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TITYRIDAE - Tityras1,2 (7:35)
TITYRINAE
IODOPLEURA Lesson, 1839 F - Pardalotus pipra Lesson, 1831; type by original designation  
Iodopleura isabellae 3  Parzudaki, 1847 White-browed Purpletuft
S Venezuela (Amazonas), SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia (Pando), W, C and S Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and NW Maranhão)
Iodopleura fusca 4  (Vieillot, 1817) Dusky Purpletuft
vExtreme E Venezuela (E Bolívar), the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon in NE Roraima, NE Amazonas and Amapá)
Iodopleura pipra Buff-throated Purpletuft
†? leucopygia Salvin, 1885 vNE and E Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas; SE Bahia and adjacent NE Minas Gerais)
pipra (Lesson, 1831) iSE Brazil (Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and S São Paulo)
TITYRA Vieillot, 1816 F - Bécarde Buffon; type by monotypy = Lanius cayanus Linnaeus, 1766  
Tityra inquisitor5 Black-crowned Tityra
fraserii (Kaup, 1852) iE and SE Mexico and N Guatemala to C Panama (Colón, W Panamá)
albitorques Du Bus, 1847 iEC Panama (E Panamá) to N and W Colombia, W Ecuador, N and C Peru, NW Bolivia and NW Brazil (R. Juruá and R. Amazon east to Manaus)
erythrogenys (Selby, 1826) iE Colombia, N, C and S Venezuela, Surinam, French Guiana and N Brazil (north of lower R. Amazon); Guyana (?)
buckleyi Salvin & Godman, 1890 iSE Colombia (W Caquetá and Putumayo to Amazonas) and E Ecuador (south to Pastaza)
pelzelni Salvin & Godman, 1890 iNE Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), C and E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Madeira)
inquisitor (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) iE and SE Brazil (S Piauí and Bahia to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay and NE Argentina
Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra
cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) vVenezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas and Amazonia
braziliensis (Swainson, 1838) αvE and S Brazil (Maranhão, Piauí and Pernambuco to Mato Grosso do Sul and N Rio Grande do Sul), E Bolivia, N, C and E Paraguay and NE Argentina
Tityra semifasciata Masked Tityra
hannumi van Rossem & Hachisuka, 1937 iNW Mexico (SE Sonora, SW Chihuahua, NE Sinaloa)
griseiceps Ridgway, 1888 iW Mexico (NC Sinaloa and W Durango to S Oaxaca)
deses Bangs, 19156 SE Mexico (Yucatán, N Quintana Roo)
personata Jardine & Selby, 1827 vE and S Mexico (S Tamaulipas to N Oaxaca, Chiapas and Campeche), Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, W and C Honduras and NC Nicaragua
costaricensis Ridgway, 1906 vSE Honduras and Nicaragua (except NC area) to C Panama (Colón, W Panamá, and including Isla de Coiba and Isla Cebaco)
columbiana Ridgway, 1906 vEC Panama (E Panamá) to W and N Colombia, NW and N Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá and Coastal Range from Yaracuy to Miranda)
nigriceps J.A. Allen, 1888 iSW Colombia (W Nariño) to SW Ecuador (Guayas and NW Azuay)
fortis von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 vE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, N and E Bolivia and W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon in W Amazonas)
semifasciata (von Spix, 1825) vFrench Guiana, S and E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Juruá, north of R. Amazon along N bank and in Amapá), NE Paraguay
Tityra leucura 7  von Pelzeln, 1868 White-tailed Tityra
vSW Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Madeira and lower R. Roosevelt)
XENOPSARIS Ridgway, 1891 M - Pachyrhamphus albinucha Burmeister, 1869; type by original designation  8
Xenopsaris albinucha White-naped Xenopsaris
minor Hellmayr, 1920 vW and C Venezuela (W Falcón, NE Lara and W Apure to Anzoátegui and N Bolívar); NE Colombia (?)
albinucha (Burmeister, 1869) iGuyana, N, NE and E Brazil, N and E Bolivia (Beni, Santa Cruz), W and C Paraguay, NE Argentina (south to N Buenos Aires), extreme NW and W Uruguay
PACHYRAMPHUS G.R. Gray, 1839 M - Psaris cuvierii Swainson, 1821; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 31). = Tityra viridis Vieillot, 1816  9,10
Pachyramphus versicolor Barred Becard
costaricensis Bangs, 1908 vMountains of Costa Rica and W Panama (Chiriquí)
versicolor (Hartlaub, 1843) iSierra de Perijá; Andes of SW Venezuela and Colombia to C and SE Ecuador (south on W slope to Chimborazo and on E slope to Zamora-Chinchipe)
meridionalis Carriker, 1934 vE slope of Andes of SE Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba), W slope of Andes of NW Peru (Cajamarca)
Pachyramphus xanthogenys11 Yellow-cheeked Becard
xanthogenys Salvadori & Festa, 1898 E slope of Andes of N Ecuador (W Sucumbíos) to N Peru (Amazonas); extreme S Colombia (?)
