Back to families

CARDINALIDAE - Cardinals, Grosbeaks and allies1 (11:48)
PHEUCTICUS Reichenbach, 1850 M - Pitylus aureoventris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by subsequent monotypy (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 75).   
Pheucticus chrysopeplus2,3 Yellow Grosbeak
dilutus van Rossem, 1934 vNW Mexico (C Sonora, SW Chihuahua, N Sinaloa)
chrysopeplus (Vigors, 1832) vPacific slope of W Mexico (C Sinaloa to N Guerrero)
aurantiacus Salvin & Godman, 1891 vS Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala
Pheucticus tibialis 4  Lawrence, 1867 Black-thighed Grosbeak
vMountains of Costa Rica to WC Panama
Pheucticus chrysogaster5 Golden Grosbeak
laubmanni Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1915 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts., Sierra de Perijá), N Venezuela
chrysogaster (Lesson, 1832) SW Colombia (Andes of Nariño) to S Peru (Arequipa, Puno)
Pheucticus aureoventris6,7 Black-backed Grosbeak
1 meridensis Riley, 1905 vW Venezuela (Andes of Mérida)
1 uropygialis P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1871 vColombia (E and C Andes from Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca, Huila)
2 crissalis P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1877 vSW Colombia (Andes of Nariño) to C Ecuador
3 terminalis Chapman, 1919 vE Peru (Andes of Amazonas, Cuzco)
4 aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) vS Peru (Puno), Bolivia (La Paz to Tarija), NW Argentina (Jujuy to San Luis) >> WC Brazil, N Paraguay
Pheucticus ludovicianus 8  (Linnaeus, 1766) Rose-breasted Grosbeak
vS Canada, E USA (to N Georgia) >> Mexico, West Indies, N South America
Pheucticus melanocephalus9 Black-headed Grosbeak
maculatus (Audubon, 1837)10 vPacific coast of SW Canada (SW British Columbia), W USA, NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> Mexico
melanocephalus (Swainson, 1827)11 vSW Canada, WC USA (Rocky Mts. and W Great Plains) to Mexico (Oaxaca)
GRANATELLUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Granatellus venustus Du Bus; type by monotypy = Granatellus venustus Bonaparte, 1850  12,13
Granatellus venustus14,15 Red-breasted Chat
1 francescae S.F. Baird, 186516 Islas Marías (off W Mexico)
2 venustus Bonaparte, 185017,18 vW Mexico (Sinaloa to Chiapas)
Granatellus sallaei Gray-throated Chat
sallaei (Bonaparte, 1856) S Mexico (Atlantic slope from S Veracruz to N Chiapas)
boucardi Ridgway, 188519 αSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.), Belize, C Guatemala
Granatellus pelzelni Rose-breasted Chat
pelzelni P.L. Sclater, 1865 SE Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, C and E Amazonian Brazil, N Bolivia
paraensis Rothschild, 1906 vE Amazonian Brazil south of R. Amazon (east of R. Tocantins)
SPIZA Bonaparte, 1824 F - Emberiza americana J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by subsequent designation (Bonaparte, 1827, Specchio Comp. Ornith. Roma Filadelfia, p. 47).   
