chile (to Coquimbo)
olivascens (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) SE Peru (Cuzco, Puno), W and C Bolivia, NW Argentina (Jujuy to La Rioja)
Sicalis mendozae 41  (Sharpe, 1888) Monte Yellow Finch
W Argentina (S La Rioja to Mendoza)
Sicalis auriventris   R.A. Philippi, Sr. & Landbeck, 1864 Greater Yellow Finch
vAndes of Chile (Antofagasta to Magallanes) and Argentina (Mendoza to Santa Cruz)
Sicalis raimondii   Taczanowski, 1874 Raimondi's Yellow Finch
iS Peru (W slope of Andes from Lima to N Tacna)
Sicalis lutea   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Puna Yellow Finch
vSE Peru (from Cuzco), highlands of Bolivia, NE Chile (Arica, Parinacota), NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta)
Sicalis flaveola42 Saffron Finch
1 flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) vN and E Colombia (to Meta), Venezuela (south of R. Orinoco), coasts of the Guianas; Trinidad43
1 valida Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1921 vEcuador (coastal slope in Guayaquil), NW Peru (Ancash)
2 brasiliensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vE Brazil (Maranhão, São Paulo to Atlantic coast)
2 pelzelni P.L. Sclater, 1872 Bolivia east of Andes (Beni), SE Brazil (Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina), Paraguay, E Argentina, Uruguay
2 koenigi G. Hoy, 197844 NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta) [Hoy, 1978 #2024]
Sicalis columbiana Orange-fronted Yellow Finch
columbiana Cabanis, 1851 vC Venezuela (R. Orinoco), E Colombia (Meta, Vichada)
leopoldinae Hellmayr, 1906 EC Brazil (S Maranhão, Pernambuco to Goiás)
goeldii von Berlepsch, 1906 Amazonian Brazil (R. Purus to lower R. Tapajós, S Amapá)
Sicalis luteola45,46 Grassland Yellow Finch
1 chrysops P.L. Sclater, 1862 S Mexico (Caribbean slope in Veracruz, Chiapas), S Guatemala, E Honduras, NE Nicaragua
1 mexicana Brodkorb, 1943 vC Mexico (Pacific slope of Puebla, Morelos)
1 eisenmanni Wetmore, 1953 NW Costa Rica (Guanacaste), C Panama (Coclé)
2 bogotensis Chapman, 192447 vAndes in Venezuela, E Andes in Colombia, Ecuador to S Peru (Arequipa)
3 luteola (Sparrman, 1789) vColombia (W Andes, Cauca valley, Magdalena valley), Venezuela (Falcón, Monagas, Bolívar), Guyana, N Brazil48
3 flavissima Todd, 1922 vSurinam to N Brazil (mouth of R. Amazon)
3 chapmani Ridgway, 1899 NE Brazil (lower R. Amazon in C Pará)
4 luteiventris (Meyen, 1834)49,50 vS Brazil (Santa Catarina), Uruguay, N and C Argentina (Chubut), C Chile >> S Peru, Bolivia, C Brazil
PHRYGILUS Cabanis, 1844 M - Fringilla gayi Gervais, 1834; type by original designation   51
Phrygilus punensis52 Peruvian Sierra Finch
chloronotus von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 vPeru (Cajamarca to Cuzco)
punensis Ridgway, 1887 vS Peru (Puno), NW Bolivia (La Paz)
Phrygilus atriceps   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Black-hooded Sierra Finch
iS Peru (from Arequipa), SW Bolivia, N Chile (to Coquimbo), NW Argentina (to Catamarca)
Phrygilus gayi53 Gray-hooded Sierra Finch
gayi (Gervais, 1834) N and C Chile (Antofagasta to Maule)
minor R.A. Philippi-B. & Goodall, 195754 vCoastal NC Chile (Atacama to Valparaíso)
caniceps Burmeister, 1860 W Argentina (W Salta), S Chile (from Aisén) to Tierra del Fuego
Phrygilus patagonicus   P.R. Lowe, 1923 Patagonian Sierra Finch
vS Chile (from Maule), S Argentina (from Neuquén) to Tierra del Fuego >> C Chile
NESOSPIZA Cabanis, 1873 F - Nesospiza acunhae Cabanis, 1873; type by monotypy   55
Nesospiza acunhae Nightingale Island Finch
acunhae Cabanis, 1873 Coastal Inaccesible I.
fraseri Ryan, 200856,57 Inaccesible I. (plateau) [Ryan, 2008 #10838]
questi P.R. Lowe, 192358 Nightingale I.
dunnei Hagen, 1952 Inaccesible I. (coast, E plateau)
Nesospiza wilkinsi   P.R. Lowe, 1923 Wilkins's Finch
Nightingale I.
ROWETTIA P.R. Lowe, 1923 F - Nesospiza goughensis W.E. Clarke, 1904; type by monotypy   59
Rowettia goughensis   (W.E. Clarke, 1904) Gough Island Finch
vGough I.
MELANODERA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Emberiza melanodera Quoy & Gaimard, 1824; type by tautonymy   60,61
Melanodera melanodera White-bridled Finch
princetoniana (W.E.D. Scott, 1900)62 vS Chile (Magallanes), S Argentina (Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego)
melanodera (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Falkland Is.
Melanodera xanthogramma Yellow-bridled Finch
barrosi Chapman, 192363 C and S Chile (Andes from Atacama to Magallanes), S Argentina (Mendoza to Santa Cruz)
xanthogramma (Gould & G.R. Gray, 1839)64 vS Chile, S Argentina (Tierra del Fuego)
CATAMENIA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Linaria analis d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 78).   65,66
Catamenia analis67 Band-tailed Seedeater
1 alpica Bangs, 1902 vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
1 schistaceifrons Chapman, 1915 Colombia (C and E Andes)
1 insignis J.T. Zimmer, 1930 vN Peru (E slope of Andes from Cajamarca to Ancash)
1 analoides (Lafresnaye, 1847) W Peru (W slope of Andes from Piura to Ayacucho)
2 soderstromi Chapman, 192468 δW Ecuador (W slope of Andes)
2 griseiventris Chapman, 1919 vSW Peru (Cuzco to Tacna)
2 analis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)69 vN Chile (Arica), Bolivia, N and C Argentina (Jujuy, Salta to Mendoza, La Pampa; SW Buenos Aires)
Catamenia inornata Plain Seedeater
mucuchiesi W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941 Andes of W Venezuela (Mérida)
minor von Berlepsch, 1885 vAndes of SW Venezuela (Táchira) to C Peru (Junín)
inornata (Lafresnaye, 1847) vAndes of SW Peru (Cuzco, Puno), N Chile (N Tarapacá), C Bolivia, NW Argentina (to C Mendoza)
cordobensis Nores & Yzurieta, 198370 vNC Argentina (Córdoba) [Nores, 1983 #2779]
Catamenia homochroa71 Paramo Seedeater
1 oreophila Todd, 191372 vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
2 homochroa P.L. Sclater, 185973 Sierra de Perijá (Colombia/Venezuela border), W Venezuela (Andes of Mérida) to NW Bolivia
2 duncani (C. Chubb, 1921)74 Tepui region of Venezuela, N Brazil (N Amazonas)
DIGLOSSA Wagler, 1832 F - Diglossa baritula Wagler, 1832; type by monotypy   75
Diglossa glauca76 Golden-eye Flowerpiercer/Deep-blue Flowerpiercer
tyrianthina Hellmayr, 1930 vS Colombia (from Caquetá) to Ecuador to N Peru (Amazonas)
glauca P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876 vN Peru (E slope of Andes south of R. Marañón) to Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Diglossa caerulescens77 Bluish Flowerpiercer
caerulescens (P.L. Sclater, 1856) N Venezuela (coastal mountains from Carabobo to Distrito Federal)
ginesi W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1952 W Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá)
saturata (Todd, 1917) vAndes of Venezuela and Colombia, W slope of Andes of N Ecuador (south to Pichincha)
media J. Bond, 195578 vE slope of Andes in Ecuador (Napo) to N Peru (Cajamarca)
pallida (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896) vN and C Peru (R. Marañón to Junín)
mentalis J.T. Zimmer, 1942 vS Peru (E slope of Andes) to Bolivia (La Paz)
Diglossa cyanea79 Masked Flowerpiercer
tovarensis J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1952 vN Venezuela (coastal mountains of Aragua, Distrito Federal)
obscura W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1952 vW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá)
cyanea (Lafresnaye, 1840) vW Venezuela (Andes from Trujillo), Colombia, Ecuador (except SW)
dispar J.T. Zimmer, 1942 Andes of SW Ecuador, NW Peru
melanopis von Tschudi, 1844 vAndes of Peru (except NW) to Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
Diglossa indigotica   P.L. Sclater, 1856 Indigo Flowerpiercer
vPacific slope of W Andes in Colombia (Risaralda) to NW Ecuador (Pichincha)
Diglossa sittoides80 Rusty Flowerpiercer
hyperythra Cabanis, 185181 αvN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.), N Venezuela (coastal mountains to Miranda)
mandeli Blake, 1940 NE Venezuela (Sucre)
coelestis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953 δvW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá)
dorbignyi (Boissonneau, 1840) W Venezuela (Andes from Lara to Táchira), Colombia
decorata J.T. Zimmer, 1930 vAndes of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
sittoides (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) Bolivia, NW Argentina (to Tucumán)
Diglossa baritula82 Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer
baritula Wagler, 1832 C and S Mexico (highlands of Jalisco, Veracruz to Oaxaca)
montana Dearborn, 1907 vS Mexico (highlands of Chiapas) to El Salvador
parva Griscom, 1932 vHighlands of Honduras, Nicaragua
Diglossa plumbea 83,84,85  Cabanis, 1861 α Slaty Flowerpiercer
vHighlands of Costa Rica (Guanacaste) to W Panama (to Veraguas)
Diglossa gloriosissima86 Chestnut-bellied Flowerpiercer
gloriosissima Chapman, 1912 vW Colombia (Cauca)
boylei G.R. Graves, 199087 W Colombia (N Antioquia) [Graves, 1990 #1784]
Diglossa lafresnayii 88  (Boissonneau, 1840) Glossy Flowerpiercer
iW Venezuela (Andes from Trujillo) Colombia (Norte de Santander; E Andes of Cundinamarca; from Antioquia) to N Peru (Cajamarca)
Diglossa mystacalis89 Moustached Flowerpiercer
unicincta Hellmayr, 1905 vN Peru (E slope of Andes from Amazonas to Huánuco)
pectoralis Cabanis, 1873 vC Peru (E slope of Andes from Huánuco to Junín)
albilinea Chapman, 1919 SE Peru (Ayacucho to Puno)
mystacalis Lafresnaye, 1846 vBolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz)
Diglossa duidae Scaled Flowerpiercer
hitchcocki W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1948 S Venezuela (N Amazonas)
duidae Chapman, 192990 S Venezuela (Amazonas, SW Bolívar)
georgebarrowcloughi Dickerman, 198791 Serranía de la Neblina on Venezuela/Brazil border [Dickerman, 1987 #1338]
Diglossa major Greater Flowerpiercer
gilliardi Chapman, 1939 SE Venezuela (SE Bolívar)
disjuncta J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1944 vSE Venezuela (SE Bolívar)
chimantae W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1947 SE Venezuela (Chimantá Tepui, in SE Bolívar)
major Cabanis, 184992 αvSE Venezuela (Mt. Roraima, Cerro Cuquenán, Uei-tepui, in SE Bolívar)
Diglossa albilatera93 White-sided Flowerpiercer
federalis Hellmayr, 1922 vN Venezuela (coastal mountains from Aragua to Distrito Federal)
albilatera Lafresnaye, 1843 Sierra de Perijá, W Venezuela (Lara to S Táchira) to N Peru (Cajamarca)
schistacea Chapman, 1925 vSW Ecuador, NW Peru (west of R. Marañón)
affinis J.T. Zimmer, 1942 vPeru (S Amazonas to NW Cuzco)
Diglossa venezuelensis   Chapman, 1925 Venezuelan Flowerpiercer
vNE Venezuela (coastal mountains in Sucre; Cerros Negro, Humo, in Paria Pen.)
Diglossa brunneiventris94,95 Black-throated Flowerpiercer
1 vuilleumieri G.R. Graves, 198096 Colombia (Andes of Antioquia) [Graves, 1980 #1770]
2 brunneiventris Lafresnaye, 1846 vPeru (Andes from S Cajamarca south of R. Marañón) to N Chile (Tarapacá), W Bolivia (La Paz)
Diglossa carbonaria 97  (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) Gray-bellied Flowerpiercer
vBolivia (from La Paz) to N Argentina (N Jujuy)
Diglossa gloriosa 98  P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1871 α Merida Flowerpiercer
vW Venezuela (Andes of Trujillo to Táchira)
Diglossa humeralis99,100 Black Flowerpiercer
1 nocticolor Bangs, 1898 Santa Marta Mts. (N Colombia), Sierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border)
2 humeralis (Fraser, 1840) vAndes of SW Venezuela (S Táchira), E Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca)
3 aterrima Lafresnaye, 1846 vAndes of Colombia (from N Antioquia) to N Peru (to Marañón valley)
IDIOPSAR Cassin, 1867 M - Idiopsar brachyurus Cassin, 1867; type by monotypy   101,102,103
Idiopsar brachyurus 104  Cassin, 1867 α Short-tailed Finch
vS Peru (S Cuzco, Puno) to NW Argentina (to Catamarca)
Idiopsar dorsalis 105  (Cabanis, 1883) Red-backed Sierra Finch
vN Chile (Tarapacá, Antofagasta), SW Bolivia (from Oruro), NW Argentina (Jujuy to Catamarca)
Idiopsar erythronotus 106  (R.A. Philippi, Sr. & Landbeck, 1861) White-throated Sierra Finch
vS Peru (from SE Arequipa), N Chile (Arica), SW Bolivia (W Oruro, W Potosí)
XENODACNIS Cabanis, 1873 F - Xenodacnis parina Cabanis, 1873; type by original designation   
Xenodacnis parina Tit-like Dacnis
bella J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939107 vNC Peru (S Amazonas, La Libertad). Also presumably S Ecuador (NW Azuay, NW Morona-Santiago)
petersi J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939 C Peru (W slope of Andes in Ancash, Lima)
parina Cabanis, 1873 vS Peru (E slope in Junín to Cuzco, W slope in Arequipa)
GEOSPIZOPSIS Bonaparte, 1856 F - Geospizopsis typus Bonaparte, 1856; type by tautonymy = Passerculus geospizopsis Bonaparte, 1853108
Geospizopsis unicolor109 Plumbeous Sierra Finch
1 nivaria (Bangs, 1899) vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.), NW Venezuela (Andes of Mérida)
1 geospizopsis (Bonaparte, 1853) Andes of C and S Colombia (C and E ranges), Ecuador, N Peru
2 inca (J.T. Zimmer, 1929) Peru, W Bolivia (La Paz)
3 unicolor (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Chile (Arica to Magallanes), W Argentina (Mendoza to Santa Cruz)
3 tucumana (Chapman, 1925)110 vC Bolivia (Cochabamba), NW Argentina (Jujuy to La Rioja, Córdoba)
3 ultima (Ripley, 1950) vHighlands of Tierra del Fuego
Geospizopsis plebejus Ashy-breasted Sierra Finch
ocularis (P.L. Sclater, 1859) vAndes of Ecuador to N Peru (north of Marañón valley)
plebejus (von Tschudi, 1844) Andes of Peru (south of Marañón valley), N Chile (to Antofagasta), W Bolivia, N Argentina (to Mendoza)
naroskyi (Nores & Yzurieta, 1983)111 NC Argentina (Sierra de Córdoba) [Nores, 1983 #2779]
HAPLOSPIZA Cabanis, 1851 F - Haplospiza unicolor Cabanis, 1851; type by monotypy   112,113
Haplospiza unicolor   Cabanis, 1851 Uniform Finch
iE Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones), SE Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul)
Haplospiza rustica114 Slaty Finch
uniformis P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873115,116 vSE Mexico (Chiapas), highlands of Guatemala to NW Nicaragua; NC Costa Rica, W Panama
arcana (Wetmore & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949) vTepuis of S Venezuela
rustica (von Tschudi, 1844) vAndes of N Venezuela to C Bolivia
Haplospiza bairdi 117,118  (Ridgway, 1882) δ Peg-billed Finch
Highlands of Costa Rica (Guanacaste) to W Panama (W Chiriquí)
VOLATINIA Reichenbach, 1850 F - Tanagra jacarina Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent monotypy (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 78).   119
Volatinia jacarina Blue-black Grassquit
splendens (Vieillot, 1817) Mexico, Belize, Central America, Colombia to the Guianas and Amazonia; Trinidad, Tobago, Grenada
jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766) S and E Brazil (from Mato Grosso, Maranhão), SE Peru, E Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina (to Mendoza)
peruviensis (Peale, 1848) vW Ecuador, W Peru, NW Chile
CONOTHRAUPIS P.L. Sclater, 1880 F - Schistochlamys speculigera Gould, 1855; type by monotypy   
Conothraupis speculigera   (Gould, 1855) Black-and-white Tanager
vW slope of Andes from W Ecuador (from Pichincha) to NW Peru (to La Libertad) >> NC to E Peru (Amazonas to Madre de Dios), SW Amazonian Brazil (Acre)
Conothraupis mesoleuca 120  (Berlioz, 1939) Cone-billed Tanager
vSC Brazil (W Mato Grosso, SW Goiás)
CREURGOPS P.L. Sclater, 1858 M - Creurgops verticalis P.L. Sclater, 1858; type by monotypy   
Creurgops verticalis 121  P.L. Sclater, 1858 Rufous-crested Tanager
vSW Venezuela (Táchira), Colombia to C Peru (Junín, N Ayacucho)
Creurgops dentatus   (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) Slaty Tanager
vE slope of Andes in SE Peru (Cordillera Vilcabamba, in Cuzco), Bolivia (Cochabamba)
TACHYPHONUS Vieillot, 1816 M - Tangara noir Buffon; type by monotypy = Tangara rufa Boddaert, 1783  122
Tachyphonus delatrii   Lafresnaye, 1847 Tawny-crested Tanager
iCaribbean coast from E Honduras to W Colombia (to Magdalena valley), on Pacific coast to NW Ecuador
Tachyphonus luctuosus White-shouldered Tanager
axillaris (Lawrence, 1874) vPacific coast of Costa Rica to W Panama (W Chiriquí)
nitidissimus Salvin, 1870 vCaribbean coast of E Honduras to NW Panama (Bocas del Toro)
panamensis Todd, 1917 vC Panama (Coclé) to N Colombia, W Venezuela (Maracaibo), and on Pacific coast to NW Peru
luctuosus d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 vE base of Andes from Venezuela to Bolivia, and SE Colombia, S Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonian Brazil (to Mato Grosso, Goiás)
flaviventris (P.L. Sclater, 1856) vNE Venezuela (Sucre), Trinidad
Tachyphonus rufiventer   (von Spix, 1825) Yellow-crested Tanager
iE Peru (south of R. Marañón, R. Amazon), W Brazil (SW Amazonas, W Acre), NW Bolivia (La Paz)
Tachyphonus cristatus123 Flame-crested Tanager
1 cristatus (Linnaeus, 1766) vFrench Guiana, NE Brazil (north of R. Amazon, E of R. Nhamundá)
1 intercedens von Berlepsch, 1880 E Venezuela (east of R. Caroní) to Guyana, Surinam
1 orinocensis J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1945 vE Colombia, S Venezuela (N and E Amazonas, W Bolívar)
1 cristatellus P.L. Sclater, 1862 vSE Colombia (Meta), S Venezuela (SW Amazonas) to NE Peru, NW Brazil (to Manaus)
1 fallax J.T. Zimmer, 1945 SW Colombia (SW Nariño) to N Peru (to lower R. Ucayali)
1 huarandosae Chapman, 1925 N Peru (Amazonas)
1 madeirae Hellmayr, 1910 C Brazil (Tefé, R. Xingu to Mato Grosso), E Peru (Madre de Dios), N Bolivia (Pando, N Beni)
1 pallidigula J.T. Zimmer, 1945 NE Brazil (Pará, lower R. Tocantins)
1 brunneus (von Spix, 1825) vE Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte to NE Santa Catarina)
2 nattereri von Pelzeln, 1870 SW Brazil (WC Mato Grosso)
Tachyphonus surinamus124 Fulvous-crested Tanager
1 surinamus (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Venezuela (Sucre to C Amazonas), the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Negro)
1 brevipes Lafresnaye, 1846 SE Colombia (Meta, Guainía), S Venezuela, to E Ecuador, NE Peru, NW Brazil (north of R. Amazon, east to R. Negro)
1 insignis Hellmayr, 1906 vE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon from R. Madeira to NE Pará)
2 napensis Lawrence, 1864 vE Peru (south of R. Amazon to R. Ucayali), W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Juruá)
Tachyphonus phoenicius   Swainson, 1838 Red-shouldered Tanager
vE Colombia, S Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil; NE Peru; Brazil (R. Madeira, R. Tapajós to Mato Grosso)
Tachyphonus rufus   (Boddaert, 1783) White-lined Tanager
vSE Nicaragua to Panama, Colombia to E Brazil (N Paraná), south to E Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina
Tachyphonus coronatus   (Vieillot, 1822) Ruby-crowned Tanager
vSE Brazil (N Mato Grosso do Sul, SE Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
EUCOMETIS P.L. Sclater, 1856 F - Tanagra penicillata von Spix, 1825; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 72).   