peruanus E. Hartert & Goodson, 191712 vE slope of Andes of C and SE Peru (Huánuco to Madre de Dios)
Pachyramphus viridis Green-backed Becard
griseigularis Salvin & Godman, 1883 vSE Venezuela (E Bolívar), Guyana (Mt. Roraima), NE Amazonian Brazil (along R. Amazon from lower R. Tapajós to Ilha de Marajó)
viridis (Vieillot, 1816) vNE, WC and S Brazil, E and S Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina, N and E Uruguay
Pachyramphus spodiurus   P.L. Sclater, 1860 Slaty Becard
vNW Ecuador (W Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (Piura)
Pachyramphus rufus13 Cinereous Becard
rufus (Boddaert, 1783) vC Panama to N and NC Colombia, W and N Venezuela, the Guianas and C and E Amazonian Brazil
juruanus Gyldenstolpe, 1951 vE Peru (Loreto) and W Brazil (SW Amazonas)
Pachyramphus minor   (Lesson, 1831) Pink-throated Becardα
vS and E Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia
Pachyramphus aglaiae Rose-throated Becard
albiventris (Lawrence, 1867) vSW USA (SE Arizona) and W Mexico (E Sonora and W Chihuahua to Michoacán, Morelos and N Guerrero)
insularis (Ridgway, 1887) vIslas Marías (off W Mexico)
gravis (van Rossem, 1938) vS USA (S Texas) and NE Mexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí)
aglaiae (Lafresnaye, 1839) iHighlands of S Mexico (WC Veracruz, Puebla, C and S Guerrero and Oaxaca)
sumichrasti (Nelson, 1897) iSE Mexico (C and S Veracruz and N and SE Oaxaca) to W Guatemala
yucatanensis (Ridgway, 1906) vSE Mexico (Yucatán, N Campeche, N Quintana Roo)
hypophaeus (Ridgway, 1891) vCaribbean slope from S Belize and C Guatemala to W Panama
latirostris Bonaparte, 1854 vPacific slope from El Salvador to NW Costa Rica
Pachyramphus niger   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Jamaican Becard
vJamaica
Pachyramphus homochrous14 One-colored Becard
homochrous P.L. Sclater, 1859 vEC Panama (E Colón, E Panamá) to W Colombia, W Ecuador and NW Peru (Piura)
quimarinus (Meyer de Schauensee, 1950) vNW Colombia (Córdoba to Bolívar and N Antioquia)
canescens (Chapman, 1912) iN Colombia (NW Bolívar to S Guajira and Cesar) and NW Venezuela (Zulia)
Pachyramphus validus15 Crested Becard
audax (Cabanis, 1873) iE slope of Andes of SE Ecuador (S Zamora-Chinchipe) and SE Peru (Ayacucho) to S Bolivia (Tarija), E slope of Andes and mountains of NW Argentina (south to La Rioja and Córdoba)
validus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vE and S Brazil (west to R. Xingu and SW Mato Grosso, south to Rio Grande do Sul), E Bolivia, Paraguay and NE Argentina (south to Santa Fé)
Pachyramphus surinamus   (Linnaeus, 1766) Glossy-backed Becard
vSurinam, French Guiana and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to lower R. Negro)
Pachyramphus cinnamomeus Cinnamon Becard
fulvidior Griscom, 1932 vSE Mexico, N Guatemala and S Belize along Caribbean slope to W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
cinnamomeus Lawrence, 1861 vWC Panama (E Chiriquí, Colón) to NW and W Colombia (east to Sinú valley) and SW Ecuador (El Oro)
magdalenae Chapman, 1914 iN Colombia (east from Sinú valley, south to lower Cauca valley and middle Magdalena valley) and NW Venezuela (Zulia, NW Táchira, W Mérida)
badius W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1955 vE slope of Andes of W Venezuela (S Táchira)
Pachyramphus castaneus16 Chestnut-crowned Becard
intermedius von Berlepsch, 1879 vN Venezuela (Falcón and Lara to Sucre and N Monagas)
parui W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949 iS Venezuela (foothills of Serranía Parú in C Amazonas)
saturatus Chapman, 1914 vSE Venezuela (SE Bolívar); SE Colombia, E Ecuador, NE and E Peru, W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Purus) and N Bolivia
amazonus J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vE Amazonian Brazil (west to lower R. Negro and R. Madeira)
castaneus (Jardine & Selby, 1827) vE and S Brazil (Bahia to SE Goiás, S Mato Grosso do Sul and N Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones)
Pachyramphus major Gray-collared Becard
uropygialis Nelson, 1899 vMountains of W Mexico (S Sonora to S Oaxaca)
major (Cabanis, 1847) vMountains of E and S Mexico (S Nuevo León to N Oaxaca)
itzensis Nelson, 1901 vSE Mexico (Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo), Belize (?), N Guatemala (?)