Spiza americana   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Dickcissel
vSC Canada (SE Saskatchewan, SW Manitoba), C and EC USA (E Montana to Wisconsin, south to Texas and Georgia) >> N South America
PASSERINA Vieillot, 1816 F - Tanagra cyanea Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 46).   20
Passerina cyanea 21  (Linnaeus, 1766) Indigo Bunting
vS Canada, E and S USA (Atlantic and Gulf coasts, New Mexico, Arizona) >> West Indies, Mexico to Panama
Passerina caerulea Blue Grosbeak
caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758)22 vSE USA (Kansas to S New Jersey, south to Texas to C Florida) >> Mexico, Central America
interfusa (Dwight & Griscom, 1927) vW USA (S South Dakota to Arizona, New Mexico), N Mexico (Coahuila to Sinaloa) >> W Mexico to Honduras
salicaria (G.B. Grinnell, 1911) vSW USA (C and S California to Arizona), NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> NW Mexico
eurhyncha (Coues, 1874) vC and S Mexico (S Tamaulipas to Oaxaca)
chiapensis (Nelson, 1898) vS Mexico (E Oaxaca, Chiapas), Guatemala
deltarhyncha (van Rossem, 1938) vW Mexico (Pacific coast from S Sonora to Guerrero)
lazula (Lesson, 1842) vS Guatemala to NW Costa Rica
Passerina amoena 23,24  (Say, 1822) α Lazuli Bunting
vSW Canada, W USA (south to California and New Mexico), NW Mexico (NW Baja California) >> W Mexico (south to NW Oaxaca)
Passerina rositae   (Lawrence, 1874) Rose-bellied Bunting
iS Mexico (SE Oaxaca, W Chiapas)
Passerina leclancherii Orange-breasted Bunting
grandior Griscom, 1934 vSW Mexico (Colima to W Chiapas)
leclancherii Lafresnaye, 1840 SW Mexico (C Guerrero)
Passerina versicolor Varied Bunting
versicolor (Bonaparte, 1838) S USA (S New Mexico; S Texas) to C Mexico (to Oaxaca)
dickeyae van Rossem, 193425 S USA (C and S Arizona, S New Mexico), W Mexico (Sonora, WC Chihuahua to Colima)
pulchra Ridgway, 1887 vNW Mexico (S Baja California)
purpurascens Griscom, 193026 S Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala
Passerina ciris Painted Bunting
1 ciris (Linnaeus, 1758) E USA (Atlantic coast) >> S Florida, Bahamas, Cuba
2 pallidior Mearns, 191127 vS USA (Kansas, Tennessee to New Mexico, Texas), N Mexico (Chihuahua to NW Tamaulipas) >> W Panama
CYANOCOMPSA Cabanis, 1861 F - Fringilla parellina Lichtenstein; type by original designation = Cyanoloxia parellina Bonaparte, 1850  28
Cyanocompsa parellina Blue Bunting
beneplacita Bangs, 191529 vNE Mexico (Nuevo León, W and S Tamaulipas)
indigotica (Ridgway, 1887) vW Mexico (Pacific slope from C Sinaloa to SW Chiapas)
parellina (Bonaparte, 1850)30 vE Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz to Yucatan Pen.), NW Nicaragua
AMAUROSPIZA Cabanis, 1861 F - Amaurospiza concolor Cabanis, 1861; type by original designation   31,32
Amaurospiza concolor33 Blue Seedeater
1 relicta (Griscom, 1934)34 vMountains of SW Mexico (Jalisco, Colima, Guerrero, Morelos, Oaxaca)
1 concolor Cabanis, 1861 S Mexico (Chiapas), ?Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, W and C Panama
2 aequatorialis Sharpe, 1888 vSW Colombia (Nariño) to N Peru (Cajamarca)
Amaurospiza carrizalensis   Lentino & Restall, 2003 Carrizal Seedeater
vSC Venezuela (N Bolívar) [Lentino, 2003 #2370]
Amaurospiza moesta   (Hartlaub, 1853) Blackish-blue Seedeater
vSE Brazil (S Espírito Santo to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
CYANOLOXIA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Pyrrhula glaucocaerulea d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837; type by subsequent designation (Hellmayr, 1938, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 13, pt. 11, p. 105).   35,36
Cyanoloxia cyanoides37,38 Blue-black Grosbeak
1 concreta Du Bus, 1855 vSE Mexico (Veracruz to S Yucatan Pen.) Belize, N Guatemala, Honduras
1 caerulescens (Todd, 1923)39 Nicaragua to W Panama
1 cyanoides (Lafresnaye, 1847) E Panama east to NW Venezuela, south to NW Peru (Tumbes)