Eucometis penicillata125 Gray-headed Tanager
1 pallida von Berlepsch, 1888 vSE Mexico (Caribbean slope S Veracruz to Yucatan Pen.), Belize, N and C Guatemala, N Honduras
1 spodocephalus (Bonaparte, 1853)126 ΘBoth slopes from Nicaragua to Costa Rica
1 stictothorax von Berlepsch, 1888 Pacific slope of Costa Rica (from Puntarenas) to W Panama (Veraguas)
1 cristata (Du Bus, 1855) vE Panama, W Colombia (to Valle, Huila); east of Andes in Colombia (Arauca), W Venezuela (W Portuguesa)
2 affinis von Berlepsch, 1888 vN Venezuela (Falcón to Miranda)
2 penicillata (von Spix, 1825) vE of Andes from Colombia (Meta) to Peru (Ucayali), NC Brazil (to W Maranhão); S Venezuela, the Guianas
2 albicollis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vE of Andes in N Bolivia (Pando) to C Brazil (Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais to São Paulo); NE Paraguay
TRICHOTHRAUPIS Cabanis, 1851 F - Tachyphonus quadricolor Vieillot, 1819; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 72). = Muscicapa melanops Vieillot, 1818  127
Trichothraupis melanops   (Vieillot, 1818) Black-goggled Tanager
iE slope of Andes from N Peru to N Argentina, E Paraguay, SE Brazil (to S Bahia, N Rio Grande do Sul)
CORYPHOSPINGUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Fringilla cristata J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 73). = Fringilla cucullata Statius Muller, 1776  128
Coryphospingus pileatus Pileated Finch
rostratus A.H. Miller, 1947 vC Colombia (upper Magdalena valley)
brevicaudus Cory, 1916 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.), N Venezuela (incl. Isla de Margarita)
pileatus (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821) vC and E Brazil (C Mato Grosso, Ceará to Rio de Janeiro)
Coryphospingus cucullatus129 Red-crested Finch
cucullatus (Statius Muller, 1776) vGuyana, Surinam, N Brazil (E Pará)
rubescens (Swainson, 1825) C Brazil (S Mato Grosso, W Minas Gerais to São Paulo), NE Argentina (east of R. Paraná), Uruguay
fargoi Brodkorb, 1938 S Ecuador, E Peru (upper Marañón valley, Urubamba valley), Bolivia, W Paraguay, N Argentina
RAMPHOCELUS Desmarest, 1805 M - Tanagra bresilia Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 148).   
Ramphocelus sanguinolentus130 Crimson-collared Tanager
sanguinolentus (Lesson, 1831) vSE Mexico (Veracruz to Quintana Roo), Belize, Honduras
apricus (Bangs, 1908) vCaribbean slope of E Honduras to NW Panama
Ramphocelus nigrogularis   (von Spix, 1825) Masked Crimson Tanager
vE of Andes in Colombia (Meta, Amazonas) to E Peru, east south of R. Amazon in Brazil (to E Pará)
Ramphocelus dimidiatus Crimson-backed Tanager
arestus Wetmore, 1957 vIsla de Coiba, off SW Panama
limatus Bangs, 1901 vArch. de las Perlas, off S Panama
dimidiatus Lafresnaye, 1837131 vPanama, N Colombia (to Valle, Norte de Santander), W Venezuela (Zulia, W slope of Andes)132
molochinus Meyer de Schauensee, 1950133 vN Colombia (upper Magdalena valley)
Ramphocelus melanogaster Black-bellied Tanager/Huallaga Tanager
melanogaster (Swainson, 1838) N Peru (San Martín to NW Ucayali)
transitus J.T. Zimmer, 1929134 vC Peru (San Martín, Huánuco)
Ramphocelus carbo135 Silver-beaked Tanager
unicolor P.L. Sclater, 1856 C Colombia (E base of Andes from Casanare to Meta)
capitalis J.A. Allen, 1892 vNE Venezuela (Sucre to Anzoátegui, Delta Amacuro)
magnirostris Lafresnaye, 1853 vNE Venezuela (SE Sucre); Trinidad
carbo (Pallas, 1764) SE Colombia south to E Peru (Ucayali), east to Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil (south to Mato Grosso)
venezuelensis Lafresnaye, 1853 vE base of Andes in N and W Venezuela (Falcón, Miranda to Táchira), C Colombia (Arauca, Boyacá)
connectens von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 C Peru (Pasco, Junín), NW Bolivia (Beni)
atrosericeus d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 vN and E Bolivia
centralis Hellmayr, 1920 vEC Brazil (C Mato Grosso, Bahia to N São Paulo), NE Paraguay
Ramphocelus bresilius Brazilian Tanager
bresilius (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Brazil (coastal Paraíba to Bahia)
dorsalis P.L. Sclater, 1855 vSE Brazil (E Minas Gerais, S Bahia to NE Santa Catarina), NW Argentina (Misiones)
Ramphocelus passerinii136,137 Scarlet-rumped Tanager/Passerini's Tanager
1 passerinii Bonaparte, 1831 SE Mexico (SE Veracruz) to Belize, C Guatemala, on Caribbean coast to W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
2 costaricensis Cherrie, 1891 vPacific slope of Costa Rica (from Puntarenas) to W Panama (Chiriquí, Veraguas)
Ramphocelus flammigerus138 Flame-rumped Tanager
1 icteronotus Bonaparte, 1838139,140 vPanama, W and C Colombia (east to Santander), on Pacific coast to NW Peru (Tumbes)
2 flammigerus (Jardine & Selby, 1833) vW Colombia (Antioquia, Santander to Nariño)
LANIO Vieillot, 1816 M - Tangara mordoré Buffon; type by monotypy = Tangara fulva Boddaert, 1783  141
Lanio versicolor White-winged Shrike Tanager
versicolor (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) South of R. Amazon in E Peru (south of R. Marañón), W Brazil (east to R. Tapajós), N Bolivia
parvus von Berlepsch, 1912 vEC Brazil (south of R. Amazon from R. Tapajós, R. Tocantins to Mato Grosso), NE Bolivia
Lanio fulvus142 Fulvous Shrike Tanager
peruvianus Carriker, 1934 vE base of Andes in SW Venezuela (Táchira) to NE Peru (R. Marañón, R. Amazon, in San Martín, Loreto)
fulvus (Boddaert, 1783) vSE Venezuela (south of R. Orinoco), the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon to Amapá)
Lanio aurantius 143  Lafresnaye, 1846 Black-throated Shrike Tanager
vSE Mexico (Caribbean slope C Veracruz to Yucatan Pen.), Belize, N and C Guatemala, Honduras
Lanio leucothorax White-throated Shrike Tanager
leucothorax Salvin, 1865144 αCaribbean slope Honduras to E Costa Rica
reversus Bangs & Griscom, 1932 vW Costa Rica (NW Puntarenas)
melanopygius Salvin & Godman, 1883 vSW Costa Rica, W Panama
ictus Kennard & J.L. Peters, 1927 vNW Panama (Almirante Bay)
RHODOSPINGUS Sharpe, 1888 M - Tiaris cruentus Lesson, 1844; type by monotypy   145
Rhodospingus cruentus   (Lesson, 1844) Crimson-breasted Finch
vCoastal slope of W Ecuador (Pichincha, Esmeraldas) to W Peru (S Lambayeque)
CHARITOSPIZA Oberholser, 1905 F - Fringilla ornata zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821; type by original designation = Charitospiza eucosma Oberholser, 1905  146
Charitospiza eucosma   Oberholser, 1905 Coal-crested Finch
vEC Brazil (Pará, Piauí to SE Mato Grosso), NE Bolivia (N Santa Cruz), N Argentina (Santiago del Estero)
CYANERPES Oberholser, 1899 M - Certhia cyanea Linnaeus, 1766; type by original designation   
Cyanerpes nitidus   (Hartlaub, 1847) Short-billed Honeycreeper
vSE Colombia (Caquetá, Guainía), S Venezuela, the Guianas, to NE Peru, W Brazil (to NW Mato Grosso)
Cyanerpes lucidus Shining Honeycreeper
lucidus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1859) vCaribbean slope of S Mexico (Chiapas) to NE Nicaragua
isthmicus Bangs, 1907147 αvCosta Rica to E Panama, NW Colombia
Cyanerpes caeruleus148 Purple Honeycreeper
chocoanus Hellmayr, 1920 vE Panama (Darién), Pacific coast of Colombia, W Ecuador (to El Oro)
caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758) vColombia (E slope of E Andes in Boyacá), Venezuela, the Guianas, NC Brazil (to R. Tapajós, Maranhão)
hellmayri Gyldenstolpe, 1945 Guyana
longirostris (Cabanis, 1851)149 αvTrinidad
microrhynchus (von Berlepsch, 1884) vVenezuela, Colombia to N Bolivia (to Santa Cruz), Amazonian Brazil (WC Mato Grosso)
Cyanerpes cyaneus Red-legged Honeycreeper
carneipes (P.L. Sclater, 1860)150 αSE Mexico (incl. Isla de Cozumel) to Panama (incl. Isla de Coiba, Arch. de las Perlas), NW Colombia
pacificus Chapman, 1915 vPacific coast of SW Colombia (S Chocó), W Ecuador (to Pichincha)
gigas Thayer & Bangs, 1905 Isla Gorgona (off SW Colombia)
gemmeus Wetmore, 1941 vN Colombia (Guajira Pen.)
eximius (Cabanis, 1851)151 αvN Colombia (to Santander), N Venezuela (coastal mountain ranges, incl. Isla de Margarita)
tobagensis Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1914 vTobago
cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Venezuela (Monagas, E Bolívar); Trinidad; the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon west to R. Negro)
dispar J.T. Zimmer, 1942 Colombia (east of Andes from Meta), SW Venezuela (Amazonas), NW Brazil to NE Peru (S Loreto)
violaceus J.T. Zimmer, 1942 vSE Peru, N Bolivia, W Brazil (to Mato Grosso)
brevipes (Cabanis, 1851)152 αNE Brazil (middle and lower R. Amazon to R. Tocantins)
holti Parkes, 1977153,154 Coastal E Brazil (Alagoas to Rio de Janeiro) [Parkes, 1977 #2930]
TERSINA Vieillot, 1819 F - Tersina caerulea Vieillot, 1819; type by monotypy = Hirundo viridis Illiger, 1811  155
Tersina viridis Swallow Tanager
grisescens Griscom, 1929 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
occidentalis (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vE Panama, Colombia, N Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, Ecuador to Bolivia, N and W Brazil, NW Argentina
viridis (Illiger, 1811) vE Brazil (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul, inland to S Mato Grosso), NE Bolivia, Paraguay, NE Argentina
DACNIS Cuvier, 1816 F - Motacilla cayana Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy   
Dacnis albiventris   (P.L. Sclater, 1852) White-bellied Dacnis
vC and S Colombia (from Meta), S Venezuela (Amazonas) to NE Peru (Loreto, Ucayali); C Brazil (SW Pará)
Dacnis lineata156 Black-faced Dacnis
1 egregia P.L. Sclater, 1855157 vC Colombia (S Córdoba to Huila)
1 aequatorialis von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884158 αvW Ecuador (Esmeraldas to El Oro)
2 albirostris Grantsau, 2010159 vNW Brazil (west of upper R. Negro) [Grantsau, 2010 #12748]
2 lineata (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vE Colombia, S and E Venezuela (south of R. Orinoco), the Guianas, E Ecuador, E Peru, NW Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil (east to E and NE Pará, EC Mato Grosso)
Dacnis flaviventer 160  d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 Yellow-bellied Dacnis
iSE Colombia (Caquetá) to Bolivia (Santa Cruz), S Venezuela, W Brazil (to R. Negro, Pará, Mato Grosso)
Dacnis hartlaubi   P.L. Sclater, 1855 Turquoise Dacnis
iW and C Colombia (Antioquia, Santander to Huila)
Dacnis nigripes   von Pelzeln, 1856 Black-legged Dacnis
iSE Brazil (Espírito Santo to NE Santa Catarina)
Dacnis venusta Scarlet-thighed Dacnis
venusta Lawrence, 1862 vMountains of Costa Rica (Guanacaste) to C Panama (C Panamá)
fuliginata Bangs, 1908 vE Panama (Darién), W Colombia (to Antioquia), on Pacific slope to NW Ecuador (Pichincha)
Dacnis cayana Blue Dacnis
callaina Bangs, 1905 vW Costa Rica, SW Panama (Chiriquí)
ultramarina Lawrence, 1864 vCaribbean slope of E Honduras to Panama and NW Colombia (W side of Golfo de Urabá)
napaea Bangs, 1898 vN Colombia (E side of Golfo de Urabá to Santa Marta region, lower Magdalena valley)
baudoana Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 vPacific coast of W Colombia, W Ecuador (Pichincha)
caerebicolor P.L. Sclater, 1851161 δC Colombia (lower Cauca valley, middle and upper Magdalena valley)
cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Colombia (from Meta), Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, C Brazil
glaucogularis von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 vS Colombia (from Caquetá), E Ecuador, E Peru, E Bolivia
paraguayensis C. Chubb, 1910 vE and S Brazil (Maranhão, Ceará to Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Dacnis viguieri   Oustalet, 1883 Viridian Dacnis
iE Panama (E Darién), NW Colombia (SW Córdoba, NW Antioquia, N Chocó)
Dacnis berlepschi   E. Hartert, 1900 Scarlet-breasted Dacnis
iPacific slope of SW Colombia (Nariño), NW Ecuador (to Pichincha)
SPOROPHILA Cabanis, 1844 F - Pyrrhula falcirostris Temminck, 1820; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1841, A List of the Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 63).   162,163,164
Sporophila bouvronides 165,166  (Lesson, 1831) Lesson's Seedeater
N Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Trinidad, Tobago >> N Brazil to Bolivia (Beni, Santa Cruz)
Sporophila lineola 167  (Linnaeus, 1758) Lined Seedeater
iNE Brazil, SE Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina, S Brazil >> N South America
Sporophila leucoptera168 White-bellied Seedeater
1 mexianae Hellmayr, 1912 S Surinam, NE Brazil (S Amapá, Ilha Mexiana in NE Pará)
1 cinereola (Temminck, 1820) vE Brazil (Maranhão, Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro)
1 leucoptera (Vieillot, 1817) vC Brazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais to Mato Grosso), Paraguay, N Argentina (Formosa to Santa Fé)
2 bicolor (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) NE Bolivia (La Paz, Beni, Santa Cruz)
Sporophila peruviana Parrot-billed Seedeater
devronis (J. Verreaux, 1852) Coastal W Ecuador (Manabí) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
peruviana (Lesson, 1842) vCoastal W Peru (La Libertad to Ica)
Sporophila telasco 169  (Lesson, 1828) Chestnut-throated Seedeater
iPacific slope from S Colombia to N Chile
Sporophila simplex   (Taczanowski, 1874) Drab Seedeater
iS Ecuador (Azuay, Loja), W Peru (upper Marañón valley, Andes from La Libertad to Ica)
Sporophila castaneiventris 170  Cabanis, 1849 Chestnut-bellied Seedeater
vThe Guianas, E Colombia, S Venezuela, to N Bolivia, Amazonian Brazil (to NW Mato Grosso)
Sporophila minuta171 Ruddy-breasted Seedeater
parva (Lawrence, 1883) vSW Costa Rica, Panama (pacific slope)
centralis Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1918 vN Colombia to NW Ecuador, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, the Guianas, Amazonian Brazil (to N Pará)
minuta (Linnaeus, 1758) vBolivia, Paraguay, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais to N Rio Grande do Sul), N Argentina, W Uruguay
Sporophila nigrorufa   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Black-and-tawny Seedeater
vE Bolivia (NE Beni, E Santa Cruz), SW Brazil (W Mato Grosso)
Sporophila bouvreuil 172  (Statius Muller, 1776) Copper Seedeater
S Surinam; E Brazil (mouth of R. Amazon, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte to Goiás, Rio de Janeiro)
Sporophila cinnamomea 173  (Lafresnaye, 1839) Chestnut Seedeater
vSE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, NE Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Ríos), Uruguay
Sporophila melanogaster   (von Pelzeln, 1870) Black-bellied Seedeater
iSE Brazil (E Santa Catarina, NE Rio Grande do Sul) >> C Brazil (C Goiás, W Minas Gerais)
Sporophila hypochroma   Todd, 1915 Rufous-rumped Seedeater
iBolivia, S Brazil (S Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, N Argentina, Uruguay
Sporophila pileata 174,175  (P.L. Sclater, 1865) α Pearly-bellied Seedeater
vS Brazil, E Paraguay, N Argentina
Sporophila palustris 176,177  (Barrows, 1883) Marsh Seedeater
vNE Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Ríos), S Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay (Concepción, Itapúa); SE Uruguay (Rocha) [Narosky, 1977 #2750]
Sporophila hypoxantha   Cabanis, 1851 Tawny-bellied Seedeater
vBolivia, S Brazil (S Mato Grosso, S Goiás), Paraguay, N Argentina (to N Buenos Aires), Uruguay
Sporophila ruficollis 178  Cabanis, 1851 Dark-throated Seedeater
vS Brazil, E Bolivia to N Argentina
Sporophila funerea179,180 Thick-billed Seed Finch
funerea (P.L. Sclater, 1860)181 αvSE Mexico in Caribbean lowlands to Nicaragua
salvini (Ridgway, 1884)182 S Nicaragua, Costa Rica (except SW), Panama (Caribbean coast) [Nutting, 1884 #2792]
ochrogyne Olson, 1981183 SW Costa Rica, Panama (Pacific slope) to W and N Colombia, NW Venezuela [Olson, 1981 #2840]
fractor Olson, 2007 Isla de Coiba, off SW Panama [Olson, 2007 #10629]
aethiops (P.L. Sclater, 1860)184 SW Colombia (Nariño), W Ecuador [Sclater, 1862 #3550]
Sporophila angolensis 185  (Linnaeus, 1766) Chestnut-bellied Seed Finch
vNC and E Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, the Guianas, Brazil to E Peru, E Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina
Sporophila nuttingi 186  (Ridgway, 1884) Nicaraguan Seed Finch
Caribbean lowlands of Nicaragua to W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
Sporophila maximiliani187 Great-billed Seed Finch
parkesi Olson, 1981188 E Venezuela (Sucre to Delta Amacuro, Bolívar along R. Orinoco), the Guianas, N Brazil (Amapá, N Pará) [Olson, 1981 #2840]
maximiliani (Cabanis, 1851) C and E Brazil (Goiás, Bahia to C Mato Grosso, N São Paulo)
Sporophila crassirostris Large-billed Seed Finch
crassirostris (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vVenezuela, the Guianas, E Colombia, NE Peru, Amazonian Brazil; Trinidad
occidentalis (P.L. Sclater, 1860)189 vPacific slope of Colombia to SW Ecuador
Sporophila atrirostris190 Black-billed Seed Finch
atrirostris (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1878) vS Colombia to N Peru (San Martín, Loreto, Ucayali)
gigantirostris (J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939)191 vSE Peru (Madre de Dios), N Bolivia (Beni; C Santa Cruz)
Sporophila corvina192,193 Variable Seedeater
corvina (P.L. Sclater, 1860)194 vS Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca), Belize, Guatemala on Caribbean slope to W Panama
hoffmanni Cabanis, 1861195,196 δPacific slope of Costa Rica to W Panama [Cabanis, 1861 #4358]
hicksii (Lawrence, 1865)197,198 Pacific slope of Panama to W Colombia (Córdoba to Cauca) [Lawrence, 1865 #2338]
ophthalmica (P.L. Sclater, 1860) vSW Colombia (Nariño) to NW Peru (La Libertad)
Sporophila intermedia199 Gray Seedeater
insularis (Gilliard, 1946)200 vVenezuela (north of R. Orinoco); Trinidad
intermedia Cabanis, 1851 vN Colombia (Caribbean coast, lower Magdalena valley), N Venezuela, Guyana, N Brazil (Roraima)
bogotensis (Gilliard, 1946)201 vW Colombia (W slope of W Andes to Cauca)
Sporophila americana202 Wing-barred Seedeater
americana (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vNE Venezuela (Sucre to Delta Amacuro), the Guianas, N Brazil (Amapá, NE Pará); Tobago
dispar Todd, 1922 Amazonian Brazil (middle and lower bank of R. Amazon from R. Juruá to Santarém)
Sporophila murallae 203  Chapman, 1915 Caquetá Seedeater
iSE Colombia (Amazonas), E Ecuador, NE Peru, W Brazil (Amazonas)
Sporophila torqueola204 White-collared Seedeater
1 sharpei Lawrence, 1889 S USA (S Texas), NE Mexico (Nuevo León to N Veracruz)
1 morelleti (Bonaparte, 1850)205,206 S Mexico (from N Veracruz, incl. Isla Mujeres, off Quintana Roo) to W Panama
2 atriceps (S.F. Baird, 1867)207 W Mexico (Pacific lowlands of C Sinaloa to N Jalisco; S Baja California) [Lawrence, 1867 #6835]
2 torqueola (Bonaparte, 1850)208 C Mexico (Jalisco, W Puebla to S Oaxaca)
Sporophila fringilloides 209  (von Pelzeln, 1870) White-naped Seedeater
SE Colombia (Guainía, Vaupés), S Venezuela (Amazonas), NW Brazil (to Manaus); S Guyana
Sporophila luctuosa   (Lafresnaye, 1843) Black-and-white Seedeater
vAndes of W Venezuela, Colombia to Bolivia (La Paz to Santa Cruz)
Sporophila nigricollis210 Yellow-bellied Seedeater
nigricollis (Vieillot, 1823) vS Costa Rica to Colombia, E Ecuador, Venezuela to Surinam, Trinidad, Tobago, Grenada, Brazil, E Bolivia, NE Argentina
olivacea von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1884211 vSW Colombia (Nariño), W Ecuador
inconspicua von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1906 vAndes of Peru (W slope to Lambayeque, E slope to Cuzco)
ardesiaca (A.J.C. Dubois, 1894)212 vSE Brazil (SE Bahia to Rio de Janeiro)
Sporophila caerulescens Double-collared Seedeater
caerulescens (Vieillot, 1823) E Bolivia, SC and SE Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina (south to La Pampa), Uruguay >> north to E Peru and C Brazil
hellmayri Wolters, 1939 E Brazil (S Bahia)
yungae Gyldenstolpe, 1941 Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
Sporophila schistacea213 Slate-colored Seedeater
schistacea (Lawrence, 1862)214 vBelize to Panama, N Colombia (incl. W slope of E Andes)
incerta Riley, 1914 vW Colombia (Pacific slope of Andes from Caldas) to N Ecuador (To Pichincha)
longipennis C. Chubb, 1921 vE Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil, N and E Peru, NW Bolivia
Sporophila falcirostris   (Temminck, 1820) Temminck's Seedeater
vE Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones), SE Brazil (S Bahia to Paraná)
Sporophila frontalis   (J. Verreaux, 1869) Buffy-fronted Seedeater
vSE Brazil (S Bahia to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay (Alto Paraná), NE Argentina (Misiones)
Sporophila plumbea Plumbeous Seedeater
colombiana (Sharpe, 1888) vN Colombia (S Chocó, lower Magdalena valley, Santa Marta Mts.)