matudai A.R. Phillips, 1966 iMountains of S Mexico (S Chiapas) and S Guatemala
australis W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925 vHighlands of Honduras, El Salvador and NC Nicaragua
Pachyramphus marginatus17 Black-capped Becard
nanus Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1921 iS and E Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia
marginatus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vE Brazil (Pernambuco to NE São Paulo)
Pachyramphus polychopterus18 White-winged Becard
similis Cherrie, 1891 vS Belize, C Guatemala and N Honduras to NW Colombia (N Chocó)
cinereiventris P.L. Sclater, 1862 vN Colombia (Chocó and N Antioquia to Magdalena and Cesar)
dorsalis P.L. Sclater, 1862 vC and SW Colombia (S Antioquia and Cundinamarca to SW Nariño) and NW Ecuador (south to N Pichincha)
tristis (Kaup, 1852) vNE Colombia, Venezuela (except S Amazonas), Trinidad, Tobago, the Guianas and E Amazonian Brazil (west to lower R. Negro and R. Tapajós)
nigriventris P.L. Sclater, 1857 vE Colombia (W Meta to Vaupés), S Venezuela (S Amazonas), W Amazonian Brazil (east to lower R. Negro and R. Madeira) and E Peru (south of R. Marañón)
tenebrosus J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vSE Colombia (W Caquetá and SE Nariño to Amazonas), E Ecuador and NE Peru (north of R. Marañón)
polychopterus (Vieillot, 1818) vE Brazil (Piauí and Ceará to Alagoas and Bahia)
spixii (Swainson, 1838) αiN and E Bolivia, S and SE Brazil (Mato Grosso to Espírito Santo and Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, N Argentina (south to N Buenos Aires) and Uruguay
Pachyramphus albogriseus Black-and-white Becard
ornatus Cherrie, 1891 vMountains of Costa Rica and W Panama (Chiriquí, Veraguas)
coronatus W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953 vSanta Marta Mts. (N Colombia); Sierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border)
albogriseus P.L. Sclater, 1857 vAndes and Coastal Range of Venezuela; E Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander to Boyacá)
guayaquilensis J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vNW Ecuador (W Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (N Piura)
salvini Richmond, 1899 iE slope of Andes of SW Colombia (E Nariño) to SE Peru (Cuzco); W slope of Andes of N Ecuador (Carchi, Pichincha) (?)
PTILOCHLORINAE19,20
SCHIFFORNIS Bonaparte, 1854 F - Muscicapa turdina zu Wied, 1831; type by monotypy  21,22
Schiffornis major Varzea Schiffornis
duidae J.T. Zimmer, 193623 iS Venezuela (W Amazonas); Surinam (?)
major Des Murs, 1856 vS Colombia, NE Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia, W and C Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Tapajós)
Schiffornis virescens   (Lafresnaye, 1838) Greenish Schiffornis
iSE Brazil (N Goiás and SE Bahia to E Mato Grosso do Sul and N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones, NE Corrientes)
Schiffornis olivacea   (Ridgway, 1906) Olivaceous Schiffornis/Guianan Schiffornis
vE Venezuela (Bolívar and Delta Amacuro), the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Negro)
Schiffornis stenorhyncha Russet-winged Schiffornis
panamensis Hellmayr, 1929 vC Panama (E Colón, C Panamá) to NW Colombia (N Chocó to Córdoba)
stenorhyncha (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869) vN and NE Colombia (Sucre to Guajira, south to middle Magdalena valley and N Boyacá) and N Venezuela (Zulia and Táchira to Aragua)
Schiffornis turdina24,25 Brown-winged Schiffornis
1 amazonum (P.L. Sclater, 1861)26 αδSE Colombia, S Venezuela, E Ecuador, E Peru and W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Tapajós)
2 wallacii (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1867)27 iE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Tapajós)
2 steinbachi Todd, 1928 iSE Peru and N Bolivia
2 intermedia O.M. de O. Pinto, 1954 vNE Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas)
2 turdina (zu Wied, 1831) vE Brazil (SE Bahia, Espírito Santo)
Schiffornis aenea   J.T. Zimmer, 1936 Foothill Schiffornis
vE slope of Andes of Ecuador to N Peru (San Martín)
Schiffornis veraepacis28 Northern Schiffornis
1 veraepacis (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1860) Caribbean slope from SE Mexico to Nicaragua and on both slopes of Costa Rica
1 dumicola (Bangs, 1903) W and C Panama (Veraguas and Colón on Caribbean slope, Chiriquí to W Panamá on Pacific slope)
2 acrolophites Wetmore, 1972 Mountains of E Panama (Cerro Malí, Cerro Tacarcuna) and NW Colombia (Serraniá de Baudó)
2 rosenbergi (E. Hartert, 1898) W Colombia (S Chocó) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
LANIOCERA Lesson, 1841 F - Laniocera sanguinaria Lesson, 1841; type by monotypy = Ampelis hypopyrra Vieillot, 1817  
Laniocera rufescens29 Speckled Mourner
rufescens (P.L. Sclater, 1858) iSE Mexico (N Oaxaca, N Chiapas) to coastal NW Colombia
griseigula Meyer de Schauensee, 1950 iNC Colombia (N Chocó and N Antioquia to Santander)
tertia (E. Hartert, 1902) vSW Colombia (Cauca) to NW Ecuador (Pichincha)
Laniocera hypopyrra 30  (Vieillot, 1817) Cinereous Mourner
vS and E Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonia; coastal E Brazil (SE Bahia, N Espírito Santo)