2 rothschildii (E. Bartlett, 1890) Venezuela, the Guianas south to E Peru, Brazil (to N Mato Grosso, N Maranhão), N Bolivia
Cyanoloxia brissonii40 Ultramarine Grosbeak
caucae (Chapman, 1912) SW Colombia (upper Patía valley, upper Cauca valley, Dagua valley)
minor (Cabanis, 1861) vN Venezuela (mountains from Falcón to Monagas)
brissonii (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) NE Brazil (Piauí, Ceará to Bahia)
sterea (Oberholser, 1901) vE and S Brazil (Mato Grosso, Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina, Uruguay
argentina (Sharpe, 1888) vBolivia, S Brazil (W Mato Grosso), Paraguay, N Argentina (south to La Rioja to Buenos Aires)
Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea   (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Glaucous-blue Grosbeak
vNE Argentina (Misiones to Buenos Aires), SE Brazil (S São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay
HABIA Blyth, 1840 F - Tanagra flammiceps Temminck, 1823; type by subsequent designation (Oberholser, 1922, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 80). = Saltator rubicus Vieillot, 1817  41,42
Habia fuscicauda43 Red-throated Ant Tanager
1 salvini (von Berlepsch, 1883) E Mexico (San Luis Potosí) to El Salvador
1 insularis (Salvin, 1888) vSE Mexico (N and E Yucatan Pen.), N Guatemala
1 discolor (Ridgway, 1901) Nicaragua
2 fuscicauda (Cabanis, 1861) S Nicaragua to W Panama
2 willisi Parkes, 1969 C Panama (Caribbean slope from Coclé to Comarca Guna Yala)
2 erythrolaema (P.L. Sclater, 1862) vNW Colombia (Caribbean coast)
Habia gutturalis 44  (P.L. Sclater, 1854) Sooty Ant Tanager
vNW Colombia (south to N Cundinamarca)
Habia atrimaxillaris 45  (Dwight & Griscom, 1924) Black-cheeked Ant Tanager
vSW Costa Rica (S Puntarenas)
Habia cristata   (Lawrence, 1875) Crested Ant Tanager
vW Colombia (W slope of W Andes in Antioquia to Cauca)
Habia rubica46 Red-crowned Ant Tanager
holobrunnea Griscom, 1930 vE Mexico (S Tamaulipas to N Oaxaca)
rosea (Nelson, 1898) vSW Mexico (Pacific slope from Nayarit to Guerrero)
affinis (Nelson, 1897) vS Mexico (SW Oaxaca)
nelsoni (Ridgway, 1902) SE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.)
rubicoides (Lafresnaye, 1844) S Mexico (Puebla to Chiapas) to El Salvador
vinacea (Lawrence, 1867) vPacific slope of Costa Rica and Panama
alfaroana (Ridgway, 1905) vN Costa Rica (Guanacaste)
perijana W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1957 vSierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border)
coccinea (Todd, 1919) vW Venezuela (base of Andes from Lara to Táchira), NC Colombia
crissalis Parkes, 1969 vNE Venezuela (mountains of Anzoátegui, Sucre)
rubra (Vieillot, 1819) vTrinidad
mesopotamia Parkes, 1969 vE Venezuela (E Bolívar)
rhodinolaema (Salvin & Godman, 1883) vS Colombia (Meta to Caquetá), E Ecuador, NE Peru, NW Brazil
peruviana (Taczanowski, 1884) vE Peru, W Brazil, N Bolivia (to Santa Cruz)
hesterna Griscom & Greenway, 1937 vC Brazil (south of R. Amazon east to R. Xingu, south to N Mato Grosso)
bahiae Hellmayr, 1936 E Brazil (Alagoas; SE Bahia)
rubica (Vieillot, 1817)47 vE Paraguay, SE Brazil (S Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul), NE Argentina (Misiones)
Habia carmioli48,49 Carmiol's Tanager
1 carmioli (Lawrence, 1868) Caribbean slope in Nicaragua to NW Panama
1 magnirostris (Griscom, 1927) vW Panama
1 lutescens (Griscom, 1927) C Panama (Coclé) to NW Colombia (Chocó)
2 frenata (von Berlepsch, 1907)50 vE base of Andes in Colombia (Caquetá, Nariño), Peru to WC Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Habia olivacea 51  (Cassin, 1860) Lemon-spectacled Tanager
vE Panama (Pacific slope in Darién) to NW Ecuador (N Esmeraldas)
Habia stolzmanni Ochre-breasted Tanager
dugandi (Meyer de Schauensee, 1948)52 W Colombia (Pacific slope of Andes from Risaralda to Nariño), NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
stolzmanni (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884)53 W Ecuador (W slope of Andes from Pichincha to El Oro)