whiteleyana (Sharpe, 1888) vE Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (to mouth of Amazon)
plumbea (zu Wied, 1830)215 vSE Peru, N Bolivia, Brazil (south of R. Amazon), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Sporophila beltoni   Repenning & Fontana, 2013 Tropeiro Seedeater
SE Brazil (NE Paraná S to NE Rio Grande do Sul) >> W Minas Gerais, E Goiás, SW Bahia [Repenning, 2013 #15185]
Sporophila collaris Rusty-collared Seedeater
ochrascens Hellmayr, 1904 Bolivia (La Paz, Beni, Santa Cruz), SC Brazil (Mato Grosso to W São Paulo)
collaris (Boddaert, 1783) vE Brazil (S Goiás, SE Bahia to Rio de Janeiro)
melanocephala (Vieillot, 1817) vParaguay, Argentina (to La Rioja, Buenos Aires), SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay
Sporophila albogularis   (von Spix, 1825) White-throated Seedeater
vNE Brazil (Piauí, Pernambuco, N Bahia)
SALTATRICULA Burmeister, 1861 F - Saltator multicolor Burmeister, 1860; type by original designation and monotypy   216
Saltatricula multicolor   (Burmeister, 1860) Many-colored Chaco Finch
iSE Bolivia, W Paraguay (west of R. Paraguay), N Argentina (C Mendoza to S Santa Fé), NW Uruguay
Saltatricula atricollis 217  (Vieillot, 1817) Black-throated Saltator
vC Brazil (N Ceará, Maranhão to N São Paulo, S Minas Gerais), E Bolivia, NE Paraguay
SALTATOR Vieillot, 1816 M - Grand Tanagra Buffon; type by monotypy = Tanagra maxima Statius Muller, 1776  218,219,220
Saltator maximus221 Buff-throated Saltator
gigantodes Cabanis, 1851 E and S Mexico (Caribbean slope from Veracruz to Tabasco)
magnoides Lafresnaye, 1844 S Mexico (Chiapas, S Campeche, S Quintana Roo), on Caribbean slope from Belize to NW Panama
intermedius Lawrence, 1864 vSW Costa Rica, Panama (east to C Panamá)
iungens Griscom, 1929 E Panama (east from Colón), NW Colombia (to lower R. Cauca)
maximus (Statius Muller, 1776) vColombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil (to Mato Grosso; Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro), Bolivia
Saltator atriceps Black-headed Saltator
atriceps (Lesson, 1832) E Mexico (Caribbean slope from Tamaulipas to N Veracruz); N Guatemala to E Costa Rica
suffuscus Wetmore, 1942 vE Mexico (SE Veracruz)
flavicrissus Griscom, 1937 SW Mexico (Guerrero to C Oaxaca)
peeti Brodkorb, 1940 S Mexico (Pacific slope of E Oaxaca, Chiapas)
raptor (S. Cabot, 1845) SE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.)
lacertosus Bangs, 1900 vE Costa Rica, Panama (east to C Panamá)
Saltator atripennis 222,223  P.L. Sclater, 1856 Black-winged Saltator
vW Andes, W slope of C Andes and W slope of E Andes of Colombia, W slope of Andes of Ecuador
Saltator orenocensis Orinoco Saltator
rufescens Todd, 1912 NE Colombia (Guajira Pen.), W Venezuela (Zulia to C Falcón, N Lara)
orenocensis Lafresnaye, 1846 vNE Colombia (Arauca), Venezuela (east of Andes from Cojedes, Apure to Delta Amacuro, N Bolívar)
Saltator coerulescens224,225 Grayish Saltator
vigorsii G.R. Gray, 1844 W Mexico (S Sonora to N Jalisco)
plumbiceps S.F. Baird, 1867226,227 WC Mexico (C Jalisco to W Oaxaca) [Lawrence, 1867 #6835]
grandis (Deppe, 1830) vE Mexico (Caribbean slope from S Tamaulipas, except Yucatán), to W Panama
yucatanensis von Berlepsch, 1912 vSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen., E Tabasco, NE Chiapas)
hesperis Griscom, 1930 vPacific slope of S Mexico (E Oaxaca, Chiapas) to W Nicaragua
brevicaudus van Rossem, 1931 W Costa Rica
plumbeus Bonaparte, 1853 vN Colombia (Caribbean cost from R. Sinú to lower Magdalena valley)
brewsteri Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1918 NE Colombia (Norte de Santander, Arauca), Venezuela, Trinidad
olivascens Cabanis, 1849228 SE Venezuela (SE Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil
azarae d'Orbigny, 1839 E Colombia (Amazonas), N Brazil (east to R. Negro, R. Madeira), E Ecuador, E Peru, NE Bolivia (Beni)
mutus P.L. Sclater, 1856 vN Brazil (from R. Amazon to Amapá, Maranhão)
superciliaris (von Spix, 1825) vNE Brazil (S Piauí to N Minas Gerais)
coerulescens Vieillot, 1817 δE Bolivia, SW Brazil (Mato Grosso), N Argentina (to N Buenos Aires), Paraguay, W Uruguay
Saltator striatipectus Streaked Saltator
furax Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1919 SW Costa Rica, W Panama (W Chiriquí)
isthmicus P.L. Sclater, 1861 vPanama
scotinus Wetmore, 1957 vIsla de Coiba, Isla Coibita (off SW Panama)
melicus Wetmore, 1952 vIsla Taboga (off C Panama)
speratus Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1919 vArch. de las Perlas (off C Panama)
striatipectus Lafresnaye, 1847229 δE Panama (Darién), W Colombia (west of Andes), N Ecuador
perstriatus Parkes, 1959 vNE Colombia (Magdalena, NE Bolívar, Norte de Santander), N Venezuela (to Monagas), Trinidad
flavidicollis P.L. Sclater, 1860230 vW Ecuador, NW Peru (Piura)
immaculatus von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1892 vW Peru (Lambayeque to Ica)
peruvianus Cory, 1916 vSE Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe), NE Peru (upper Marañón valley in Cajamarca, La Libertad)
Saltator albicollis Lesser Antillean Saltator
albicollis Vieillot, 1817 vMartinique, St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
guadelupensis Lafresnaye, 1844231 vGuadeloupe, Dominica (Lesser Antilles)
Saltator similis Green-winged Saltator
similis d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 vSE Brazil (Mato Grosso, Bahia to São Paulo), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (to Buenos Aires), N Uruguay
ochraceiventris von Berlepsch, 1912 vSE Brazil (Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul)
Saltator nigriceps 232  (Chapman, 1914) Black-cowled Saltator
iS Ecuador (El Oro, Loja), NW Peru (Piura, Cajamarca)
Saltator maxillosus   Cabanis, 1851 Thick-billed Saltator
vSE Brazil (SE Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul), NE Argentina (Misiones)
Saltator aurantiirostris233 Golden-billed Saltator
iteratus Chapman, 1927 vN Peru (Cajamarca, Amazonas, La Libertad, Ancash)
albociliaris (R.A. Philippi, Sr. & Landbeck, 1861) vC and S Peru (Ancash, Huánuco to Puno, Tacna), N Chile (Arica)
hellmayri J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939 Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba to N Tarija)
aurantiirostris Vieillot, 1817 vS Bolivia, N Argentina (to Buenos Aires), E Paraguay, S Brazil (S Mato Grosso, N Rio Grande do Sul)
parkesi J.M.C. Silva, 1990 E Argentina (Entre Ríos), SE Brazil (S Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay [Silva, 1990 #656]
nasica Wetmore & J.L. Peters, 1922 W Argentina (La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza, La Pampa)
Saltator cinctus   J.T. Zimmer, 1943 Masked Saltator
vDisjunct populations in Colombia, Ecuador, N Peru
Saltator grossus234,235 Slate-colored Grosbeak
saturatus (Todd, 1922) vCaribbean slope of Honduras to Panama (east of Veraguas also Pacific slope), NW Colombia, W Ecuador
grossus (Linnaeus, 1766) vSE Colombia, S Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (to Mato Grosso, Maranhão), Ecuador, E Peru, Bolivia
Saltator fuliginosus 236  (Daudin, 1800) Black-throated Grosbeak
vE Brazil (Alagoas to N Rio Grande do Sul), NE Argentina (Misiones)
CORYPHASPIZA G.R. Gray, 1840 F - Leptonyx melanotis Swainson, 1838; type by original designation = Emberizoides melanotis Temminck, 1822  237
Coryphaspiza melanotis Black-masked Finch
marajoara Sick, 1967 Ilha de Marajó, in Pará N Brazil
melanotis (Temminck, 1822) vSE Peru, N Bolivia, C Brazil (E Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais to São Paulo)E Paraguay, NE Argentina
EMBERNAGRA Lesson, 1831 F - Tanagra dumetorum Lesson, 1831; type by monotypy = Emberiza platensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789  238
Embernagra platensis239,240,241 Pampa Finch
1 platensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vN Bolivia (Beni), C and E Paraguay, E Argentina (to Río Negro), SE Brazil (from Minas Gerais), Uruguay
2 olivascens d'Orbigny, 1839 SE Bolivia (La Paz, W Santa Cruz to Potosí, Tarija), W Paraguay, NW Argentina (to Córdoba)
2 catamarcana Nores, 1986242,243 δvNW Argentina (C Catamarca) [Nores, 1986 #2780]
2 gossei C. Chubb, 1918244 WC Argentina (San Juan, Mendoza, San Luis)
Embernagra longicauda   Strickland, 1844 Serra Finch
iE Brazil (highlands of C Bahia, C Minas Gerais, SW Espírito Santo)
EMBERIZOIDES Temminck, 1822 M - Emberizoides marginalis Temminck, 1822; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 43). = Sylvia herbicola Vieillot, 1817  245
Emberizoides herbicola246,247,248 Wedge-tailed Grass Finch
1 hypochondriacus Hellmayr, 1906249,250 vSW Costa Rica, W and C Panama
1 apurensis Gilliard, 1940 vLowland W Venezuela (Portuguesa, Guárico to Apure)
1 sphenurus (Vieillot, 1818) vColombia, S Ecuador, N Peru, Venezuela, the Guianas, NE Brazil (to N Maranhão)
2 herbicola (Vieillot, 1817) SE Peru (Pampas de Heath), C and E Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso to Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul), N Argentina, N Uruguay
Emberizoides ypiranganus 251,252  H. & R. von Ihering, 1907 α Lesser Grass Finch
vParaguay (east of R. Paraguay), NE Argentina, SE Brazil, N and C Uruguay [von Ihering, 1907 #4047]
Emberizoides duidae 253  Chapman, 1929 Duida Grass Finch
iS Venezuela (Cerro Duida, in Amazonas)
XENOSPINGUS Cabanis, 1867 M - Sylvia concolor d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by original designation   254
Xenospingus concolor   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Slender-billed Finch
iC Peru (S Lima) to NW Chile (N Antofagasta)
PIEZORINA Lafresnaye, 1843 F - Guiraca cinerea Lafresnaye, 1843; type by original designation   255,256
Piezorina cinerea   (Lafresnaye, 1843) Cinereous Finch
vNW Peru (Tumbes to La Libertad)
PSEUDOSPINGUS von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 M - Dacnis xanthophthalma Taczanowski, 1874; type by subsequent designation (Richmond, 1902, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 710).257
Pseudospingus verticalis 258  (Lafresnaye, 1840) Black-headed Hemispingus
vAndes of SW Venezuela (Táchira), S and C Colombia (from Antioquia), E Ecuador, N Peru (Piura)
Pseudospingus xanthophthalmus   (Taczanowski, 1874) Drab Hemispingus
vE slope of Andes in Peru (south of Marañón valley) to W Bolivia (La Paz)
CNEMOSCOPUS Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1919 M - Arremon rubrirostris Lafresnaye, 1840; type by original designation   
Cnemoscopus rubrirostris259 Gray-hooded Bush Tanager
1 rubrirostris (Lafresnaye, 1840) vAndes of SW Venezuela (Táchira), Colombia, E Ecuador
2 chrysogaster (Taczanowski, 1875)260 αAndes in N and E Peru (Piura, Amazonas to Junín), W Bolivia (La Paz)
POOSPIZA Cabanis, 1847 F - Emberiza nigrorufa d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 75).   261,262
Poospiza thoracica 263  (von Nordmann, 1835) Bay-chested Warbling Finch
vSE Brazil (Minas Gerais/Rio de Janeiro border, highlands from São Paulo to NE Rio Grande do Sul)
Poospiza hispaniolensis 264  Bonaparte, 1850 Collared Warbling Finch
vSW Ecuador (from SW Manabí), coastal slope of W Peru (Tumbes to Arequipa)
Poospiza rubecula   Salvin, 1895 Rufous-breasted Warbling Finch
iW slope of Andes of Peru (S Cajamarca to Lima)
Poospiza boliviana   Sharpe, 1888 Bolivian Warbling Finch
vAndes of W Bolivia to NW Argentina (Salta)
Poospiza ornata   (Leybold, 1865) Cinnamon Warbling Finch
vC Argentina (San Juan to W Buenos Aires) >> NW Argentina (to Salta)
Poospiza nigrorufa265 Black-and-rufous Warbling Finch
1 nigrorufa (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vSE Brazil (Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, NE Argentina (to Buenos Aires) >> SE Paraguay
2 whitii P.L. Sclater, 1883 Bolivia, N and C Argentina (Jujuy to N Mendoza)
2 wagneri Stolzmann, 1926266 W Bolivia (La Paz)
OROSPINGUS Riley, 1922 M - Chlorospingus goeringi Sclater & Salvin, 1870; type by original designation and monotypy267
Orospingus goeringi 268  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1871) α Slaty-backed Hemispingus
SW Venezuela (Andes of Mérida, Táchira)
Orospingus rufosuperciliaris   (Blake & Hocking, 1974) Rufous-browed Hemispingus
vE slope of Andes in N Peru (Amazonas, San Martín) [Blake, 1974 #325]
COMPSOSPIZA von Berlepsch, 1893 F - Compsospiza garleppi von Berlepsch, 1893; type by monotypy269
Compsospiza garleppi 270  von Berlepsch, 1893 Cochabamba Mountain Finch
C Bolivia (Cochabamba, N Potosí)
Compsospiza baeri   (Oustalet, 1904) Tucuman Mountain Finch
S Bolivia (S Tarija), NW Argentina (Andes from Jujuy to La Rioja)
HEMISPINGUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Arremon superciliaris Lafresnaye, 1840; type by original designation   271
Hemispingus reyi   (von Berlepsch, 1885) Gray-capped Hemispingus
iSW Venezuela (Andes of Trujillo to Táchira)
Hemispingus atropileus 272  (Lafresnaye, 1842) Black-capped Hemispingus
SW Venezuela (S Táchira), Colombia, Ecuador, NW Peru (N Piura)
Hemispingus auricularis 273  (Cabanis, 1873) White-browed Hemispingus
vPeru (E slope of Andes from Marañón valley to Cuzco)
Hemispingus calophrys 274  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) Orange-browed Hemispingus
iS Peru (E slope of Andes in Puno), W Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
Hemispingus parodii   Weske & Terborgh, 1974 Parodi's Hemispingus
iE slope of Andes in S Peru (Cordilleras Vilcabamba and Vilcanota, Cuzco) [Weske, 1974 #4124]
Hemispingus superciliaris275 Eyebrowed Hemispingus
1 chrysophrys (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1875) SW Venezuela (Andes of Trujillo to Táchira)
2 superciliaris (Lafresnaye, 1840) vC Colombia (E Andes of Santander to Cundinamarca)
2 nigrifrons (Lawrence, 1875) SW Colombia (C Andes of Antioquia to Nariño), Ecuador (to Azuay, Morona-Santiago)
2 maculifrons J.T. Zimmer, 1947 W slope of Andes of S Ecuador (El Oro), NW Peru (Cajamarca)
2 urubambae J.T. Zimmer, 1947 E slope of Andes in Peru (from Cuzco) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
3 insignis J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vE slope of Andes in Peru (Amazonas to Junín)
3 leucogastrus (Taczanowski, 1874) vE slope of Andes in Peru (Junín)
SPHENOPSIS P.L. Sclater, 1862 F - Sphenopsis ignobilis P.L. Sclater, 1862; type by original designation and monotypy276,277
Sphenopsis frontalis278 Oleaginous Hemispingus
1 ignobilis P.L. Sclater, 1862279 αvSW Venezuela (Andes of Lara to N Táchira)
1 flavidorsalis (W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953) vNW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá)
1 hanieli (Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1914) N Venezuela (Aragua to Miranda)
1 iterata (Chapman, 1925) vNE Venezuela (mountains of Sucre, Monagas)
2 frontalis (von Tschudi, 1844) vColombia (from Antioquia, Cundinamarca to Cauca), Ecuador, Peru (to C Cuzco)
Sphenopsis melanotis Black-eared Hemispingus
1 melanotis (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vAndes of SW Venezuela (Táchira), E Colombia (from Santander), E Ecuador
1 berlepschi (Taczanowski, 1880) E Peru (E slope of Andes from Amazonas to N Cuzco)
1 castaneicollis (P.L. Sclater, 1858) vSE Peru (E slope of Andes from Puno) to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
2 ochracea (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884)280 vW slope of Andes in SW Colombia (Nariño), WC Ecuador (to Chimborazo)
3 piurae (Chapman, 1923)281 S Ecuador (S Loja), NW Peru (W Andes in Piura, Cajamarca)
3 macrophrys (Koepcke, 1961) NW Peru (W slope of Andes in La Libertad)
PYRRHOCOMA Cabanis, 1851 F - Tachyphonus ruficeps Strickland, 1844; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 72).   282
