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TITYRIDAE - Tityras1,2 (7:35)
TITYRINAE
IODOPLEURA Lesson, 1839 F - Pardalotus pipra Lesson, 1831; type by original designation  
Iodopleura isabellae 3  Parzudaki, 1847 White-browed Purpletuft
S Venezuela (Amazonas), SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia (Pando), W, C and S Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and NW Maranhão)
Iodopleura fusca 4  (Vieillot, 1817) Dusky Purpletuft
vExtreme E Venezuela (E Bolívar), the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon in NE Roraima, NE Amazonas and Amapá)
Iodopleura pipra Buff-throated Purpletuft
†? leucopygia Salvin, 1885 vNE and E Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas; SE Bahia and adjacent NE Minas Gerais)
pipra (Lesson, 1831) SE Brazil (Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and S São Paulo)
TITYRA Vieillot, 1816 F - Bécarde Buffon; type by monotypy = Lanius cayanus Linnaeus, 1766  
Tityra inquisitor5 Black-crowned Tityra
fraserii (Kaup, 1852) E and SE Mexico and N Guatemala to C Panama (Colón, W Panamá)
albitorques Du Bus, 1847 EC Panama (E Panamá) to N and W Colombia, W Ecuador, N and C Peru, NW Bolivia and NW Brazil (R. Juruá and R. Amazon east to Manaus)
erythrogenys (Selby, 1826) E Colombia, N, C and S Venezuela, Surinam, French Guiana and N Brazil (north of lower R. Amazon); Guyana (?)
buckleyi Salvin & Godman, 1890 SE Colombia (W Caquetá and Putumayo to Amazonas) and E Ecuador (south to Pastaza)
pelzelni Salvin & Godman, 1890 NE Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), C and E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Madeira)
inquisitor (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) E and SE Brazil (S Piauí and Bahia to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay and NE Argentina
Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra
cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) vVenezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas and Amazonia
braziliensis (Swainson, 1838) αvE and S Brazil (Maranhão, Piauí and Pernambuco to Mato Grosso do Sul and N Rio Grande do Sul), E Bolivia, N, C and E Paraguay and NE Argentina
Tityra semifasciata Masked Tityra
hannumi van Rossem & Hachisuka, 1937 NW Mexico (SE Sonora, SW Chihuahua, NE Sinaloa)
griseiceps Ridgway, 1888 W Mexico (NC Sinaloa and W Durango to S Oaxaca)
deses Bangs, 19156 SE Mexico (Yucatán, N Quintana Roo)
personata Jardine & Selby, 1827 vE and S Mexico (S Tamaulipas to N Oaxaca, Chiapas and Campeche), Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, W and C Honduras and NC Nicaragua
costaricensis Ridgway, 1906 vSE Honduras and Nicaragua (except NC area) to C Panama (Colón, W Panamá, and including Isla de Coiba and Isla Cebaco)
columbiana Ridgway, 1906 vEC Panama (E Panamá) to W and N Colombia, NW and N Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá and Coastal Range from Yaracuy to Miranda)
nigriceps J.A. Allen, 1888 SW Colombia (W Nariño) to SW Ecuador (Guayas and NW Azuay)
fortis von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 vE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, N and E Bolivia and W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon in W Amazonas)
semifasciata (von Spix, 1825) vFrench Guiana, S and E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Juruá, north of R. Amazon along N bank and in Amapá), NE Paraguay
Tityra leucura 7  von Pelzeln, 1868 White-tailed Tityra
vSW Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Madeira and lower R. Roosevelt)
XENOPSARIS Ridgway, 1891 M - Pachyrhamphus albinucha Burmeister, 1869; type by original designation  8
Xenopsaris albinucha White-naped Xenopsaris
minor Hellmayr, 1920 vW and C Venezuela (W Falcón, NE Lara and W Apure to Anzoátegui and N Bolívar); NE Colombia (?)