PIRANGA Vieillot, 1807 F - Muscicapa rubra Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy = Fringilla rubra Linnaeus, 1758  54,55,56
Piranga roseogularis Rose-throated Tanager
roseogularis S. Cabot, 1846 vSE Mexico (N Campeche, N Yucatán, N Quintana Roo)
tincta Paynter, 1950 vSE Mexico (C and S Yucatan Pen.), Belize, N Guatemala
cozumelae Ridgway, 1901 Isla Mujeres, Isla de Cozumel, off SE Mexico
Piranga erythrocephala Red-headed Tanager
candida Griscom, 1934 vNW Mexico (S Sonora to Jalisco) >> C Mexico (Michoacán)
erythrocephala (Swainson, 1827) vSC and S Mexico (Jalisco to E Oaxaca)
Piranga rubriceps   G.R. Gray, 1844 Red-hooded Tanager
iW Colombia (all three ranges of Andes, E slope in Nariño, Putumayo) to N Peru (Huánuco)
Piranga leucoptera57 White-winged Tanager
leucoptera Trudeau, 184058 vHighlands of E Mexico (from Tamaulipas) to Nicaragua
latifasciata Ridgway, 1887 vHighlands of Costa Rica, W Panama
venezuelae J.T. Zimmer, 1947 Andes of Colombia (except Nariño), Highlands of Venezuela, N Brazil
ardens (von Tschudi, 1844) SW Colombia (W slope of Andes in Nariño), to Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Piranga olivacea   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Scarlet Tanager
vSE Canada, E USA (South Dakota, Kansas to Vermont, North Carolina) >> NW South America
Piranga rubra Summer Tanager
1 cooperi Ridgway, 186959,60 SW USA (SE California to W Texas), N Mexico (NE Baja California, Sonora to C Nuevo León) >> C Mexico
2 rubra (Linnaeus, 1758) vE USA (SE Nebraska, Delaware to C Texas, Gulf coast, Florida) >> Central America and N South America
Piranga bidentata Flame-colored Tanager
bidentata Swainson, 1827 vSW USA (S Arizona, W Texas), W Mexico (Sonora to Guerrero)
flammea Ridgway, 1887 vW Mexico (Islas Marías, Nayarit)
sanguinolenta Lafresnaye, 1839 vE Mexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas) to N El Salvador
citrea van Rossem, 1934 vCosta Rica, W Panama
Piranga ludoviciana 61  (A. Wilson, 1811) Western Tanager
vS Alaska, W Canada, W USA (to California, W Texas), NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> Central America
Piranga flava62 Hepatic Tanager
1 hepatica Swainson, 1827 vSW USA (E California, Arizona, W New Mexico), W Mexico (to Oaxaca)
1 dextra Bangs, 1907 vSW USA (New Mexico, W Texas), E Mexico (to Chiapas) >> W Guatemala
1 figlina Salvin & Godman, 1883 vE Guatemala, Belize
1 savannarum T.R. Howell, 1965 E Honduras, Belize
1 albifacies J.T. Zimmer, 1929 Highlands of W Guatemala to NC Nicaragua
2 testacea P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 186863 vHighlands of N Costa Rica (Guanacaste) to E Panama (Darién)
2 faceta Bangs, 1898 vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.), mountains of N Venezuela; Trinidad
2 haemalea Salvin & Godman, 188364 vS Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil (Serra Imeri)
2 toddi Parkes, 1969 Colombia (W slope of E Andes in Magdalena, E slope in Norte de Santander)
2 desidiosa Bangs & Noble, 1918 vSW Colombia (Antioquia to Cauca)
2 lutea (Lesson, 1834) vSW Colombia (Andes of Nariño) to NW Bolivia (Cochabamba)
3 macconnelli C. Chubb, 192165 S Guyana, S Surinam, N Brazil (E Roraima)
3 rosacea Todd, 1922 vE Bolivia (E Santa Cruz)
3 saira (von Spix, 1825) E and S Brazil (Amapá, C Pará; SE Alagoas; C Maranhão, C Piauí to Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul)
3 flava (Vieillot, 1822) vSE Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), Paraguay to N Argentina (to N Buenos Aires), Uruguay
CARDINALIS Bonaparte, 1838 M - Cardinalis virginianus Bonaparte, 1838; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 43). = Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus, 1758  66
Cardinalis cardinalis67,68,69 Northern Cardinal
1 cardinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) E USA (east of South Dakota to C Louisiana except SE Georgia and Florida Pen.)70
1 floridanus Ridgway, 189671 vSE USA (SE Georgia, Florida Pen.)