Pyrrhocoma ruficeps   (Strickland, 1844) Chestnut-headed Tanager
iNE Argentina (Misiones), SE Paraguay to SE Brazil (Espírito Santo to C Rio Grande do Sul)
THLYPOPSIS Cabanis, 1851 F - Nemosia fulvescens Strickland, 1844; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 74). = Nemosia sordida d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837  283
Thlypopsis fulviceps Fulvous-headed Tanager
fulviceps Cabanis, 1851 N Venezuela (mountains from Carabobo to W Sucre)
obscuriceps W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953 Sierra de Perijá, on Colombia/Venezuela border
meridensis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1962 vSW Venezuela (Mérida, N Táchira)
intensa Todd, 1917 vN Colombia (E slope of E Andes in Norte de Santander)
Thlypopsis ornata284 Rufous-chested Tanager
ornata (P.L. Sclater, 1859) vSW Colombia (W slope of C Andes from Cauca) to N Ecuador
media J.T. Zimmer, 1930 vE slope of Andes in S Ecuador (from Morona-Santiago) to C Peru (to Lima)
macropteryx von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 C and S Peru (E slope of Andes from Junín to Cuzco)
Thlypopsis pectoralis   (Taczanowski, 1884) Brown-flanked Tanager
vC Peru (E slope of Andes from Huánuco to Junín)
Thlypopsis sordida285 Orange-headed Tanager
orinocensis Friedmann, 1942 vS Venezuela (R. Orinoco in Amazonas, Bolívar)
chrysopis (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1880) vS Colombia (east of Andes), E Ecuador, E Peru, W Brazil (east to R. Madeira and R. Jiparaná)
sordida (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vE Brazil (south of R. Amazon to Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro), E Bolivia, N Argentina, Paraguay
Thlypopsis inornata   (Taczanowski, 1879) Buff-bellied Tanager
vS Ecuador (S Zamora-Chinchipe), N Peru (Marañón, Huallaga and Utcubamba valleys in W Amazonas and Cajamarca)
Thlypopsis ruficeps   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Rust-and-yellow Tanager
iE slope of Andes from SC Peru (from Ayacucho) to NW Argentina (Tucumán)
MICROSPINGUS Taczanowski, 1874 M - Microspingus trifasciatus Taczanowski, 1874; type by monotypy286
Microspingus lateralis 287  (von Nordmann, 1835) Buff-throated Warbling Finch
vSE Brazil (mountains of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo to São Paulo)
Microspingus cabanisi 288,289  (Bonaparte, 1850) Gray-throated Warbling Finch
S Paraguay, NE Argentina (south to NE Buenos Aires), SE Brazil (S São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay
Microspingus erythrophrys Rusty-browed Warbling Finch
cochabambae (Gyldenstolpe, 1941)290 Bolivia (Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz to Chuquisaca)
erythrophrys (P.L. Sclater, 1881) S Bolivia (Tarija), NW Argentina (Jujuy to Catamarca)
Microspingus alticola   (Salvin, 1895) Plain-tailed Warbling Finch
NW Peru (upper Marañón valley in S Cajamarca to Ancash)
Microspingus melanoleucus 291  (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Black-capped Warbling Finch
vSE Bolivia, C Argentina (Jujuy, Formosa to San Luis), W Uruguay, SE Brazil (W Rio Grande do Sul)
Microspingus cinereus 292,293  (Bonaparte, 1850) Cinereous Warbling Finch
vC Brazil (C Mato Grosso to Minas Gerais and N São Paulo)
Microspingus torquatus Ringed Warbling Finch
torquatus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vC Bolivia (highlands of La Paz to W Santa Cruz, N Chuquisaca)
pectoralis (Todd, 1922)294 vN and C Argentina (Jujuy, Formosa to NE Río Negro, W Buenos Aires) >> SE Bolivia, W Paraguay
Microspingus trifasciatus 295  Taczanowski, 1874 Three-striped Hemispingus
vE slope of Andes in C Peru (from Huánuco) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
NEPHELORNIS Lowery & Tallman, 1976 M - Nephelornis oneilli Lowery & Tallman, 1976; type by monotypy   296
Nephelornis oneilli   Lowery & Tallman, 1976 Pardusco
iPeru (E slope of Andes from Amazonas to Huánuco) [Lowery, 1976 #2450]
UROTHRAUPIS Taczanowski & von Berlepsch, 1885 F - Urothraupis stolzmanni Taczanowski & von Berlepsch, 1885; type by monotypy   297
Urothraupis stolzmanni   Taczanowski & von Berlepsch, 1885 Black-backed Bush Tanager
iColombia (C Andes in Caldas, Cauca, Nariño) to SC Ecuador
CYPSNAGRA Lesson, 1831 F - Tanagra hirundinacea Lesson, 1831; type by monotypy   
Cypsnagra hirundinacea White-rumped Tanager
pallidigula Hellmayr, 1907 NE Bolivia, C and E Brazil (R. Madeira to W Paraíba, south to N Mato Grosso, W Bahia); S Surinam; S French Guiana; NC Brazil (SC Amapá)
hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831) vE Bolivia, E Paraguay, S Brazil (S Mato Grosso, S Bahia to São Paulo)
DONACOSPIZA Cabanis, 1851 F - Sylvia albifrons Vieillot, 1817; type by monotypy   298
Donacospiza albifrons   (Vieillot, 1817) Long-tailed Reed Finch
iBolivia, SE Paraguay, SE Brazil (from S Minas Gerais) to NE Argentina (to Buenos Aires), Uruguay
POOSPIZOPSIS von Berlepsch, 1893 F - Poospiza caesar P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869; type by original designation299
Poospizopsis hypocondria Rufous-sided Warbling Finch
hypocondria (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)300 δAndes of Bolivia (La Paz to W Tarija)
affinis (von Berlepsch, 1906) vAndes of NW Argentina (Jujuy to N Mendoza)
Poospizopsis caesar   (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869) Chestnut-breasted Warbling Finch
SE Peru (Andes of Apurímac, Cuzco)
INCASPIZA Ridgway, 1898 F - Haemophila pulchra P.L. Sclater, 1886; type by original designation   301
Incaspiza pulchra 302  (P.L. Sclater, 1886) Great Inca Finch
vW Peru (W slope of Andes in Ancash and Lima)
Incaspiza personata 303  (Salvin, 1895) Rufous-backed Inca Finch
vNW Peru (upper Marañón valley from S Cajamarca to Ancash)
Incaspiza ortizi   J.T. Zimmer, 1952 Gray-winged Inca Finch
iNW Peru (NE Piura, C Cajamarca, NE La Libertad)
Incaspiza laeta   (Salvin, 1895) Buff-bridled Inca Finch
vNW Peru (upper Marañón valley from S Cajamarca to La Libertad)
Incaspiza watkinsi   Chapman, 1925 Little Inca Finch
iNW Peru (middle Marañón valley in NE Cajamarca, W Amazonas)
RHOPOSPINA Cabanis, 1851 F - Fringilla fruticeti von Kittlitz, 1833; type by monotypy304
Rhopospina fruticeti Mourning Sierra Finch
peruviana (J.T. Zimmer, 1924) vPeru (S Cajamarca to Puno), W Bolivia (La Paz)
coracina (P.L. Sclater, 1891)305 vSW Bolivia (Oruro, Potosí), N Chile (Arica, Tarapacá) [Sclater, 1891 #4434]
fruticeti (von Kittlitz, 1833) Chile (Arica to Magallanes), W Argentina (Salta to Santa Cruz)
Rhopospina caerulescens 306  (zu Wied, 1830) Blue Finch
C and E Brazil (S Mato Grosso, C Maranhão to Goiás, Minas Gerais), E Bolivia (E Beni, SE Santa Cruz)
Rhopospina carbonaria   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Carbon Finch
vC Argentina (Mendoza, Buenos Aires to Chubut) >> to NW Argentina (to S Salta)
Rhopospina alaudina307 Band-tailed Sierra Finch
1 bipartita (J.T. Zimmer, 1924) vEcuador, Peru (coastal slope), N Chile (Arica)
1 humboldti (Koepcke, 1963) SW Ecuador, NW Peru
1 bracki (O'Neill & T.A. Parker, 1997)308 C Peru (Huallaga valley) [O'Neill, 1997 #2799]
1 excelsa (von Berlepsch, 1907) vS Peru (Arequipa, Puno), W Bolivia [von Berlepsch, 1907 #15818]
2 alaudina (von Kittlitz, 1833) vC Chile (Antofagasta to Los Ríos)
2 venturii (E. Hartert, 1909) NW Argentina (Jujuy to Catamarca; Córdoba, San Luis)
COEREBA Vieillot, 1809 F - Certhia flaveola Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy   309,310
Coereba flaveola311 Bananaquit
mexicana (P.L. Sclater, 1857) vSE Mexico (C Veracruz) to W Panama (incl. Isla de Coiba)
cerinoclunis Bangs, 1901 Arch. de las Perlas, off S Panama
columbiana (Cabanis, 1866)312 αvC Panama (C Panamá) to C and SW Colombia (Andes of Antioquia to Huila), S Venezuela (NW Amazonas)
gorgonae Thayer & Bangs, 1905 Isla Gorgona (off SW Colombia)
caucae Chapman, 1914 W Colombia (upper Cauca valley, C and W Andes of Caldas to Cauca)
intermedia (Salvadori & Festa, 1899) vSW Colombia (Nariño), W Ecuador, N Peru (San Martín, Loreto), W Brazil, S Venezuela (SW Amazonas)
magnirostris (Taczanowski, 1880)313 αvPeru (upper Marañón valley from Piura to La Libertad)
pacifica P.R. Lowe, 1912 vW Peru (Lambayeque to Ancash)
dispar J.T. Zimmer, 1942 C Peru (San Martín) to Bolivia (La Paz)
caboti (S.F. Baird, 1873)314 SE Mexico (Quintana Roo and nearby islands)
tricolor (Ridgway, 1884)315 αIsla de Providencia, off E Nicaragua
oblita Griscom, 1923 vIsla de San Andrés, off E Nicaragua
sharpei (Cory, 1886) Grand Cayman, Little Cayman, Cayman Brac (Cayman Is.)
bahamensis (Reichenbach, 1853) vBahamas (Grand Bahama, Little Abaco to Great Inagua), Grand Turk
flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758) vJamaica
bananivora (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vHispaniola, Ile de la Gonâve, Ile Petite Cayemite, Ile-à-Vache
nectarea Wetmore, 1929 vIle de la Tortue, off Haiti
portoricensis (H. Bryant, 1866) vPuerto Rico
sanctithomae (Sundevall, 1869)316 αVieques I., Isla de Culebra (off Puerto Rico), Virgin Is.
newtoni (S.F. Baird, 1873) St. Croix (Virgin Is.)
bartholemica (Sparrman, 1788) vN Lesser Antilles (Anguilla to Dominica)
martinicana (Reichenbach, 1853) vMartinique, St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
barbadensis (S.F. Baird, 1873) vBarbados (S Lesser Antilles)
atrata (Lawrence, 1878) vSt. Vincent (S Lesser Antilles)
aterrima (Lesson, 1830) vGrenada and the Grenadines (S Lesser Antilles)
uropygialis von Berlepsch, 1892 vAruba, Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)
bonairensis Voous, 1955 vBonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
melanornis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1954 Cayo de Sal, off N Venezuela
lowii Cory, 1909 Islas Los Roques, off N Venezuela
ferryi Cory, 1909 Isla La Tortuga, off N Venezuela
frailensis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1946 vIslas Los Hermanos, off N Venezuela
laurae P.R. Lowe, 1908 Islas Los Testigos, off N Venezuela
luteola (Cabanis, 1851) vN Colombia (Caribbean coast of Bolívar, Magdalena), N Venezuela; Trinidad and Tobago
obscura Cory, 1913 vW Venezuela (Lake Maracaibo, SE Zulia, Andean foothills of Mérida, Táchira), Colombia (Norte de Santander)
montana P.R. Lowe, 1912 vW Venezuela (Andes of Mérida, Táchira, above 1200 m.)
bolivari J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1946 E Venezuela (Delta Amacuro, N and E Bolívar)
guianensis (Cabanis, 1851) vC Venezuela (lower Cauca valley), Guyana
roraimae Chapman, 1929 S Venezuela (Amazonas, S Bolívar), Cerros Roraima, Uei-tepui (Guyana, SE Venezuela)
minima (Bonaparte, 1854) vE Colombia (Guainía), S Venezuela (S Amazonas), the Guianas, NC Brazil (north of Amazon, to Pará)
chloropyga (Cabanis, 1851) vC Peru (Huánuco), C Bolivia, SE Brazil (to Ceará, Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina, N Uruguay
alleni P.R. Lowe, 1912 E Bolivia (Santa Cruz) to C Brazil (Mato Grosso)
TIARIS Swainson, 1827 M - Tiaris pusillus Swainson, 1827; type by monotypy   317,318
Tiaris olivaceus Yellow-faced Grassquit
pusillus Swainson, 1827 vAtlantic slope of Mexico to Colombia (W of E Andes, excl. Santa Marta region), Ecuador, W Venezuela
intermedius (Ridgway, 1885) vIsla de Cozumel, off E Mexico
ravidus Wetmore, 1957 vIsla de Coiba, off SW Panama
olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) vCuba, Isla de la Juventud, Jamaica, Hispaniola319
bryanti (Ridgway, 1898) Puerto Rico and nearby islands
Tiaris obscurus320 Dull-colored Grassquit
haplochroma (Todd, 1912) N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.), N Venezuela (Carabobo to Monagas), Andes to Colombia (to Cauca)
pauper (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884)321 S Colombia (Nariño), on W slope of Andes to NW Peru (La Libertad, on E slope to San Martín)
obscurus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vC Peru (E slope of Andes from San Martín) to Bolivia, NW Argentina (to Tucumán)
pacificus (Koepcke, 1963) vW Peru (coastal slope of Ancash to Arequipa)
Tiaris fuliginosus 322  (zu Wied, 1830) Sooty Grassquit
vVenezuela; Trinidad; S Guyana; E Brazil (Maranhão, Ceará to NE Goiás; Pernambuco to São Paulo)
EUNEORNIS Fitzinger, 1856 M - Motacilla campestris Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation   
Euneornis campestris   (Linnaeus, 1758) Orangequit
vJamaica
MELOPYRRHA Bonaparte, 1853 F - Loxia nigra Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 82).   323,324
Melopyrrha portoricensis Puerto Rican Bullfinch
portoricensis (Daudin, 1800) vPuerto Rico
†? grandis (Lawrence, 1881)325 vSt. Kitts (Lesser Antilles)
Melopyrrha violacea Greater Antillean Bullfinch
violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) vBahamas
ofella (Buden, 1986)326 Middle Caicos, East Caicos (Caicos Is.) [Buden, 1986 #567]
maurella (Wetmore, 1929)327 vIle de la Tortue (off NW Hispaniola)
affinis (Ridgway, 1898)328 vHispaniola, Ile de la Gonâve, Ile-à-Vache, Isla Saona, Isla Beata, Isla Catalina
ruficollis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vJamaica
Melopyrrha nigra Cuban Bullfinch
nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) vCuba incl. nearby cays, Isla de la Juventud
taylori E. Hartert, 1896329 Grand Cayman (Cayman Is.)
LOXIPASSER H. Bryant, 1866 M - Spermophila anoxantha Gosse, 1847; type by original designation   330
Loxipasser anoxanthus   (Gosse, 1847) Yellow-shouldered Grassquit
vJamaica
PHONIPARA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Loxia canora J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 82).331
Phonipara canora   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Cuban Grassquit
vCuba332
MELANOSPIZA Ridgway, 1897 F - Loxigilla richardsoni Cory, 1886; type by original designation   333,334
Melanospiza richardsoni   (Cory, 1886) St. Lucia Black Finch
iSt. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
Melanospiza bicolor Black-faced Grassquit
bicolor (Linnaeus, 1766) Bahamas
marchii (S.F. Baird, 1864)335 αJamaica, Hispaniola and nearby islands
omissa (Jardine, 1847) vPuerto Rico, Lesser Antilles to Tobago, N Colombia (Guajira Pen., W Santander), N Venezuela, Isla de Margarita
huilae (A.H. Miller, 1952) C Colombia (Magdalena valley)
grandior (Cory, 1887) vIsla de Providencia, Isla Santa Catalina, Isla de San Andrés (W Caribbean)
johnstonei (P.R. Lowe, 1906) Isla Blanquilla, Islas Los Hermanos (off N Venezuela)
sharpei (E. Hartert, 1893) Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire
tortugensis (Cory, 1909) vIsla La Tortuga (off N Venezuela)
LOXIGILLA Lesson, 1831 F - Fringilla noctis Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 74).   336,337
Loxigilla noctis Lesser Antillean Bullfinch
coryi (Ridgway, 1898) St. Kitts, Montserrat (Lesser Antilles)
ridgwayi (Cory, 1892) St. John, St. Croix (Virgin Is.), Anguilla, St. Martin, Barbuda, Antigua (Lesser Antilles)
desiradensis S.T. Danforth, 1937 vIle La Désirade (off W Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)
dominicana (Ridgway, 1898) vGuadeloupe, Iles des Saintes, Ile Marie-Galante, Dominica (Lesser Antilles)
noctis (Linnaeus, 1766) Martinique (Lesser Antilles)
sclateri J.A. Allen, 1880 St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
crissalis (Ridgway, 1898) vSt. Vincent (Lesser Antilles)
grenadensis (Cory, 1892) vGrenada (Lesser Antilles)
Loxigilla barbadensis 338  Cory, 1886 Barbados Bullfinch
vBarbados (Lesser Antilles)
CERTHIDEA Gould, 1837 F - Certhidea olivacea Gould, 1837; type by monotypy   339
Certhidea olivacea   Gould, 1837 Green Warbler Finch
vFernandina, Isabela, Santiago, Rábida, Pinzón, Baltra, Santa Cruz (Galapagos Is.)