albinucha (Burmeister, 1869) Guyana, N, NE and E Brazil, N and E Bolivia (Beni, Santa Cruz), W and C Paraguay, NE Argentina (south to N Buenos Aires), extreme NW and W Uruguay
PACHYRAMPHUS G.R. Gray, 1839 M - Psaris cuvierii Swainson, 1821; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 31). = Tityra viridis Vieillot, 1816  9,10
Pachyramphus versicolor Barred Becard
costaricensis Bangs, 1908 vMountains of Costa Rica and W Panama (Chiriquí)
versicolor (Hartlaub, 1843) Sierra de Perijá; Andes of SW Venezuela and Colombia to C and SE Ecuador (south on W slope to Chimborazo and on E slope to Zamora-Chinchipe)
meridionalis Carriker, 1934 vE slope of Andes of SE Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba), W slope of Andes of NW Peru (Cajamarca)
Pachyramphus xanthogenys11 Yellow-cheeked Becard
xanthogenys Salvadori & Festa, 1898 E slope of Andes of N Ecuador (W Sucumbíos) to N Peru (Amazonas); extreme S Colombia (?)
peruanus E. Hartert & Goodson, 191712 vE slope of Andes of C and SE Peru (Huánuco to Madre de Dios)
Pachyramphus viridis Green-backed Becard
griseigularis Salvin & Godman, 1883 vSE Venezuela (E Bolívar), Guyana (Mt. Roraima), NE Amazonian Brazil (along R. Amazon from lower R. Tapajós to Ilha de Marajó)
viridis (Vieillot, 1816) vNE, WC and S Brazil, E and S Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina, N and E Uruguay
Pachyramphus spodiurus   P.L. Sclater, 1860 Slaty Becard
vNW Ecuador (W Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (Piura)
Pachyramphus rufus13 Cinereous Becard
rufus (Boddaert, 1783) vC Panama to N and NC Colombia, W and N Venezuela, the Guianas and C and E Amazonian Brazil
juruanus Gyldenstolpe, 1951 vE Peru (Loreto) and W Brazil (SW Amazonas)
Pachyramphus minor   (Lesson, 1831) α Pink-throated Becard
vS and E Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia
Pachyramphus aglaiae Rose-throated Becard
albiventris (Lawrence, 1867) vSW USA (SE Arizona) and W Mexico (E Sonora and W Chihuahua to Michoacán, Morelos and N Guerrero)
insularis (Ridgway, 1887) vIslas Marías (off W Mexico)
gravis (van Rossem, 1938) vS USA (S Texas) and NE Mexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí)
aglaiae (Lafresnaye, 1839) Highlands of S Mexico (WC Veracruz, Puebla, C and S Guerrero and Oaxaca)
sumichrasti (Nelson, 1897) SE Mexico (C and S Veracruz and N and SE Oaxaca) to W Guatemala
yucatanensis (Ridgway, 1906) vSE Mexico (Yucatán, N Campeche, N Quintana Roo)
hypophaeus (Ridgway, 1891) vCaribbean slope from S Belize and C Guatemala to W Panama
latirostris Bonaparte, 1854 vPacific slope from El Salvador to NW Costa Rica
Pachyramphus niger   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Jamaican Becard
vJamaica
Pachyramphus homochrous14 One-colored Becard
homochrous P.L. Sclater, 1859 vEC Panama (E Colón, E Panamá) to W Colombia, W Ecuador and NW Peru (Piura)
quimarinus (Meyer de Schauensee, 1950) vNW Colombia (Córdoba to Bolívar and N Antioquia)
canescens (Chapman, 1912) N Colombia (NW Bolívar to S Guajira and Cesar) and NW Venezuela (Zulia)
Pachyramphus validus15 Crested Becard
audax (Cabanis, 1873) E slope of Andes of SE Ecuador (S Zamora-Chinchipe) and SE Peru (Ayacucho) to S Bolivia (Tarija), E slope of Andes and mountains of NW Argentina (south to La Rioja and Córdoba)
validus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vE and S Brazil (west to R. Xingu and SW Mato Grosso, south to Rio Grande do Sul), E Bolivia, Paraguay and NE Argentina (south to Santa Fé)
Pachyramphus surinamus   (Linnaeus, 1766) Glossy-backed Becard
vSurinam, French Guiana and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to lower R. Negro)
Pachyramphus cinnamomeus Cinnamon Becard
fulvidior Griscom, 1932 vSE Mexico, N Guatemala and S Belize along Caribbean slope to W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