1 magnirostris Bangs, 1903 vS USA (C Oklahoma, S Texas to SW Mississippi)
1 canicaudus Chapman, 1891 E Mexico (Coahuila to Jalisco, Hidalgo)
2 coccineus Ridgway, 1873 vE Mexico (Atlantic coast from San Luis Potosí to Veracruz)
2 littoralis Nelson, 1897 vSE Mexico (S Veracruz, Tabasco)
2 yucatanicus Ridgway, 1887 vSE Mexico (base of Yucatan Pen.)
2 phillipsi Parkes, 199772 SE Mexico (coastal Yucatán) [Parkes, 1997 #2948]
2 saturatus Ridgway, 1885 vIsla de Cozumel, off Yucatan Pen.
2 flammiger J.L. Peters, 191373 vSE Mexico (Quintana Roo), NE Belize, N Guatemala (Petén)
3 mariae Nelson, 1898 Islas Marías, off W Mexico
3 seftoni (Huey, 1940) NW Mexico (C Baja California)
3 igneus S.F. Baird, 1860 vNW Mexico (S Baja California)
3 clintoni (Banks, 1963)74 NW Mexico (Isla Cerralvo, off SE Baja California)
3 sinaloensis Nelson, 189975 vW Mexico (Sinaloa to Michoacán)
3 superbus Ridgway, 1885 vSW USA (SE California to SW New Mexico), NW Mexico (N Sonora)
3 townsendi (van Rossem, 1932) NW Mexico (Isla Tiburón, coastal Sonora)
3 affinis Nelson, 1899 vWC Mexico (SE Sonora to W Durango)
4 carneus (Lesson, 1842) vW and S Mexico (coastal Colima to Oaxaca)
Cardinalis phoeniceus   Bonaparte, 1838 Vermilion Cardinal
vN Colombia (Guajira Pen.), N Venezuela (Zulia, Falcón, SE Lara; NE Anzoátegui, Sucre, Isla de Margarita)
Cardinalis sinuatus76 Pyrrhuloxia
sinuatus Bonaparte, 1838 vS USA (S New Mexico, SE Texas), Mexico (Tamaulipas to Jalisco, Michoacán)
fulvescens (van Rossem, 1934) S USA (S Arizona), NW Mexico (Sonora to N Nayarit)
peninsulae (Ridgway, 1887) NW Mexico (C and S Baja California)
CARYOTHRAUSTES Reichenbach, 1850 M - Coccothraustes viridis Vieillot, 1817; type by subsequent designation (Sclater & Salvin, 1869, Exotic Ornith., p. 167). = Loxia canadensis Linnaeus, 1766  77
Caryothraustes poliogaster78 Black-faced Grosbeak
poliogaster (Du Bus, 1847) SE Mexico (Caribbean lowlands from C Veracruz to S Quintana Roo) Belize, N Guatemala, N Honduras
scapularis (Ridgway, 1888)79 αvCaribbean lowlands off E Honduras to Panama
Caryothraustes canadensis80 Yellow-green Grosbeak
simulans Nelson, 191281 E Panama (Cerro Pirre)
canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766) vSE Colombia (Vaupés), SE Venezuela (Amazonas to Delta Amacuro), the Guianas, N Brazil (to N Maranhão)
frontalis (Hellmayr, 1905) vNE Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas)
brasiliensis Cabanis, 1851 vE Brazil (E Bahia to Rio de Janeiro)
Caryothraustes celaeno   (Deppe, 1830) Crimson-collared Grosbeak
NE Mexico (Atlantic slope from C Nuevo León to N Veracruz)
Caryothraustes erythromelas   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Red-and-black Grosbeak
E Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (Amapá to E Pará, N Maranhão; NE Amazonas to W Pará)

1 Sequence of genera based on Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
2 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with P. tibialis, P. chrysogaster and P. aureoventris. Species limits within it may need adjustments; see Pulgarín et al. (2013) [Pulgarín, 2013 #15183].