Certhidea fusca340 Gray Warbler Finch
becki Rothschild, 1898 Culpepper, Wenman (Galapagos Is.)
mentalis Ridgway, 1894 vGenovesa (Galapagos Is.)
fusca P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1870 vPinta, Marchena (Galapagos Is.)
bifasciata Ridgway, 1894 vSanta Fé (Galapagos Is.)
luteola Ridgway, 1894 vSan Cristóbal (Galapagos Is.)
cinerascens Ridgway, 1890 Española (Galapagos Is.)
ridgwayi Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1899 Floreana (Galapagos Is.)
PLATYSPIZA Ridgway, 1897 F - Camarhynchus variegatus Sclater & Salvin, 1870; type by original designation = Camarhynchus crassirostris Gould, 1837341
Platyspiza crassirostris   (Gould, 1837) Vegetarian Finch
vGalapagos Is.
GEOSPIZA Gould, 1837 F - Geospiza magnirostris Gould, 1837; type by original designation   342
Geospiza magnirostris   Gould, 1837 Large Ground Finch
vGalapagos Is.
Geospiza fortis   Gould, 1837 Medium Ground Finch
vGalapagos Is.
Geospiza fuliginosa   Gould, 1837 Small Ground Finch
vGalapagos Is.
Geospiza difficilis343,344 Sharp-beaked Ground Finch
difficilis Sharpe, 1888 vGenovesa, Pinta (Galapagos Is.)
debilirostris Ridgway, 1894 vFernandina, Isabela, Santiago, Santa Cruz (Galapagos Is.)
septentrionalis Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1899 vCulpepper, Wenman (Galapagos Is.)
Geospiza scandens Common Cactus Finch
scandens (Gould, 1837) Santiago, Rábida (Galapagos Is.)
intermedia Ridgway, 1894 vIsabela, Pinzón, Baltra, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Floreana (Galapagos Is.)
abingdoni (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1870) Pinta (Galapagos Is.)
rothschildi Heller & Snodgrass, 1901 Marchena (Galapagos Is.)
Geospiza conirostris Large Cactus Finch
conirostris Ridgway, 1890345 vEspañola (SE Galapagos Is.)
propinqua Ridgway, 1894 vGenovesa (N Galapagos Is.)
darwini Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1899 Culpepper, Wenman (Galapagos Is.)
CAMARHYNCHUS Gould, 1837 M - Camarhynchus psittacula Gould, 1837; type by original designation   346
Camarhynchus psittacula Large Tree Finch
habeli P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1870 Pinta, Marchena (N Galapagos Is.)
affinis Ridgway, 1894 vFernandina, Isabela (Galapagos Is.)
psittacula Gould, 1837 Santiago, Rábida, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Floreana (Galapagos Is.)
Camarhynchus pauper   Ridgway, 1890 Medium Tree Finch
iHighlands of Floreana (Galapagos Is.)
Camarhynchus parvulus Small Tree Finch
parvulus (Gould, 1837) vGalapagos Is.
salvini Ridgway, 1894 San Cristóbal (Galapagos Is.)
Camarhynchus pallidus Woodpecker Finch
pallidus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1870) vSantiago, Rábida, Pinzón, Baltra, Santa Cruz, Floreana (Galapagos Is.)
productus Ridgway, 1894 vFernandina, Isabela (Galapagos Is.)
striatipecta (Swarth, 1931)347 δSan Cristóbal (Galapagos Is.)
Camarhynchus heliobates   (Snodgrass & Heller, 1901) Mangrove Finch
iIsabela (W Galapagos Is.)
PINAROLOXIAS Sharpe, 1885 F - Cactornis inornata Gould, 1843; type by monotypy   348
Pinaroloxias inornata   (Gould, 1843) Coco Island Finch
vIsla de Coco (off Costa Rica)
CHLOROCHRYSA Bonaparte, 1851 F - Callospiza calliparaea von Tschudi, 1844; type by subsequent designation (Bonaparte, 1851, Revue et Mag. de Zool., ser. 2, 3, p. 129).   
Chlorochrysa phoenicotis   (Bonaparte, 1851) Glistening-green Tanager
vW Colombia (Andes of Antioquia) to Ecuador (to El Oro)
Chlorochrysa calliparaea Orange-eared Tanager
bourcierci (Bonaparte, 1851) S Colombia (Cundinamarca) to N Peru (E slope of Andes to Huallaga valley)
calliparaea (von Tschudi, 1844) vC Peru (E slope of Andes from Pasco to N Ayacucho)
fulgentissima Chapman, 1901 vE slope of Andes from S Peru (Cuzco) to Bolivia (NW Cochabamba)
Chlorochrysa nitidissima 349  P.L. Sclater, 1874 α Multicolored Tanager
vW Colombia (Andes from Antioquia to Cauca)
LOPHOSPINGUS Cabanis, 1878 M - Gubernatrix pusilla Burmeister, 1860; type by original designation   350
Lophospingus pusillus   (Burmeister, 1860) Black-crested Finch
vS Bolivia (Chuquisaca) and W Paraguay to C Argentina (San Luis)
Lophospingus griseocristatus   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Gray-crested Finch
vBolivia (La Paz) to N Argentina (E Jujuy, N Salta)
NEOTHRAUPIS Hellmayr, 1936 F - Tanagra fasciata M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823; type by original designation   351,352
Neothraupis fasciata   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) White-banded Shrike Tanager/Shrike-like Tanager
vE and S Brazil (SE Amapá; Maranhão, Piauí to Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo), NE Bolivia, NE Paraguay
DIUCA Reichenbach, 1850 F - Emberiza speculifera d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by subsequent monotypy (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 79).   353
Diuca speculifera White-winged Diuca Finch
magnirostris Carriker, 1935354 vC Peru (Ancash to Huancavelica)
speculifera (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vAndes of S Peru (from Cuzco) to N Chile (Tarapacá), W Bolivia, NW Argentina (Jujuy)
Diuca diuca355,356 Common Diuca Finch
1 crassirostris Hellmayr, 1932 vS Bolivia (Potosí), NC Chile (Antofagasta to Coquimbo) and N Argentina (south to La Rioja)
1 diuca (G.I. Molina, 1782) C Chile (Coquimbo to Aisén), Argentina (Mendoza to Santa Cruz)357
1 chiloensis R.A. Philippi-B. & L.E. Peña, 1964 vIsla de Chiloé, SC Chile
2 minor Bonaparte, 1850358 αvC and S Argentina (Córdoba to Santa Cruz), S Chile (N Magallanes) >> S Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul)
GUBERNATRIX Lesson, 1837 F - Emberiza gubernatrix Temminck, 1821; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Coccothraustes cristata Vieillot, 1817  
Gubernatrix cristata   (Vieillot, 1817) Yellow Cardinal
vN and C Argentina (Salta, Corrientes to Río Negro), SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay
PAROARIA Bonaparte, 1832 F - Fringilla cucullata Vieillot; type by original designation = Loxia coronata J.F. Miller, 1776  359,360,361
Paroaria coronata   (J.F. Miller, 1776) Red-crested Cardinal
vE Bolivia, S Brazil (SW Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul) Paraguay, N Argentina (to La Pampa), Uruguay362
Paroaria dominicana 363  (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-cowled Cardinal
vNE Brazil (S Maranhão and Ceará to E Goiás and N Minas Gerais)
Paroaria nigrogenis 364  (Lafresnaye, 1846) Masked Cardinal
vE Colombia (Arauca, N Meta), N Venezuela (along R. Orinoco); Trinidad
Paroaria baeri Crimson-fronted Cardinal
baeri Hellmayr, 1907 EC Brazil (NE Mato Grosso, W Tocantins, W Goiás)
xinguensis Sick, 1950365 vEC Brazil (upper R. Xingu in S Pará, N Mato Grosso)
Paroaria gularis366 Red-capped Cardinal
gularis (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Colombia (S Meta to Amazonas) to E Peru, S Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonian Brazil
cervicalis P.L. Sclater, 1862 vNE Bolivia (Pando to E Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), C Brazil (W Mato Grosso)
Paroaria capitata 367,368  (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Yellow-billed Cardinal
vS Brazil (SW Mato Grosso), Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina (to N Buenos Aires), NW Uruguay
STEPHANOPHORUS Strickland, 1841 M - Pyrrhula caerulea Vieillot, 1822; type by monotypy = Tanagra diademata Temminck, 1823  
Stephanophorus diadematus   (Temminck, 1823) Diademed Tanager
vSE Brazil (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, Uruguay, NE Argentina
SCHISTOCHLAMYS Reichenbach, 1850 F - Tanagra capistrata zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821; type by subsequent monotypy   369
Schistochlamys ruficapillus Cinnamon Tanager
capistrata (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821) vE Brazil (S Pará, C Piauí to C Minas Gerais)
sicki O.M. de O. Pinto & de Camargo, 1952 S Brazil (E Mato Grosso)
ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1817) E Paraguay, NE Argentina (N Misiones), SE Brazil (S Minas Gerais to E Paraná)
Schistochlamys melanopis Black-faced Tanager
aterrima Todd, 1912 vColombia,, Venezuela, W Guyana, N Brazil (Uei-tepui)
melanopis (Latham, 1790) vThe Guianas, NE Brazil
grisea Cory, 1916 vS Ecuador, E Peru (E slope of Andes from San Martín to Cuzco)
olivina (P.L. Sclater, 1865)370 αvSE Peru (Madre de Dios), N Bolivia, SC Brazil (Mato Grosso)
amazonica J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vSE Brazil (south of R. Amazon to São Paulo)
CISSOPIS Vieillot, 1816 M - Lanius leverianus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by monotypy   
Cissopis leverianus Magpie Tanager
leverianus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vE Colombia, S Venezuela, the Guianas, E Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia, Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon); NE Brazil (Alagoas)
major Cabanis, 1851 vSE Brazil (Goiás, Bahia to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
CALOCHAETES P.L. Sclater, 1879 M - Euchaetes coccineus P.L. Sclater, 1858; type by monotypy   
Calochaetes coccineus   (P.L. Sclater, 1858) Vermilion Tanager
vE slope of Andes from S Colombia (W Caquetá) to S Peru (Ayacucho, N Cuzco)
IRIDOSORNIS Lesson, 1844 M - Arremon rufivertex Lafresnaye, 1842; type by monotypy   
Iridosornis porphyrocephalus   (P.L. Sclater, 1856) Purplish-mantled Tanager
vW Colombia (Antioquia) to NW Ecuador (to Pichincha)
Iridosornis analis 371  (von Tschudi, 1844) Yellow-throated Tanager
vE slope of E Andes in S Colombia (Cauca, W Putumayo) to Peru (to Puno)
Iridosornis jelskii Golden-collared Tanager
jelskii Cabanis, 1873 E slope of Andes of Peru (San Martín to Junín)
bolivianus von Berlepsch, 1912 vE slope of Andes from S Peru (Cuzco) to N Bolivia (La Paz)
Iridosornis rufivertex372,373 Golden-crowned Tanager
1 rufivertex (Lafresnaye, 1842) SW Venezuela (Andes of S Táchira) to N Peru (north of Marañón valley)
1 ignicapillus Chapman, 1915374 SW Colombia (Nariño)
1 subsimilis J.T. Zimmer, 1944375 vW Ecuador (W slope of Andes to Pichincha)
2 caeruleoventris Chapman, 1915376 vNW Colombia (Andes from Antioquia to Tolima)
Iridosornis reinhardti 377  P.L. Sclater, 1865 Yellow-scarfed Tanager
iN and C Peru (E slope of Andes from Marañón valley to Cuzco)
PIPRAEIDEA Swainson, 1827 F - Pipraeidea cyanea Swainson, 1827; type by monotypy   378
Pipraeidea melanonota Fawn-breasted Tanager
venezuelensis (P.L. Sclater, 1857) vMountains of Venezuela through Peru to NW Argentina (to Tucumán, Catamarca)
melanonota (Vieillot, 1819) vSE Brazil (S Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones; NE Buenos Aires), Uruguay
Pipraeidea bonariensis379,380 Blue-and-yellow Tanager
1 darwinii (Bonaparte, 1838) Andes of Ecuador (S Carchi to Loja), Peru, N Chile (Tarapacá), Bolivia (La Paz)
1 composita (J.T. Zimmer, 1944) vC Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)
2 schulzei (Brodkorb, 1938) SE Bolivia, W Paraguay, NW Argentina (to Río Negro)
2 bonariensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vSE Brazil (S São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, NE Argentina (Buenos Aires)
DUBUSIA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Tanagra selysia Bonaparte, 1850; type by subsequent designation (Zimmer, 1944, Am. Mus. Novitates, 1262, p. 9). = Tanagra (Tachyphonus) taeniata Boissonneau, 1840  381
Dubusia rufiventris 382  (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Rufous-bellied Mountain Tanager
vE slope of Andes from WC Bolivia (S La Paz) to NW Argentina (Salta)
Dubusia taeniata383,384 Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager
1 carrikeri Wetmore, 1946 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
2 taeniata (Boissonneau, 1840) vAndes of W Venezuela (Trujillo to Táchira) to NW Peru (south to N Cajamarca)
2 stictocephala von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 vE slope of Andes in Peru (south of Marañón valley to Cuzco)
Dubusia castaneoventris 385,386  (P.L. Sclater, 1851) Chestnut-bellied Mountain Tanager
vE slope of Andes from Peru (SE La Libertad) to W Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
TEPHROPHILUS R.T. Moore, 1934 M - Tephrophilus wetmorei R.T. Moore, 1934; type by original designation387
Tephrophilus wetmorei   R.T. Moore, 1934 Masked Mountain Tanager
C Andes of SW Colombia (Quindío) to NW Peru (Cajamarca)
SPORATHRAUPIS Ridgway, 1898 F - Aglaia cyanocephala d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by original designation388
Sporathraupis cyanocephala389 Blue-capped Tanager
1 cyanocephala (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vEcuador (both slopes of Andes) to Peru (E slope of Andes), N Bolivia
1 annectens (J.T. Zimmer, 1944) W and C Andes of Colombia
1 auricrissa (P.L. Sclater, 1856) NC Colombia (Norte de Santander to Meta, Sierra de Perijá), W Venezuela (Trujillo to Táchira)
1 margaritae Chapman, 1912 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
1 hypophaea Todd, 1917 vNW Venezuela (Andes of Lara)
2 olivicyanea (Lafresnaye, 1843) vCoastal mountains of N Venezuela (Aragua to Miranda)
2 subcinerea (P.L. Sclater, 1861) vNE Venezuela (Sucre except Paria Pen., N Monagas)
2 buesingi Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1913 NE Venezuela (Paria Pen.), Trinidad
ANISOGNATHUS Reichenbach, 1850 M - Tanagra igniventris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by subsequent monotypy (Bonaparte, 1851, Revue et Mag. de Zool., ser. 2, 3, p. 172).   390
Anisognathus melanogenys 391  (Salvin & Godman, 1880) Black-cheeked Mountain Tanager
iN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
Anisognathus lacrymosus392 Lacrimose Mountain Tanager
pallididorsalis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1952 vSierra de Perijá, on Colombia/Venezuela border
melanops (von Berlepsch, 1893) SW Venezuela (Andes of Trujillo to N Táchira)
tamae (W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941) W Venezuela (Andes of S Táchira), NC Colombia (E Andes from Norte de Santander to Boyacá)
intensus Meyer de Schauensee, 1951 vE slope of W Andes of Colombia (Valle, Cauca)
olivaceiceps (von Berlepsch, 1912) W Colombia (Andes from Antioquia to Tolima)
yariguierum Donegan & Avendaño, 2010393 C Colombia (W slope of E Andes in Santander) [Donegan, 2010 #12160]
palpebrosus (Lafresnaye, 1847) vSW Colombia (both slopes of Andes in Cauca, Nariño), E Ecuador (E slope of Andes to Morona-Santiago)
caerulescens (Taczanowski & von Berlepsch, 1885) E slope of Andes in Ecuador (Loja), N Peru (to Cajamarca)
lacrymosus (Du Bus, 1846) vE slope of Andes in Peru (south of R. Marañón to N Cuzco)
Anisognathus igniventris394 Scarlet-bellied Mountain Tanager
1 lunulatus (Du Bus, 1839) vSW Venezuela (Andes of S Táchira), NC Colombia (E Andes of Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca)
1 erythrotus (Jardine & Selby, 1840) vS Colombia (C Andes from Caldas) to N Peru (north of R. Marañón)
2 ignicrissa (Cabanis, 1873) E slope of Andes (south of R. Marañón to Junín)
2 igniventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vE slope of Andes in Peru (Junín) to Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
Anisognathus somptuosus395,396 Blue-winged Mountain Tanager
1 venezuelanus (Hellmayr, 1913) vN Venezuela (mountains of Yaracuy to Miranda)
1 virididorsalis (W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949) vN Venezuela (Aragua)
1 antioquiae (von Berlepsch, 1912) Andes of W Colombia (Antioquia to Colima)
1 victorini (Lafresnaye, 1842) SW Venezuela (Andes of S Táchira), C Colombia (W slope of E Andes of Santander to Huila)
1 cyanopterus (Cabanis, 1866) vAndes of SW Colombia (W slope of C Andes from Quindío), W Ecuador (to NE Azuay)
1 baezae (Chapman, 1925) E slope of Andes in SW Colombia (Nariño), Ecuador (to Morona-Santiago)
1 alamoris (Chapman, 1925)397 vS Ecuador (W slope of Andes from Azuay to Loja)
1 somptuosus (Lesson, 1831) vE slope of Andes from S Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe) to C Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
2 flavinucha (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)398,399 δE slope of Andes in Peru (Puno) to S Bolivia (Chuquisaca)
Anisognathus notabilis   (P.L. Sclater, 1855) Black-chinned Mountain Tanager
vSW Colombia (W slope in Risaralda) to W Ecuador (El Oro, W Loja)
BUTHRAUPIS Cabanis, 1851 F - Aglaia montana d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 73).   400,401
Buthraupis montana Hooded Mountain Tanager
venezuelana Aveledo & C.L. Pérez, 1989402 vSierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border) [Aveledo, 1989 #117]
gigas (Bonaparte, 1851) SW Venezuela (S Táchira), E Andes of Colombia (to Cundinamarca)
cucullata (Jardine & Selby, 1842) vW Colombia (W and C Andes), Ecuador
cyanonota von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 vN and C Peru (Andes of Amazonas to Junín)
saturata von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1906 vSE Peru (Andes of Cuzco, Puno)
montana (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vN Bolivia (Andes of La Paz, Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz)
CHLORORNIS Reichenbach, 1850 M - Tanagra riefferii Boissonneau, 1840; type by subsequent monotypy (P.L. Sclater, 1886, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 11, p. 281).   