LANIISOMA Swainson, 1832 N - Laniisoma arcuatum Swainson, 1832; type by original designation = Ampelis elegans Thunberg, 1823  
Laniisoma elegans31 Laniisoma
1 venezuelense W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 194132 vE Andean foothills of W Venezuela (Táchira, Barinas) and Colombia (Boyacá)
1 buckleyi (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1880) iLocally in E Andean foothills of C Colombia (W Meta) to SE Peru (Cuzco)
1 cadwaladeri Carriker, 193533 iE Andean foothills of NW Bolivia (La Paz, Beni)
2 elegans (Thunberg, 1823) iSE Brazil (S Bahia to São Paulo and E Paraná)

1 For recognition of this family and its composition, see Chesser (2004) [Chesser, 2004 #744], Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
2 For recognition of two subfamilies see Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
3 Includes paraensis; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497], but see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195].
4 Considered to form a superspecies with I. isabellae; see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
5 Occasionally placed in a monotypic genus, Erator Kaup, 1852 [Kaup, 1852 #14920] based on skull structure, lack of bare facial skin etc., see Ridgway (1907) [Ridgway, 1907 #14921], and Wetmore (1972) [Wetmore, 1972 #4153].
6 For recognition see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
7 Often treated as a colour morph or hybrid, see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197]; however, see Whittaker (2009) [Whittaker, 2009 #11804] for suggested validity as a species.
8 For rationale for maintenance as a separate genus; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
9 For conservation of this generic name from corrected, earlier source, and thus with different implications, see I.C.Z.N. (2010) [I.C.Z.N., 2010 #12647].
10 Species sequence drawn from Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204], accepting their suggestion for unscreened P. niger.
11 For treatment as a separate species from P. viridis see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) [Ridgely, 1994 #3272] and Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
12 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197] and Aleixo et al. (2008) [Aleixo, 2008 #12291].
13 Considered to form a superspecies with P. spodiurus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
14 The three recognised subspecies are doubtfully distinct; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
15 Considered to form a superspecies with P. aglaiae, P. homochrous and P. minor by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
16 Considered to form a superspecies with P. cinnamomeus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
17 Considered to form a superspecies with P. albogriseus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496], but see Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204].
18 May comprise more than one species; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
19 The genus name Ptilochlorus is a junior synonym of Laniisoma Swainson, 1832; see Bock (1994) [Bock, 1994 #398]; Bock's view (his p. 200) is superseded by Article 40.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]; this family-group name does not require replacement on the basis of synonymy.
20 See also Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204], but had their proposal been complete it would have led to an unnecessary junior synonym. It was not Code-compliant as it lacked a formal diagnosis or description and the required Subfam. Nov. (see Arts. 13 and 16 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
21 Sequence of species follows Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
22 Gender is feminine, see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1125].
23 Perhaps not diagnosable from major; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
24 For treatment of olivacea, stenorhyncha, aenea and veraepacis as separate species, see Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992] and Donegan et al. (2011) [Donegan, 2011 #15449]. So treated they can be considered as forming a superspecies with S. virescens; see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
25 Subspecies groups based on Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
26 For correct spelling see David & Gosselin (2011) [David, 2011 #13197].
27 May belong with S. olivacea; see Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
28 Subspecies groups based on Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
29 A revision of the taxonomy of this species is needed; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
30 Forms a superspecies with L. rufescens; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
31 Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] treated the three Andean subspecies as a separate species from nominate elegans.
32 Perhaps not diagnosable from buckleyi; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
33 Perhaps not diagnosable from buckleyi; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
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