3 Possibly paraphyletic with respect to P. tibialis; see Pulgarín et al. (2013) [Pulgarín, 2013 #15183].
4 For treatment as a separate species from P. chrysopeplus, see Eisenmann (1955) [Eisenmann, 1955 #1490], A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Brewer (2011) [Brewer, 2011 #13519], but see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
5 For treatment as a separate species from P. chrysopeplus, see Eisenmann (1955) [Eisenmann, 1955 #1490], A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Brewer (2011) [Brewer, 2011 #13519], but see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
6 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
7 May be paraphyletic with respect to P. chrysogaster, and more study needed; see Pulgarín et al. (2013) [Pulgarín, 2013 #15183]. Apparently hybridises with P. chrysogaster in Ecuador; see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
8 Forms a superspecies with P. melanocephalus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; sometimes considered conspecific, e.g. Phillips (1994) [Phillips, 1994 #3073], but see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Mettler & Spellman (2009) [Mettler, 2009 #11881].
9 Genus name misspelled in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
10 Diagnosability questioned by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983].
11 Includes rostratus A.R. Phillips, 1994 [Phillips, 1994 #3073], see Brewer (2011) [Brewer, 2011 #13519]; but see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
12 Formerly tentatively placed in Parulidae, e.g. by Lowery & Monroe (1968) [Lowery, 1968 #2448], but treated as incertae sedis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. For transfer to the Cardinalidae, see Lovette & Bermingham (2002) [Lovette, 2002 #2441], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
13 Dated '1951?' by Lowery & Monroe (1968) [Lowery, 1968 #2448], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
14 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
15 Forms a superspecies with G. sallaei and G. pelzelni; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Curson (2010) [Curson, 2010 #13498].
16 Dual original spellings. See David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
17 Includes melanotis; see Miller et al. (1957) [Miller, 1957 #13814] and Curson (2010) [Curson, 2010 #13498].
18 Dated '1851?' by Lowery & Monroe (1968) [Lowery, 1968 #2448], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
19 For recommended date see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
20 Sequence of species follows Klicka et al. (2001, 2007) [Klicka, 2001 #2238], [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
21 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] to form a superspecies with P. amoena; but see Klicka et al. (2001, 2007) [Klicka, 2001 #2238], [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Carling & Brumfield (2008) [Carling, 2008 #10367].
22 Includes mesophila Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
23 For close relationship with P. caerulea see Carling & Brumfeld (2008) [Carling, 2008 #10367].
24 For date correction see Woodman (2010) [Woodman, 2010 #13512].
25 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Groschupf & Thompson (1998) [Groschupf, 1998 #15392].
26 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Hellmayr (1938) [Hellmayr, 1938 #10409] and Groschupf & Thompson (1998) [Groschupf, 1998 #15392].
27 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Thompson (1991) [Thompson, 1991 #15396].
28 Treated as a synonym of Passerina by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983]. For recognition see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and subsequent authors.
29 Includes lucida; see Miller et al. (1957) [Miller, 1957 #13814]. But see Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] and Brewer (2011) [Brewer, 2011 #13519].
30 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
31 For placement in Cardinalidae, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
32 Species limits in this genus have been controversial; see Lentino & Restall (2003) [Lentino, 2003 #2370].
33 Probably best treated as two species based on evidence presented by Bryson et al. (2014) [Bryson, 2014 #15656].
34 Treated as a separate species by Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863] and as a subspecies group by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
35 Treated as a synonym of Passerina by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983]. But see Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. For inclusion of C. cyanoides and C. brissonii see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Bryson et al. (2014) [Bryson, 2014 #15656].
36 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
37 For removal from Cyanocompsa and placement in Cyanoloxia see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
38 Probably best treated as two species based on evidence provided by Bryson et al. (2014) [Bryson, 2014 #15656].
39 Includes toddi Paynter, 1970 [Paynter, 1970 #2983] a replacement name which should not now be retained, see Art. 59.4 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
40 This name assumed precedence after being made available by suppression of the name Loxia cyanea Linnaeus 1758 and the conservation of Tanagra cyanea Linnaeus 1766 see Opinion 1126 (I.C.Z.N., 1979) [I.C.Z.N., 1979 #9656].