Chlorornis riefferii Grass-green Tanager
riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840) Andes of Colombia and Ecuador
dilutus J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vC Andes of N Peru
elegans (von Tschudi, 1844) Andes of C Peru (Junín)
celatus J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vAndes of SE Peru (Puno)
bolivianus (von Berlepsch, 1912) vAndes of W Bolivia (La Paz)
CNEMATHRAUPIS T.E. Penard, 1919 F - Tanagra eximia Boissonneau, 1840; type by original designation403
Cnemathraupis eximia404,405 Black-chested Mountain Tanager
1 eximia (Boissonneau, 1840) vAndes of NC Colombia (Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca), SW Venezuela (Táchira)
1 zimmeri (R.T. Moore, 1934) WC Colombia (N end of W Andes, C Andes from Caldas to Tolima)
2 chloronota (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vAndes of Colombia (Huila, Cauca) to NW Ecuador (W slope of Andes)
2 cyanocalyptra (R.T. Moore, 1934) E slope of Andes in S Ecuador, N Peru (to N Cajamarca)
Cnemathraupis aureodorsalis   (Blake & Hocking, 1974) Golden-backed Mountain Tanager
vNC Peru (E slope of Andes from San Martín to Huánuco) [Blake, 1974 #325]
WETMORETHRAUPIS Lowery & O'Neill, 1964 F - Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron Lowery & O'Neill, 1964; type by original designation and monotypy   
Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron   Lowery & O'Neill, 1964 Orange-throated Tanager
iS Ecuador (SE Zamora-Chinchipe), N Peru (Amazonas)
BANGSIA T.E. Penard, 1919 F - Buthraupis caeruleigularis Ridgway, 1893; type by original designation   406
Bangsia arcaei Blue-and-gold Tanager
caeruleigularis (Ridgway, 1893) vCaribbean slope of Costa Rica
arcaei (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869) W and E Panama
Bangsia melanochlamys   (Hellmayr, 1910) Black-and-gold Tanager
iW Colombia (Antioquia to Valle)
Bangsia rothschildi   (von Berlepsch, 1897) Golden-chested Tanager
iPacific slope from W Colombia (C Chocó) to Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
Bangsia edwardsi   (Elliot, 1865) Moss-backed Tanager
iSW Colombia (W slope of W Andes from Valle) to NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Pichincha)
Bangsia aureocincta   (Hellmayr, 1910) Gold-ringed Tanager
vW Colombia (W Andes in Antioquia, Risaralda)
TANGARA Brisson, 1760 F - Tangara Brisson; type by tautonymy = Aglaia paradisea Swainson, 1837  407
Tangara vassorii408 Blue-and-black Tanager
1 vassorii (Boissonneau, 1840) Andes in Venezuela (Trujillo to Táchira) to N Peru (north of R. Marañón)
2 branickii (Taczanowski, 1882) E slope of Andes of Peru (south of R. Marañón in Amazonas, La Libertad)
3 atrocoerulea (von Tschudi, 1844) δvE slope of Andes in Peru (from Huánuco) to Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Tangara nigroviridis Beryl-spangled Tanager
cyanescens (P.L. Sclater, 1857)409 Mountains of N Venezuela; Sierra de Perijá; Andes of Venezuela, W, C and W slope of E Andes of Colombia, W slope of Andes of Ecuador
nigroviridis (Lafresnaye, 1843) vE slope of E Andes of Colombia (Casanare) to S Ecuador
berlepschi (Taczanowski, 1884) E slope of Andes of N Peru (Amazonas) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Tangara dowii 410  (Salvin, 1863) Spangle-cheeked Tanager
iMountains of Costa Rica (Guanacaste) to W Panama (to Veraguas)
Tangara fucosa 411  Nelson, 1912 Green-naped Tanager
vMountains of E Panama (E Darién)
Tangara cyanotis412 Blue-browed Tanager
1 lutleyi Hellmayr, 1917 E slope of Andes from S Colombia (S Huila) to S Peru (Cuzco)
2 cyanotis (P.L. Sclater, 1858) vE slope of Andes from extreme SE Peru (E Puno) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Tangara labradorides Metallic-green Tanager
labradorides (Boissonneau, 1840) Andes of Colombia (all three ranges from Cundinamarca), Ecuador
chaupensis Chapman, 1925 vN Peru (E slope of Andes in Amazonas, N San Martín)
Tangara rufigenis   (P.L. Sclater, 1857) Rufous-cheeked Tanager
vN Venezuela (mountains from S Lara to Miranda and Cerro Golfo Triste in S Aragua)
Tangara gyrola413,414 Bay-headed Tanager
1 bangsi (Hellmayr, 1911) E Nicaragua to W Panama (to Panamá)
1 deleticia (Bangs, 1908) vE Panama (Darién) to W Colombia (to W slope of E Andes, south to Nariño)
1 parva J.T. Zimmer, 1943 vS Venezuela (SW Amazonas), E Colombia, N Brazil (upper R. Negro)
1 albertinae (von Pelzeln, 1877) NE Peru (Loreto), N Brazil (south of Amazon R. Purus to NE Pará, south to N Mato Grosso)
1 nupera Bangs, 1917 vSW Colombia (Nariño) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
1 catharinae (Hellmayr, 1911) Colombia (E base of E Andes from Meta) to E Ecuador, E Peru, Bolivia (Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz)
2 toddi Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1921 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts., Sierra de Perijá, E slope of E Andes in Norte de Santander and N Boyacá), mountains of N Venezuela (east to Miranda)
2 viridissima (Lafresnaye, 1847) vMountains of NE Venezuela (from Miranda), Trinidad
3 gyrola (Linnaeus, 1758) S Venezuela (N Amazonas, NW Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil (to Amapá)
Tangara lavinia Rufous-winged Tanager
cara (Bangs, 1905) vE Guatemala to Panama (Comarca Guna Yala)
dalmasi (Hellmayr, 1910) Panama (Pacific slope of Chiriquí to E Panamá)
lavinia (Cassin, 1858) E Panama (E Darién), Pacific coast of W Colombia (incl. Isla Gorgona) to W Ecuador (Pichincha)
Tangara chrysotis   (Du Bus, 1846) Golden-eared Tanager
vE slope of Andes from S Colombia (Huila) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Tangara xanthocephala Saffron-crowned Tanager
venusta (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá, Andes from Lara to Táchira), Colombia, to C Peru (E slope to Pasco)
xanthocephala (von Tschudi, 1844) vC Peru (E slope of Andes in Junín)
lamprotis (P.L. Sclater, 1851) vS Peru (E slope of Andes in Ayacucho, Cuzco) to Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Tangara arthus415 Golden Tanager
1 arthus Lesson, 1832416 αNW Venezuela (mountains from Lara to Miranda; Andes from S Lara to N Táchira)
2 palmitae Meyer de Schauensee, 1947417 NE Colombia (W slope of E Andes in Santander)
2 occidentalis Chapman, 1914 vW Colombia (W Andes and W slope of C Andes from Antioquia to Nariño)
2 goodsoni E. Hartert, 1913 W Ecuador (W slope of Andes)
2 aurulenta (Lafresnaye, 1843) vNW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá), C Colombia (W slope of E Andes from Bogotá)
3 sclateri (Lafresnaye, 1854) E Colombia (E Andes from Santander to Cundinamarca, Sierra de la Macarena)
4 aequatorialis (Taczanowski & von Berlepsch, 1885) vE slope of Andes in Ecuador, N Peru (to La Libertad)
4 pulchra (von Tschudi, 1844) vC Peru (E slope of Andes from San Martín to Junín)
4 sophiae (von Berlepsch, 1901) E slope of Andes in SE Peru (Cuzco, Puno) to Bolivia (La Paz, W Cochabamba)
Tangara florida 418,419  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869) Emerald Tanager
vCaribbean slope of Costa Rica to Panama, Pacific slope from SW Colombia to NW Ecuador (to Pichincha)
Tangara icterocephala Silver-throated Tanager
frantzii (Cabanis, 1861) Both slopes of Costa Rica to W Panama (mountains of Veraguas)
oresbia Wetmore, 1962 vWC Panama (mountains of Coclé, W Panamá)
icterocephala (Bonaparte, 1851) vPacific slope of E Panama (E Darién), W slope of Andes of NW Colombia (Antioquia) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
Tangara parzudakii420 Flame-faced Tanager
1 parzudakii (Lafresnaye, 1843) SW Venezuela (S Táchira), E Andes of Colombia (from Santander) to Ecuador
1 urubambae J.T. Zimmer, 1943 Peru (E slope of Andes to Ayacucho, Cuzco)
2 lunigera (P.L. Sclater, 1851) vPacific slope of W Andes in W Colombia (from Risaralda) to W Ecuador (to El Oro)
Tangara johannae   (Dalmas, 1900) Blue-whiskered Tanager
iW slope of W Andes from W Colombia (C Chocó, W Antioquia) to W Ecuador (Pichincha)
Tangara schrankii Green-and-gold Tanager
venezuelana W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1957 vS Venezuela (S Amazonas, S Bolívar)
schrankii (von Spix, 1825) SE Colombia (Caquetá, Vaupés) to EC Bolivia, Brazil (south of Amazon to E Amazonas, NW Mato Grosso)
Tangara inornata Plain Tanager
rava Wetmore, 1963 vCaribbean slope of Costa Rica and W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
languens Bangs & Barbour, 1922 E Panama (west to Colón and N Coclé), W Colombia (Chocó to Valle)
inornata (Gould, 1855) vC Colombia (Antioquia to Cundinamarca)
Tangara mexicana421 Turquoise Tanager
1 vieilloti (P.L. Sclater, 1857) Trinidad
1 media (von Berlepsch & E. Hartert, 1902) vE Colombia (Vichada), S and E Venezuela (to Delta Amacuro, Amazonas, Bolívar)
1 mexicana (Linnaeus, 1766) vThe Guianas, E Amazonian Brazil (west to R. Negro and R. Madeira)
1 boliviana (Bonaparte, 1851) vE Colombia (south from Meta), E Ecuador, E Peru, W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Madeira), N and NE Bolivia
2 brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1766)422 vSE Brazil (coastal S Bahia to Rio de Janeiro)
Tangara chilensis Paradise Tanager
paradisea (Swainson, 1837) vSE Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
caelicolor (P.L. Sclater, 1851) δE Colombia (from Meta), S Venezuela (Amazonas), NW Brazil (R. Uaupés, upper R. Negro)
chlorocorys J.T. Zimmer, 1929 N Peru (upper Huallaga valley)
chilensis (Vigors, 1832) vS Colombia (from Huila) to Bolivia (Santa Cruz), W Brazil (Rondônia to SE Pará)
Tangara callophrys 423  (Cabanis, 1849) α Opal-crowned Tanager
iSE Colombia (Caquetá) to E Peru (to Puno), W Brazil (south of R. Amazon to R. Purus)
Tangara velia424 Opal-rumped Tanager
1 velia (Linnaeus, 1758) The Guianas, N Brazil (north of Amazon, from R. Negro to Pará)
1 iridina (Hartlaub, 1841) vE Colombia (N Meta) to N Bolivia, east to S Venezuela, W Brazil (east to lower R. Tapajós, NW Mato Grosso)
1 signata (Hellmayr, 1905) vNE Brazil (NE Pará)
2 cyanomelas (zu Wied, 1830)425,426 Coastal E Brazil (Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro)
Tangara cyanocephala Red-necked Tanager
cearensis Cory, 1916 vNE Brazil (Ceará)
corallina (von Berlepsch, 1903) vE Brazil (Pernambuco, N Bahia)
cyanocephala (Statius Muller, 1776) vSE Brazil (Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay (Canindeyú), NE Argentina (Misiones)
Tangara cyanoventris   (Vieillot, 1819) Gilt-edged Tanager
vE Brazil (C Bahia, S Minas Gerais to E São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro)
Tangara desmaresti 427  (Vieillot, 1819) Brassy-breasted Tanager
iCoastal SE Brazil (SE Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina)
Tangara fastuosa 428  (Lesson, 1832) α Seven-colored Tanager
vE Brazil (Paraíba to Alagoas)
Tangara seledon   (Statius Muller, 1776) Green-headed Tanager
iSE Brazil (SE Bahia to NE Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay (Alto Paraná), NE Argentina (Misiones)
Tangara varia   (Statius Muller, 1776) Dotted Tanager
vS Venezuela, SW Guyana, N Brazil (north of Amazon R. Negro to C Pará, south of Amazon R. Tapajós to R. Xingu); NC Peru (San Martín)
Tangara punctata429 Spotted Tanager
punctata (Linnaeus, 1766) vS Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (R. Negro to Amapá)
zamorae Chapman, 1925 E slope of Andes from Ecuador (Sucumbíos) to N Peru (to San Martín)
perenensis Chapman, 1925 vC Peru (E slope of Andes in Junín)
annectens J.T. Zimmer, 1943 SE Peru (E slope of Andes in Puno)
punctulata (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) vN Bolivia (E slope of Andes in La Paz, Cochabamba)
Tangara rufigula   (Bonaparte, 1851) Rufous-throated Tanager
iPacific slope of W Colombia (from Risaralda) to W Ecuador (to El Oro)
Tangara guttata430 Speckled Tanager
eusticta Todd, 1912 vCosta Rica (both slopes), Panama (Caribbean slope), extreme NW Colombia (Cerro Tacarcuna in NW Chocó)
tolimae Chapman, 1914 Colombia (E slope of C Andes to Tolima)
bogotensis Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1912 vColombia (E Andes from Norte de Santander to Caquetá), W Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá, Lara to Táchira)
chrysophrys (P.L. Sclater, 1851) Venezuela (mountains from Falcón to Monagas; Amazonas, Bolívar), NW Brazil (Sierra de Curupira)
guttata (Cabanis, 1851)431 αvSE Venezuela (SE Bolívar), N Brazil (Uei-tepui)
trinitatis Todd, 1912 N Trinidad
Tangara xanthogastra Yellow-bellied Tanager
xanthogastra (P.L. Sclater, 1851) vE Colombia (Meta, Vaupés) to S Venezuela (Amazonas, SW Bolívar), south to E Peru, W Brazil, N Bolivia
phelpsi J.T. Zimmer, 1943432 S Venezuela (Amazonas, N and E Bolívar); E Guyana
Tangara ruficervix433,434 Golden-naped Tanager
1 ruficervix (Prévost & Des Murs, 1846)435 αAndes of Colombia
1 leucotis (P.L. Sclater, 1851) vW slope of Andes of Ecuador (south to El Oro)
1 taylori (Taczanowski & von Berlepsch, 1885) E slope of Andes of Ecuador to N Peru (Cajamarca)
2 amabilis J.T. Zimmer, 1943 vE slope of Andes of N Peru (S Amazonas to Huánuco)
2 inca Parkes, 1969 E slope of Andes of C and S Peru (Junín to Puno)
2 fulvicervix (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) E slope of Andes of SE Peru (Puno) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Tangara glaucocolpa 436,437,438  (Cabanis, 1851) α Glaucous Tanager
vN Colombia (N Bolívar, Atlántico), N Venezuela (to Sucre, incl. Isla de Margarita)
Tangara sayaca439 Sayaca Tanager
boliviana (J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1941) vNW Bolivia (La Paz, Beni)
obscura (Naumburg, 1924) vC and S Bolivia, N Argentina (to Córdoba)
sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766) E and S Brazil (Mato Grosso, Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, NE Argentina, Uruguay
Tangara episcopus440 Blue-gray Tanager
cana (Swainson, 1835)441 vSE Mexico (SE San Luis Potosí, Central America (incl. Arch. de las Perlas)), NW Colombia, N Venezuela
caesitia (Wetmore, 1959) vIsla Escudo de Veraguas, off NW Panama
cumatilis (Wetmore, 1957) vIsla de Coiba, off SW Panama
nesophila (Riley, 1912) vE Colombia, S and E Venezuela (N Amazonas, N Bolívar, Sucre, Monagas); Trinidad
berlepschi (Dalmas, 1900) Tobago
mediana (J.T. Zimmer, 1944)442 vE Colombia, S Venezuela, N Brazil (to R. Nhamundá, south of Amazon R. Madeira to R. Tapajós), N Bolivia
episcopus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Guianas, N Brazil (R. Nhamundá, NW Maranhão to SE Pará, N Mato Grosso)
ehrenreichi (Reichenow, 1915)443 NW Brazil (R. Purus) [Reichenow, 1915 #3241]
leucoptera (P.L. Sclater, 1886) vC Colombia (E slope of Andes in Cundinamarca, Meta)
quaesita (Bangs & Noble, 1918) vPacific slope of SW Colombia (W Nariño) to NW Peru
caerulea (J.T. Zimmer, 1929) vSE Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe), N Peru (Huánuco)
major (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896) vC Peru (Junín)
urubambae (J.T. Zimmer, 1944) SE Peru (Cuzco)
coelestis (von Spix, 1825) δvSE Colombia (Amazonas), W Brazil (east to R. Negro, R. Madeira), NE Ecuador, NE and C Peru
Tangara cyanoptera   (Vieillot, 1817) Azure-shouldered Tanager
vSE Brazil (coastal SE Bahia to N Rio Grande do Sul)
Tangara abbas   (Deppe, 1830) Yellow-winged Tanager
E and SE Mexico (Tamaulipas) on Caribbean slope to NC Nicaragua, on Atlantic slope to NW Nicaragua
Tangara ornata   (Sparrman, 1789) Golden-chevroned Tanager
vSE Bahia (coastal SE Bahia to Santa Catarina, inland to E Minas Gerais)
Tangara palmarum Palm Tanager
atripennis (Todd, 1922) vE Nicaragua to N Colombia (W of E Andes; Santa Marta), NW Venezuela (Maracaibo)
violilavata (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884)444 αvSW Colombia (Cauca) to W Ecuador (Loja)
melanoptera (P.L. Sclater, 1857) vE Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, the Guianas, N and C Brazil, E Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia
palmarum (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821) E Brazil (east of R. Tocantins to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, N Argentina (Misiones, E Formosa)
Tangara cabanisi 445  (P.L. Sclater, 1868) Azure-rumped Tanager/Cabanis's Tanager
iS Mexico (Chiapas), SW Guatemala
Tangara palmeri   (Hellmayr, 1909) Gray-and-gold Tanager
iE Panama, Pacific slope of SW Colombia, W Ecuador (to Pichincha)
Tangara larvata Golden-hooded Tanager
larvata (Du Bus, 1846) vCaribbean slope of SE Mexico (Tabasco), Belize, E Guatemala, N Costa Rica
centralis (von Berlepsch, 1912) vCaribbean slope of Costa Rica, W Panama (to N Coclé)
franciscae (P.L. Sclater, 1856) Pacific slope of Costa Rica to W Panama (to Veraguas)
fanny (Lafresnaye, 1847) E Panama (from Colón) to W Colombia (N base of W and C Andes, Pacific slope), W Ecuador (to Manabí)
Tangara cyanicollis Blue-necked Tanager
granadensis (von Berlepsch, 1884) vAndes of W Colombia
caeruleocephala (Swainson, 1838) Andes of E Colombia to N Peru (E slope of Andes to La Libertad, N San Martín)
cyanicollis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vE slope of Andes in Peru (from Huánuco) to Bolivia (Cochabamba)
cyanopygia (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884)446 αvW Ecuador (W slope of Andes)
hannahiae (Cassin, 1865)447 αN Colombia (Sierra de Perijá, Norte de Santander), NW Venezuela (Andes S Lara to Táchira, coastal mountains to Aragua)
melanogaster Cherrie & Reichenberger, 1923 C Brazil (lowlands of N Mato Grosso, S Pará), E Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
albotibialis Traylor, 1950 vEC Brazil (Goiás)
Tangara nigrocincta 448  (Bonaparte, 1838) Masked Tanager
vSE Colombia to E Bolivia, east to S Venezuela, Guyana, N Brazil (Roraima, Pará to W Mato Grosso)
Tangara argentea449,450 Black-headed Tanager
1 whitelyi (Salvin & Godman, 1884)451 Tepuis of S Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar), adjacent N Brazil (NE Roraima) and W Guyana
2 argentea (Lafresnaye, 1843) vMountains of N Colombia, W and N Venezuela (mountains of Falcón to Sucre, Andes of Lara to Táchira) [Lafresnaye, 1843 #15708]
Tangara viridicollis452 Silver-backed Tanager
1 fulvigula (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1906) S Ecuador (El Oro, W Loja), N Peru (E slope of Andes to Cajamarca)
2 viridicollis (Taczanowski, 1884) vE slope of Andes from Peru (south of R. Marañón) to W Bolivia (La Paz)
Tangara argyrofenges453 Green-throated Tanager/Straw-backed Tanager
caeruleigularis Carriker, 1935 vSE Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe), N Peru (E slope of Andes to San Martín)
argyrofenges (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) Bolivia (E slope of Andes in La Paz, Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz)
Tangara heinei 454,455  (Cabanis, 1851) α Black-capped Tanager
iColombia (Santa Marta Mts., Andean ranges) E Ecuador, Sierra de Perijá, N Venezuela (to Distrito Federal)
Tangara phillipsi   G.R. Graves & Weske, 1987 Sira Tanager
iE Peru (Cerros del Sira, in Huánuco) [Graves, 1987 #1780]
Tangara preciosa 456,457  (Cabanis, 1851) α Chestnut-backed Tanager
vSE Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones to Entre Ríos), SE Brazil (São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay
Tangara peruviana   (Desmarest, 1806) Black-backed Tanager
vCoastal SE Brazil (Espírito Santo to NE Rio Grande do Sul)
Tangara meyerdeschauenseei   Schulenberg & Binford, 1985 Green-capped Tanager
iSE Peru (E Puno), W Bolivia (La Paz) [Schulenberg, 1985 #3544]
Tangara vitriolina 458  (Cabanis, 1851) α Scrub Tanager
vColombia (W slope of W Andes in Norte de Santander to E slope of E Andes in E Cauca), NW Ecuador
Tangara cayana459,460 Burnished-buff Tanager
1 fulvescens Todd, 1922 C Colombia (E Andes from Norte de Santander)
1 cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Colombia (Meta, Vaupés), S Venezuela (C Amazonas, Bolívar), the Guianas, NC Brazil (Amapá)
1 huberi (Hellmayr, 1910) N Brazil (Ilha de Marajó, in NE Pará)
2 flava (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vNE Brazil (Pará, Ceará to N Goiás, S Bahia)
2 sincipitalis (von Berlepsch, 1907) vEC Brazil (Goiás, except N)
2 chloroptera (Vieillot, 1819) vSE Brazil (Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
2 margaritae (J.A. Allen, 1891) C Brazil (Mato Grosso)
2 cyanolaima (Bonaparte, 1851)461 E Peru (San Martín, Madre de Dios), N Bolivia (Beni) [Bonaparte, 1851 #15709]
Tangara cucullata Lesser Antillean Tanager
versicolor (Lawrence, 1878) St. Vincent (Lesser Antilles)
cucullata (Swainson, 1834) vGrenada (Lesser Antilles)

1 Sequence of genera generally follows Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348] with some modifications based on Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736], Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782], Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041], Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844], Mallarino et al. (2012) [Mallarino, 2012 #14744] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
2 See Hartlaub (1851) [Hartlaub, 1851 #1912] for accepting 1850 as the date of all 543 pp. of Vol. 1.
3 For confirmation of placement in Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
4 For confirmation of placement in Thraupidae, see Morony (1985) [Morony, 1985 #15343], Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
5 For removal from Caryothraustes and placement in monotypic genus see Tamplin et al. (1993) [Tamplin, 1993 #3802], Demastes & Remsen (1994) [Demastes, 1994 #1299] and Remsen (1997) [Remsen, 1997 #3247].
6 For placement in Thraupidae see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
7 Has been placed in its own family, Catamblyrhynchidae, by e.g. Hellmayr (1938) [Hellmayr, 1938 #10409], Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], or in a monotypic subfamily Catamblyrhynchinae in Emberizidae, e.g. Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #9955] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
8 Moved from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae following Bledsoe (1988) [Bledsoe, 1988) [Bledsoe, 1988 #15333], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Ridgley & Tudor (2009) [Ridgley, 2009 #12008] and Barker (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
9 Taxon named pallida Carriker, 1934 [Carriker, 1934 #667] may merit recognition; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
10 Doubtfully distinct from guatemalensis; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
11 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
12 Perhaps delayed until 1865 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
13 For recognition see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154], Isler & Isler (1987) [Isler, 1987 #2092] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
14 Sometimes placed in monotypic genus Erythrothlypis, by e.g. Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
15 Forms a superspecies with H. rubrifrons; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
16 The date of publication is determined by the 'date de dépôt légal'; on the back of the wrapper of this issue, the last in the 1965 volume, it is 1966.
17 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
18 Forms a superspecies with H. ruficapilla; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
19 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
20 Perhaps not diagnosable from melanoxantha; see Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746].
21 Includes Oreomanes; see Burns et al. (2003) [Burns, 2003 #586] and Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
22 For transfer from the Parulidae to the Thraupidae, see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586] and Lovette & Bermingham (2002) [Lovette, 2002 #2441].
23 Dated 1808 by Lowery & Monroe (1968) [Lowery, 1968 #2448], but see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542]; however correct date unknown, see Dickinson (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12761].
24 May comprise two or three species; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
25 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
26 Original spelling tamarugensis incorrectly formed see Mayr & Vuilleumier (1983) [Mayr, 1983 #2563].
27 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
28 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
29 For recognition see Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443], Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
30 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
31 Formerly, e.g. in Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746], placed in a monotypic genus Oreomanes, but see Burns et al. (2003) [Burns, 2003 #586] and Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
32 For treatment as a monotypic species O. fraseri see Vuilleumier (1984) [Vuilleumier, 1984 #15670]; thus including binghami and sturninus. However in Conirostrum fraseri P.L. Sclater, 1860 is preoccupied by Conirostrum fraseri P.L. Sclater, 1859.
33 For species sequence and for possible non-monophyly of this genus, see Ryan et al. (2013) [Ryan, 2013 #15104].
34 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Bledsoe (1988) [Bledsoe, 1988 #15333] and Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
35 May not be part of Sicalis; see Ryan et al. (2013) [Ryan, 2013 #15104].
36 Species possibly monotypic; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
37 Contrary to the footnote in 2014 the emendation uropygialis used by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] is justified by internal evidence of an inadvertent error.
38 Includes connectens; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
39 For treatment as a separate species from S. olivascens, see e.g. Hellmayr (1938) [Hellmayr, 1938 #10409], Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570]. Supported by genetic data in Ryan et al. (2013) [Ryan, 2013 #15104].
40 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. lebruni, but see Ryan et al. (2013) [Ryan, 2013 #15104].
41 For treatment as a separate species from S. olivascens, see Areta et al. (2012) [Areta, 2012 #15332].
42 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], but may already be two species see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
43 Introduced to Hawaiian Is., Jamaica and Puerto Rico.
44 For recognition see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
45 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
46 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. raimondii, but they are locally sympatric; see Koepcke (1963) [Koepcke, 1963 #15340]. Superspecies not supported by genetic data in Ryan et al. (2013) [Ryan, 2013 #15104].
47 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
48 Introduced to Lesser Antilles (Antigua, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbados,. St. Vincent, Grenada).
49 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], but more study needed; see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
50 Dual original spellings. See David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
51 For a circumscription of a reduced genus, see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
52 For treatment as a separate species from P. atriceps see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
53 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with P. atriceps, P. punensis and P. patagonicus, and they form a monophyletic clade, but uncertain degrees of range overlap among some of them occur, see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
54 Perhaps better included in P. patagonicus; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
55 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Ryan et al. (2007, 2013) [Ryan, 2007 #10643], [Ryan, 2013 #15104] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
56 Proposed as a nom. nov. but complies with Art. 16 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] in being intentionally new and including information on a holotype. Although the Code says that the term nom. nov. should only be used to indicate a replacement name this is only in a Recommendation.
57 Whether this population should be seen as a morph rather than a separate subspecies requires review.
58 For treatment as a separate species from N. acunhae see Ryan (2008) [Ryan, 2008 #10838] and Ryan (2011) [Ryan, 2011 #13523].
59 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844], Ryan et al. (2013) [Ryan, 2013 #15104] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
60 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844], Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348] and Ryan et al. (2013) [Ryan, 2013 #15104].
61 Dated '1851' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
62 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
63 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
64 For correction to authorship see Steinheimer et al. (2006) [Steinheimer, 2006 #4439].
65 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586].
66 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
67 Subspecies groups follow Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
68 Spelled soederstromi by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] but the name is not German and so that is incorrect, see Art. 32.5.2.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
69 Includes subinsignis; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
70 For recognition see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
71 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
72 For reasons to treat oreophila here, see Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Romero-Zambrano (1977) [Romero-Zambrano, 1977 #3374] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
73 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
74 May be a separate species; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
75 Sequence of species follows Mauck & Burns (2009) [Mauck, 2009 #11801].
76 Species possibly monotypic; see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
77 D. caerulescens is sometimes placed in Diglossopis P.L. Sclater, 1856 [Sclater, 1856 #3548], and at times including more species (D. glauca, D. cyanea, D. indigotica), e.g. by Bock (1985) [Bock, 1985 #14898], Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], and Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443]; but see Mauck & Burns (2009) [Mauck, 2009 #11801].
78 The earlier name intermedia Carriker, 1935 was a junior primary homonym preoccupied in Diglossa and replaced by media Bond, 1955; this rendered Carriker's name permanently invalid, see Art. 57.2 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]. Use by Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517] was an error.
79 Differences in vocalisations suggest that two species may be involved; see Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] and Ridgely & Tudor (2009) [Ridgely, 2009 #12008]. More study needed; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
80 For treatment as a separate species from D. baritula, see Vuilleumier (1969) [Vuilleumier, 1969 #4065], A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Hackett (1996) [Hackett, 1996 #1864]. But see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
81 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
82 Forms a superspecies with D. plumbea and D. sittoides; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
83 For treatment as a separate species from D. baritula, see Vuilleumier (1969) [Vuilleumier, 1969 #4065], A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Hackett (1996) [Hackett, 1996 #1864]. But see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
84 Includes veraguensis; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
85 Issue cover dated May 1861.
86 For treatment as a separate species from D. lafresnayii see Vuilleumier (1969) [Vuilleumier, 1969 #4065] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
87 For recognition see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
88 Forms a superspecies with D. gloriosissima and D. mystacalis; see Vuilleumier (1969) [Vuilleumier, 1969 #4065] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
89 For treatment as a separate species from D. lafresnayii see Vuilleumier (1969) [Vuilleumier, 1969 #4065] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
90 Includes parui Phelps & Phelps, Jr., 1950 [Phelps, 1950 #3032]; see Phelps & Phelps (1963) [Phelps, 1963 #3050].
91 Possibly a synonym of hitchcocki; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517]. But see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
92 For retention of date 1849 see Evenhuis (1997) [Evenhuis, 1997 #12439] and Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
93 Forms a superspecies with D. venezuelensis; see Vuilleumier (1969) [Vuilleumier, 1969 #4065] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
94 For treatment as a separate species from D. carbonaria see Graves (1982) [Graves, 1982 #1772].
95 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
96 For recognition see Graves (1982) [Graves, 1982 #1772] and Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
97 Forms a superspecies with D. gloriosa, D. humeralis and D. brunneiventris; see Vuilleumier (1969) [Vuilleumier, 1969 #4065] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
98 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
99 For treatment as a separate species from D. carbonaria see Graves (1982) [Graves, 1982 #1772].
100 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
101 For changed composition of this genus and inclusion of Phrygilus dorsalis and P. erythronotus, see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844]. Further changes from Burns et al. (2014) [Burns, 2014 #15624] will be dealt with in an Update.
102 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
103 May date from 1867, see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
104 May date from 1867 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
105 Apparently interbreeds with, and may possibly be a colour phase of, I. erythronotus; see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
106 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with I. dorsalis.
107 Doubtfully distinct from petersi; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
108 Species in this genus were formerly placed in the emberizid Phrygilus, but see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
109 Subspecies groups follow Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
110 Includes cyaneus Nores & Yzurieta, 1983 [Nores, 1983 #2779]; see Piloni & Camperi (2011) [Piloni, 2011 #15672]. But see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
111 For recognition see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
112 Includes Acanthidops; see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
113 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Burns et al. (2003) [Burns, 2003 #586] and Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
114 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with H. unicolor, but see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
115 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
116 Includes barrilesensis; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
117 Correct original spelling. Spelling bairdii in Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
118 Formerly placed in the monotypic genus Acanthidops, but see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
119 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586] and Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
120 Possibly should be placed in a separate genus Rhynchothraupis; see Ridgely & Tudor (2009) [Ridgely, 2009 #12008] and Candia-Gallardo et al. (2010) [Candia-Gallardo, 2010 #12424]. But see Bond (1951) [Bond, 1951 #429].
121 Forms a superspecies with C. dentatus; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
122 Genus likely to need to be split into four genera; see Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782].
123 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
124 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
125 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
126 Published 1853; library receipt date 26.12.1853 see p. 1004 in same volume.
127 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
128 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586] and Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
129 Forms a superspecies with C. pileatus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
130 Sometimes placed in monotypic genus Phlogothraupis, e.g. by Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863]; but it is basal to all other members of Ramphocelus; see Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782].
131 Includes isthmicus; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
132 Introduced to Society Is. (Tahiti).
133 Perhaps not diagnosable from nominate dimidiatus; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
134 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
135 Considered by Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with R. dimidiatus, R. melanogaster and R. bresilius; but see Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782].
136 Treated as two species by A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517]. But see also Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782] and so treated as subspecies groups.
137 Forms a superspecies with R. flammigerus; see Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746].
138 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
139 Includes the name varians Lafresnaye, 1847 [Lafresnaye, 1847 #15360] which Storer (1989) [Storer, 1989 #15362] resurrected for the populations in Panama and Colombia; but see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
140 Treated as a separate species by Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
141 Sequence of species follows Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782].
142 Considered by Haffer (1987) [Haffer, 1987 #13890] to form a superspecies with L. versicolor; but see Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782].
143 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with L. leucothorax.
144 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
145 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, as anticipated by Paynter (1970, 1971) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], [Paynter, 1971 #15346], see Burns & Racicot (2009) [Burns, 2009 #11782].
146 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
147 The date 1917 given by Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746] was a typographical error.
148 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with C. lucidus.
149 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
150 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
151 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
152 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
153 May deserve treatment as a separate species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
154 For recognition see Isler & Isler (1987) [Isler, 1987 #2092] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
155 Formerly, e.g. by Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #4770], placed in a monotypic family or subfamily, but see e.g. Sibley (1973) [Sibley, 1973 #15352], Burns (1997) [Burns, 1997 #583] and Burns et al. (2003) [Burns, 2003 #586].
156 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
157 Treated, with aequatorialis as a subspecies, as a separate species by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
158 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
159 Tentatively accepted.
160 Provisionally includes orientalis Grantsau, 2010 [Grantsau, 2010 #12748] as proposed range unclear.
161 Original spelling. Spelling coerebicolor by Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
162 Species limits in many groups uncertain; see e.g. Ouellet (1992) [Ouellet, 1992 #2885], Lijtmaer et al. (2004) [Lijtmaer, 2004 #2391], Campagna et al. (2010, 2012) [Campagna, 2010 #13231], [Campagna, 2012 #14753].
163 For changed composition of this genus and inclusion of Oryzoborus and Dolospingus, see Mason & Burns (2013) [Mason, 2013 #15253].
164 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Clark (1986) [Clark, 1986 #15334], Bledsoe (1988) [Bledsoe, 1988 #15333], Sato et al. (2001) [Sato, 2001 #3479], Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586] and Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
165 For treatment as a separate species from S. lineola see Schwartz (1975) [Schwartz, 1975 #15350].
166 Includes restricta; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
167 Forms a superspecies with S. bouvronides; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
168 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
169 Includes S. insulata, a colour morph or subspecies of S. telasco; see Stiles (2004) [Stiles, 2004 #3742].
170 For retention of date 1849 see Evenhuis (1997) [Evenhuis, 1997 #12439] and Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
171 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. hypoxantha, but see Mason & Burns (2013) [Mason, 2013 #15253].
172 Includes saturata and crypta; see Machado & Silveira (2011) [Machado, 2011 #13273].
173 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to perhaps form a superspecies with S. hypochroma; but their ranges overlap in Corrientes, Argentina, see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271]. See also Mason & Burns (2013) [Mason, 2013 #15253].
174 For treatment as a separate species from S. bouvreuil, see Machado & Silveira (2011) [Machado, 2011 #13273]. See also Campagna et al. (2013) [Campagna, 2013 #15407].
175 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
176 May be a colour phase of S. hypoxantha; see Short (1975) [Short, 1975 #13726]. But see Areta et al. (2011) [Areta, 2011 #12830].
177 Includes S. zelichi Narosky, 1977 [Narosky, 1977 #2750]; see Areta (2008) [Areta, 2008 #11692]. See also Vuilleumier & Mayr (1987) [Vuilleumier, 1987 #4069] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
178 May be a colour phase of S. hypoxantha; see Short (1975) [Short, 1975 #13726]. But see Areta et al. (2011) [Areta, 2011 #12830].
179 Species S. funerea through S. atrirostris formerly placed in a separate genus Oryzoborus, but see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2840], Burns et al. (2002), Lijtmaer et al. (2004), Robbins et al. (2005) [Robbins, 2005 #10050] and Mason & Burns (2013) [Mason, 2013 #15253].
180 For treatment as a separate species from S. angolensis, see Hellmayr (1938) [Hellmayr, 1938 #10409], A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520]. But see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2840], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443].
181 For correct date, February, 1860, see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442]; the name aethiops dates from May 1860.
182 For recognition see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2840].
183 For recognition see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
184 For recognition see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2840].
185 Includes torrida, see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2840]; but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520]. Includes theobromae Olson, 1981 [Olson, 1981 #2840]; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
186 For treatment as a separate species from S. crassirostris, see Stiles (1984) [Stiles, 1984 #15354].
187 For treatment as a separate species from S. crassirostris, see Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2679].
188 Includes Oryzoborus crassirostris magnirostris Phelps & Phelps Jr., 1950, of which the name is preoccupied in Sporophila by Coccoborus magnirostris Swainson, 1837; see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2840].
189 For placement in S. crassirostris, see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
190 For treatment as a separate species from S. crassirostris, see Hellmayr (1938) [Hellmayr, 1938 #10409], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337] and Mason & Burns (2013) [Mason, 2013 #15253].
191 Possibly not valid but poorly known; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
192 Stiles (1996) [Stiles, 1996 #3738] agreed with Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #14845] that the name aurita applied to a hybrid between this and the allospecies S. americana.
193 For treatment as a separate species from S. americana see Stiles (1996) [Stiles, 1996 #3738].
194 For date February 1860 see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442] antedating the name ophthalmica of August 1860 (which is in the next volume).
195 Correct original spelling. Spelling hoffmannii in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
196 For recognition see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #14845].
197 Includes chocoana; see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #14845] and Stiles (1996) [Stiles, 1996 #3738].
198 For recognition see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #14845].
199 Stiles (1996) [Stiles, 1996 #3738] considered anchicayae to be a hybrid S. intermedia bogotensis X S. corvina hicksii.
200 For recognition see Restall (2002) [Restall, 2002 #15349], Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443], Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477] and Rising & Jaramillo (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13522]. Possibly a cryptic species; more study needed.
201 Includes agustini; see Stiles (1996) [Stiles, 1996 #3738]. But see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
202 Forms a superspecies with S. corvina, S. murallae and S. intermedia; see Stiles (1996) [Stiles, 1996 #3738].
203 For treatment as a separate species from S. americana see Stiles (1996) [Stiles, 1996 #3738].
204 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
205 Includes mutanda; see Eitniear (2012) [Eitniear, 2012 #15671].
206 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
207 Author is Baird in Lawrence.
208 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
209 Formerly placed in a monotypic genus Dolospingus, but see Robbins et al. (2005) [Robbins, 2005 #10050] and Mason & Burns (2013) [Mason, 2013 #15253].