41 For revised composition of this genus and inclusion of Chlorothraupis, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
42 For transfer from the Thraupidae to the Cardinalidae, see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
43 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
44 Considered by A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with H. fuscicauda; H. atrimaxillaris is apparently also closely related to them, see Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746].
45 Perhaps a subspecies of H. fuscicauda; see Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746], but see Willis (1972) [Willis, 1972 #10423].
46 Several subspecies are probably not worthy of recognition; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
47 May merit treatment, along with bahiae, as a separate species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
48 H. carmioli, H. olivacea and H. stolzmanni were formerly placed in Chlorothraupis, but see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
49 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
50 Treated as a separate species by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
51 Forms a superspecies with H. carmioli; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
52 Diagnosability questioned by Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
53 For correct date, see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
54 Species sequence based on Shepherd & Burns (2007) [Shepherd, 2007 #10065]. See also Burns (1998) [Burns, 1998 #584].
55 For transfer from the Thraupidae to the Cardinalidae, see Klicka et al. (2000, 2007) [Klicka, 2000 #2237], [Klicka, 2007 #9736], Yuri & Mindell (2002) [Yuri, 2002 #4290], Burns et al. (2003) [Burns, 2003 #586] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
56 Dated 1808 by Storer (1970) [Storer, 1970 #3746], but see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542]. But true date not known see Dickinson (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #12761].
57 P. leucoptera and P. erythrocephala have sometimes been placed in a separate genus, Spermagra, e.g. by Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863], but see Burns (1998) [Burns, 1998 #584] and Shepherd & Burns (2007) [Shepherd, 2007 #10065].
58 Nolan (1913) [Nolan, 1913 #15713] reported that this issue had been presented to an Academy meeting on May 5, 1840.
59 Tentatively includes ochracea which was recognised by Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539] and Robinson (2012) [Robinson, 2012 #15394], but not by Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
60 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Shepherd & Burns (2007) [Shepherd, 2007 #10065].
61 Includes zephyrica Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
62 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. These are treated as 3 species by Burns (1998) [Burns, 1998 #584], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2003, 2011) [Hilty, 2003 #12443], [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
63 May prove to be vocally distinct from populations in the Andes; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
64 For a suggestion this may deserve species rank, see Haverschmidt & Mees (1994) [Haverschmidt, 1994 #15399].
65 Perhaps better treated as a synonym of saira; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
66 For validation of this name see Opinion 784 (I.C.Z.N., 1966) [I.C.Z.N., 1966 #9644].
67 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with C. phoeniceus, but see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736].
68 Subspecies groups follow Halkin & Linville (1999) [Halkin, 1999 #15393] and Brewer (2011) [Brewer, 2011 #13519]. See also Smith et al. (2011) [Smith, 2011 #12882] and Smith & Klicka (2013) [Smith, 2013 #14756].
69 Subspecies recognition follows Brewer (2011) [Brewer, 2011 #13519].
70 Introduced to Hawaiian Is. and Bermuda.
71 Treated as synonym of nominate cardinalis by Stevenson in Stevenson & Anderson (1994) [Stevenson, 1994 15571], but see Halkin & Linville (1999) [Halkin, 1999 #15393].
72 For recognition see Halkin & Linville (1999) [Halkin, 1999 #15393].
73 The spelling by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983] flammigerus was a mistaken and unjustified emendation; see Parkes (1997) [Parkes, 1997 #2948].
74 For recognition, see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
75 For recognition see Brewer (2011) [Brewer, 2011 #13519]; but see Halkin & Linville (1999) [Halkin, 1999 #15393].
76 Once placed in the monotypic genus Pyrrhuloxia which was subsumed by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2983] followed by the A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
77 Includes Rhodinothraupis and Periporphyrus; see Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736] who acted as First Revisers in assigning date precedence to Caryothraustes over Periporphyrus.
78 For treatment as a separate species from C. canadensis, see e.g. Eisenmann (1955) [Eisenmann, 1955 #1490] and A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. But see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
79 For recommended date see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
80 Forms a superspecies with C. poliogaster; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
81 Mistakenly placed in C. poliogaster by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
Top