210 Includes S. melanops, known only from the holotype, which may be an aberrant specimen of S. nigricollis or a hybrid; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
211 Includes vivida Hellmayr, 1938; this name having been introduced due to perceived homonymy which Mlíkovský (2009) [Mlíkovský, 2009 #11980] suggests never existed and argues that replacement never occurred so that Art, 59.3 of the Coce (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] does not apply.
212 Previously considered likely to be a hybrid, see Sick (1962) [Sick, 1962 #15698]; but see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Willis & Oniki (1993) [Willis, 1993 #15358].
213 Species perhaps monotypic; see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
214 Includes subconcolor; see Rising & Jaramillo (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13522].
215 This name appears on p. 579 of zu Wied's Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien which is in Pt.1 not Pt. 2 and must therefore be dated 1830; see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #8548].
216 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
217 Formerly placed in Saltator, but see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162].
218 For placement of Pitylus within Saltator see Hellack & Schnell (1977) [Hellack, 1977 #1942], Tamplin et al. (1993) [Tamplin, 1993 #3802], A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162].
219 For transfer from the Cardinalidae to the Thraupidae, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
220 Species sequence follows Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162]. Further changes made in Burns et al. (2014) [Burns, 2014 #15624] will be dealt with in an Update.
221 May comprise more than one species; see Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162]. But see also Orenstein (2011) [Orenstein, 2011 #13518].
222 Includes caniceps; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
223 Perhaps 1857 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
224 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. similis, but see Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162].
225 May comprise more than one species; see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443], Orenstein (2011) [Orenstein, 2011 #13518] and Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162].
226 Includes richardsoni; the type locality of plumbiceps has now been elucidated and the name is not a synonym of vigorsii; see Ludwig (1998) [Ludwig, 1998 #2457].
227 Author Baird in Lawrence. Name not listed by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983].
228 For retention of date 1849 see Evenhuis (1997) [Evenhuis, 1997 #12439] and Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
229 Original spelling striatipictus; justified emendation in use.
230 The population on Isla Puná, SW Ecuador, may deserve subspecies rank; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
231 Perhaps not diagnosable from nominate albicollis; see Orenstein (2011) [Orenstein, 2011 #13518].
232 For treatment as a separate species from S. aurantiirostris see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162]; but see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983].
233 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. nigriceps and S. maxillosus, but see Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162].
234 S. grossus and S. fuliginosus formerly placed in Pitylus, but see Hellack & Schnell (1977) [Hellack, 1977 #1942], Tamplin et al. (1993) [Tamplin, 1993 #3802], A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Chaves et al. (2013) [Chaves, 2013 #15162].
235 Forms a superspecies with S. fuliginosus; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
236 For treatment as a separate species from S. grossus, see e.g. Hellmayr (1938) [Hellmayr, 1938 #10409], A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
237 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
238 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
239 Forms a superspecies with E. longicauda; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
240 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
241 For a suggestion that this may comprise two species, see Hayes (2003) [Hayes, 2003 #1920].
242 Correct original spelling. Misspelled catarmarcanus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. Variable.
243 For recognition see Hayes (2003) [Hayes, 2003 #1920].
244 For recognition, see Contreras (1980) [Contreras, 1980 #15335], Hayes (2003) [Hayes, 2003 #1920] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
245 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
246 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with poorly known E. duidae, although they have overlapping altitudinal ranges.
247 May consist of more than one species; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
248 Subspecies groups follow Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
249 Includes floresae; see Eisenmann & Short (1982) [Eisenmann, 1982 #6184] and Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
250 Includes lucaris; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154]. But see Eisenmann & Short (1982) [Eisenmann, 1982 #6184].
251 For treatment as a separate species from E. herbicola, see Short (1975) [Short, 1975 #13726] and Eisenmann & Short (1982) [Eisenmann, 1982 #6184].
252 For correct date see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #8548].
253 For treatment as a separate species from E. herbicola, see Eisenmann & Short (1982) [Eisenmann, 1982 #6184].
254 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
255 Original spelling; an incorrect Latinisation see Art. 32.5.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]. The old emendation Piezorhina used by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] is unjustified. But see Kashin (1978) [Kashin, 1978 #6678] and Gregory & Dickinson (2012) [Gregory, 2012 #13835].
256 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
257 Species in this genus were formerly placed in Hemispingus, but see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
258 Forms a superspecies with P. xanthophthalmus; see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
259 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
260 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
261 For a circumscription of a reduced genus see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755]. The species thoracica, hispaniolensis and rubecula are not closely related to this reduced genus and new generic names are needed for all these species, and are apparently in press.
262 For placement of Poospiza and of all restored and redefined genera (Compsospiza, Microspingus, Poospizopsis), in the Thraupidae see Lougheed et al. (2000) [Lougheed, 2000 #2436], Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736], Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
263 Author erroneously spelled Nordman by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982].
264 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
265 May consist of two species; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], here treated as two subspecies groups. See also Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
266 Doubtfully distinct from whitii; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
267 Species in this genus were formerly placed in Hemispingus, but see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
268 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
269 Species in this genus were formerly placed in Poospiza, but see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
270 Forms a superspecies with C. baeri; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
271 Recognition of this reduced genus is temporary; see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755]. Some species will be assigned to the genus Thlypopsis; the others require the proposal of a new genus-group name.
272 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with H. auricularis and H. calophrys, but see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
273 For treatment as a separate species from H. atropileus, see García-Moreno et al. (2001) [García-Moreno, 2001 #1659], García-Moreno & Fjeldså (2003) [García-Moreno, 2003 #1660] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
274 For treatment as a separate species from H. atropileus, see Weske & Terborgh (1974) [Weske, 1974 #4124].
275 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. See also Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
276 Species in this genus were formerly placed in Hemispingus, but see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
277 This generic name must date from the Proceedings of the Zoological Society and not from Sclater (1862) [Sclater, 1862 #15715], his Catalogue. The name ignobilis, given in his Catalogue as his type species, was only described in the later Proceedings.
278 Subspecies groups based on information in Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
279 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
280 Treated as a separate species by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], Ridgely & Tudor (2009) [Ridgely, 2009 #12008] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
281 Treated, with macrophrys as its subspecies, as a separate species by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], García-Moreno et al. (2001) [García-Moreno, 2001 #1659], García-Moreno & Fjeldså (2003) [García-Moreno, 2003 #1660], Ridgely & Tudor (2009) [Ridgely, 2009 #12008] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
282 Genus temporarily retained; the one species needs transfer to Thlypopsis; see Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755]; however, in that genus the name Tachyphonus ruficeps Strickland, 1844 would be preoccupied by Sylvia ruficeps d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 so a new name is needed and is said to be in press.
283 Genus not monophyletic with respect to Hemispingus superciliaris and Pyrrhocoma ruficeps and a revision is in hand; see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
284 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with T. pectoralis.
285 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with T. inornata.
286 For recognition of this genus see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
287 Species M. lateralis through M. torquatus formerly placed in Poospiza, but see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
288 For treatment as a separate species from M. lateralis, see Assis et al. (2007) [Assis, 2007 #10023]. See also Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
289 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
290 Date given as 1942 by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] but printed 26 June 1941 and separate known with library stamp dated 22 July 1941.
291 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with M. cinereus.
292 For treatment as a separate species from M. melanoleucus see Short (1975) [Short, 1975 #13726] and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
293 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
294 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Lougheed et al. (2000) [Lougheed, 2000 #2436]; but more study needed, see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
295 Formerly placed in Hemispingus, but see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
296 For placement in the Thraupidae, see Bledsoe (1988) [Bledsoe, 1988 #15333], Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
297 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
298 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348] and Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
299 Species in this genus were formerly placed in Poospiza, but see Shultz & Burns (2013) [Shultz, 2013 #14755].
300 Correct original spelling. Emendation used by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] is unjustified.
301 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
302 Forms a superspecies with I. personata and I. ortizi; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
303 For treatment as a separate species from I. pulchra, see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
304 For recognition of this genus see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736], Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348]. R. fruticeti, R. carbonaria and R. alaudina formerly placed in Phrygilus, and R. caerulescens previously formed a monotypic genus Porphyrospiza which is subsumed here.
305 For recognition see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] and Fjeldså (1993) [Fjeldså, 1993 #1571].
306 For separation from Passerina, see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. Confirmed by genetic data, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
307 Subspecies groups follow Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
308 For recognition see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
309 Treated as incertae sedis by Lowery & Monroe (1968) [Lowery, 1968 #2448] and later briefly given family rank. For placement in Thraupidae, see e.g. Bledsoe (1988) [Bledsoe, 1988 #15333], Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585], Lovette & Bermingham (2002) [Lovette, 2002 #2441] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
310 Dated 1808 by Lowery & Monroe (1968: 87) [Lowery, 1968 #2448], but see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542]. However, correct date unknown, see Dickinson (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12761].
311 Bellemain et al. (2008) [Bellemain, 2008 #11205] found taxa in this species formed three clades, whereas Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] identified two subspecies groups.
312 The cover of the first issue in 1866 of the Journal für Ornithologie reports that the November 1865 issue will follow. The taxon is named in that November issue.
313 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
314 This taxon plus C. f. newtoni and C. f. barbadensis all change authorship in the light of Banks & Browning (1979) [Banks, 1979 #190].
315 For recommended date see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
316 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
317 Genus not monophyletic; see Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585] and Mallarino et al. (2012) [Mallarino, 2012 #14744]. T. obscurus and T. fuliginosus are unrelated to any other genus, and thus require a new generic name which we hear is in press.
318 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586].
319 Introduced to Hawaiian Is. (Oahu).
320 Formerly placed in Sporophila but see Clark (1986) [Clark, 1986 #15334], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Ouellet (1992) [Ouellet, 1992 #2885], Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585] and Lijtmaer et al. (2004) [Lijtmaer, 2004 #2391].
321 May be indistinguishable from obscurus; see Bates (1997) [Bates, 1997 #235].
322 Includes fumosa and zuliae; see Bates (1997) [Bates, 1997 #235].
323 For changed composition of this genus and inclusion of Loxigilla portoricensis and L. violacea, see Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585] and Mallarino et al. (2012) [Mallarino, 2012 #14744].
324 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586].
325 May be a separate species; see Garrido & Wiley (2003) [Garrido, 2003 #1684].
326 For recognition see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
327 Date 1919 given by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] incorrect; see Richmond (1992) [Richmond, 1992 #8978]. Verified to original.
328 Includes parishi; see Buden (1986) [Buden, 1986 #567].
329 May be a separate species; see Bradley (2000) [Bradley, 2000 #15701].
330 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586].
331 For treatment as separate from Tiaris, see Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585] and Mallarino et al. (2012) [Mallarino, 2012 #14744].
332 Introduced to Bahamas (New Providence).
333 For inclusion of Tiaris bicolor, see Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585] and Mallarino et al. (2012) [Mallarino, 2012 #14744].
334 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586].
335 Dates from 1864 see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
336 For a circumscription of a reduced genus see Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585] and Mallarino et al. (2012) [Mallarino, 2012 #14744].
337 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae see Burns et al. (2002, 2003) [Burns, 2002 #585], [Burns, 2003 #586].
338 For treatment as a separate species from L. noctis see Buckley & Buckley (2004) [Buckley, 2004 #564] and Banks et al. (2006) [Banks, 2006 #5803].
339 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see e.g. Sato et al. (2001) [Sato, 2001 #3479] and Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585].
340 For treatment as a separate species from C. olivacea, see Petren et al. (1999) [Petren, 1999 #15703], Grant & Grant (2002) [Grant, 2002 #15704] and Tonnis et al. (2005) [Tonnis, 2005 #10095].
341 For treatment as separate from Camarhynchus, see Sato et al. (1999) [Sato, 1999 #3478], Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585] and Mallarino et al. (2012) [Mallarino, 2012 #14744].
342 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see e.g. Sato et al. (2001) [Sato, 2001 #3479] and Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585].
343 The poorly known extinct form G. nebulosa Gould 1837 may belong to this species, and the name would have priority; see Lack (1969) [Lack, 1969 #15341] and Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982].
344 Apparently polyphyletic, but two molecular data sets differ in the placement of populations; see Petren et al. (2005) [Petren, 2005 #10022].
345 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Petren et al. (2005) [Petren, 2005 #10022].
346 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see e.g. Sato et al. (2001) [Sato, 2001 #3479] and Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585].
347 Correct original spelling. Misspelled striatipectus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. Invariable.
348 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Sato et al. (2001) [Sato, 2001 #3479] and Burns et al. (2002) [Burns, 2002 #585].
349 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
350 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736], Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
351 For the conservation of this name see Opinion 2004 (I.C.Z.N., 2002) [I.C.Z.N., 2002 #2060].
352 Includes Flintthraupis Kashin, 1978 [Kashin, 1978 #6678] proposed as a replacement name for Neothraupis Hellmayr, 1936, said to be preoccupied. However, that name has since been formally conserved.
353 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736], Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041] and Campagna et al. (2011) [Campagna, 2011 #12844].
354 Doubtfully distinct from nominate speculifera; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
355 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
356 Believed to form a superspecies with D. speculifera; see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. However, it may not be closely related to it; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337]. Genetic study including D. speculifera needed.
357 Introduced to Easter I.
358 1851? (1850) in Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
359 Sequence of species follows Dávalos & Porzecanski (2009) [Dávalos, 2009 #11834].
360 For transfer from the Emberizidae to the Thraupidae, as anticipated by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], see Yuri & Mindell (2002) [Yuri, 2002 #4290], Burns & Naoki (2004) [Burns, 2004 #587], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
361 Although published in the October to December issue of this journal that includes a table of meteorological readings to the end of December so printing and distribution cannot have been before January. It has been suggested the book of much the same name appeared in 1831; this needs review.
362 Introduced to Hawaiian Is.
363 Believed to form a superspecies with P. coronata by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], but see Dávalos & Porzecanski (2009) [Dávalos, 2009 #11834].
364 For treatment as a separate species from P. gularis, see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477], Dávalos & Porzecanski (2009) [Dávalos, 2009 #11834] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
365 For suggestion that this might be treated as a separate species see Lopes & Gonzaga (2013) [Lopes, 2013 #15605].
366 Species not monophyletic with respect to P. capitata; see Dávalos & Porzecanski (2009) [Dávalos, 2009 #11834].
367 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with P. gularis and P. baeri; which would include P. nigrogenis.
368 Includes fuscipes; see Dávalos & Porzecanski (2009) [Dávalos, 2009 #11834].
369 For the conservation of this name see Opinion 2004 (I.C.Z.N., 2002) [I.C.Z.N., 2002 #2060].
370 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
371 Forms a superspecies with I. porphyrocephalus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
372 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
373 Forms a superspecies with I. reinhardti; see Parker et al. (1985) [Parker, 1985 #2907] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
374 Doubtfully distinct from nominate rufivertex; see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
375 Doubtfully distinct from nominate rufivertex; see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
376 Possibly a separate species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
377 For treatment as a separate species from I. rufivertex, see e.g. Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
378 For inclusion of Thraupis bonariensis, see Burns et al. (2003) [Burns, 2003 #586], Burns & Naoki (2004) [Burns, 2004 #587] and Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
379 Wolters (1980) [Wolters, 1980 #4263] placed this species in a new genus Rauenia; which be appropriate.
380 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
381 For changed composition of this genus, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736]. The genus Delothraupis is subsumed.
382 Formerly placed in the genus Saltator, but see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
383 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
384 May comprise two or three species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
385 Includes peruvianus; see Isler & Isler (1987) [Isler, 1987 #2092].
386 Formerly placed in a monotypic genus Delothraupis, but see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
387 For treatment as separate from Buthraupis see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
388 For treatment as separate from Thraupis see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
389 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
390 Genus possibly not monophyletic; see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
391 For treatment as a separate species from A. lacrymosus, see e.g. Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676], Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Donegan & Avendaño (2010) [Donegan, 2010 #12160].
392 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with A. melanogenys, but see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
393 For recognition see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
394 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
395 Mistakenly called A. flavinuchus by Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746], when the oldest subspecific name listed was somptuosus.
396 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
397 Perhaps not diagnosably different from nominate somptuosus; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
398 Correct original spelling. Invariable. Spelling flavinuchus in Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
399 Treated as a separate species by Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
400 For a circumscription of a reduced genus see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
401 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
402 For recognition see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477], but see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517]. Corroboration desirable.
403 For treatment as separate from Buthraupis see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
404 Forms a superspecies with C. aureodorsalis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
405 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
406 For treatment of Bangsia as separate from Buthraupis, see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271], Monroe et al. (1993) [Monroe, 1993 #14782] and Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
407 For changed composition of this genus and inclusion of Thraupis, see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041]. See also Burns & Naoki (2004) [Burns, 2004 #587].
408 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
409 Includes consobrina, see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517]; lozanoana Aveledo & Pérez, 1994 [Aveledo, 1994 #119] best placed here until firmly corroborated, see doubts in Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443].
410 Forms a superspecies with T. fucosa; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
411 For treatment as a separate species from T. dowii, see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517]; but see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154] and Isler & Isler (1987) [Isler, 1987 #2092].
412 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
413 Forms a superspecies with T. lavinia; see Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746].
414 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
415 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
416 Name in caption to Plate 9. For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
417 Doubtfully distinct from aurulenta; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
418 Includes T. schrankii anchicayae; see Haffer (1975) [Haffer, 1975 #14458] and Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967].
419 Includes auriceps; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
420 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
421 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
422 May merit treatment as a separate species, as in the past; see Hellmayr (1936) [Hellmayr, 1936 #6473] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
423 For retention of date 1849 see Evenhuis (1997) [Evenhuis, 1997 #12439] and Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
424 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
425 Possibly a separate species; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Assis et al. (2008) [Assis, 2008 #13454].
426 Often spelled cyanomelaena e.g. by Hellmayr (1936) [Hellmayr, 1936 #6473] and Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746], but see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1124].
427 Forms a superspecies with T. cyanoventris; see Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746].
428 Plate 58. For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
429 May comprise more than one species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
430 May comprise more than one species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
431 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
432 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Hilty (2003, 2011) [Hilty, 2003 #12443], [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
433 May comprise more than one species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
434 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] except for the placement of amabilis; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
435 For date used see Sherborn (1930) [Sherborn, 1930 #14154] where reference is made to the plate list. If a list of the plates issued in each part has been published this is not known to us but this could perhaps justify an earlier date.
436 Species T. glaucocolpa through T. palmarum formerly placed in Thraupis, but see Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
437 For treatment as a separate species from T. sayaca, see Meyer de Schauensee & Phelps (1978) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1978 #2680].
438 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
439 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with T. episcopus and T. glaucocolpa.
440 Review of subspecies desirable; see Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
441 For date used see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542].
442 Perhaps not diagnosable from ehrenreichi; see Parkes (1994) [Parkes, 1994 #2945].
443 For recognition see Parkes (1994) [Parkes, 1994 #2945].
444 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
445 Isler & Isler (1987) [Isler, 1987 #2092] considered T. cabanisi and T. palmeri to be sister species. They are allopatric.
446 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
447 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
448 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with T. larvata, but see Burns & Naoki (2004) [Burns, 2004 #587] and Sedano & Burns (2010) [Sedano, 2010 #12041].
449 The name Aglaia cyanoptera Swainson, 1834 is preoccupied in Tangara by Saltator cyanopterus Vieillot, 1817.
450 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
451 Probably represents a separate species; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
452 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
453 Species may be monotypic; see Bond & Meyer de Schauensee (1942) [Bond, 1942 #14386].
454 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with T. phillipsi.
455 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
456 For support for treatment as a separate species from T. peruviana, see Firme et al. (2007) [Firme, 2007 #11220].
457 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
458 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
459 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
460 Considered by Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517] to form a superspecies with T. cucullata, T. peruviana, T. preciosa, T. vitriolina and T. meyerdeschauenseei.
461 For recognition see Gyldenstolpe (1945) [Gyldenstolpe, 1945 #1845] and Corrigenda to Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676].
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