cinnamomeus Lawrence, 1861 vWC Panama (E Chiriquí, Colón) to NW and W Colombia (east to Sinú valley) and SW Ecuador (El Oro)
magdalenae Chapman, 1914 N Colombia (east from Sinú valley, south to lower Cauca valley and middle Magdalena valley) and NW Venezuela (Zulia, NW Táchira, W Mérida)
badius W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1955 vE slope of Andes of W Venezuela (S Táchira)
Pachyramphus castaneus16 Chestnut-crowned Becard
intermedius von Berlepsch, 1879 vN Venezuela (Falcón and Lara to Sucre and N Monagas)
parui W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949 S Venezuela (foothills of Serranía Parú in C Amazonas)
saturatus Chapman, 1914 vSE Venezuela (SE Bolívar); SE Colombia, E Ecuador, NE and E Peru, W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Purus) and N Bolivia
amazonus J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vE Amazonian Brazil (west to lower R. Negro and R. Madeira)
castaneus (Jardine & Selby, 1827) vE and S Brazil (Bahia to SE Goiás, S Mato Grosso do Sul and N Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones)
Pachyramphus major Gray-collared Becard
uropygialis Nelson, 1899 vMountains of W Mexico (S Sonora to S Oaxaca)
major (Cabanis, 1847) vMountains of E and S Mexico (S Nuevo León to N Oaxaca)
itzensis Nelson, 1901 vSE Mexico (Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo), Belize (?), N Guatemala (?)
matudai A.R. Phillips, 1966 Mountains of S Mexico (S Chiapas) and S Guatemala
australis W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925 vHighlands of Honduras, El Salvador and NC Nicaragua
Pachyramphus marginatus17 Black-capped Becard
nanus Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1921 S and E Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia
marginatus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vE Brazil (Pernambuco to NE São Paulo)
Pachyramphus polychopterus18 White-winged Becard
similis Cherrie, 1891 vS Belize, C Guatemala and N Honduras to NW Colombia (N Chocó)
cinereiventris P.L. Sclater, 1862 vN Colombia (Chocó and N Antioquia to Magdalena and Cesar)
dorsalis P.L. Sclater, 1862 vC and SW Colombia (S Antioquia and Cundinamarca to SW Nariño) and NW Ecuador (south to N Pichincha)
tristis (Kaup, 1852) vNE Colombia, Venezuela (except S Amazonas), Trinidad, Tobago, the Guianas and E Amazonian Brazil (west to lower R. Negro and R. Tapajós)
nigriventris P.L. Sclater, 1857 vE Colombia (W Meta to Vaupés), S Venezuela (S Amazonas), W Amazonian Brazil (east to lower R. Negro and R. Madeira) and E Peru (south of R. Marañón)
tenebrosus J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vSE Colombia (W Caquetá and SE Nariño to Amazonas), E Ecuador and NE Peru (north of R. Marañón)
polychopterus (Vieillot, 1818) vE Brazil (Piauí and Ceará to Alagoas and Bahia)
spixii (Swainson, 1838) αN and E Bolivia, S and SE Brazil (Mato Grosso to Espírito Santo and Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, N Argentina (south to N Buenos Aires) and Uruguay
Pachyramphus albogriseus Black-and-white Becard
ornatus Cherrie, 1891 vMountains of Costa Rica and W Panama (Chiriquí, Veraguas)
coronatus W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953 vSanta Marta Mts. (N Colombia); Sierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border)
albogriseus P.L. Sclater, 1857 vAndes and Coastal Range of Venezuela; E Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander to Boyacá)
guayaquilensis J.T. Zimmer, 1936 vNW Ecuador (W Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (N Piura)
salvini Richmond, 1899 E slope of Andes of SW Colombia (E Nariño) to SE Peru (Cuzco); W slope of Andes of N Ecuador (Carchi, Pichincha) (?)
PTILOCHLORINAE19,20
SCHIFFORNIS Bonaparte, 1854 F - Muscicapa turdina zu Wied, 1831; type by monotypy  21,22
Schiffornis major Varzea Schiffornis
duidae J.T. Zimmer, 193623 S Venezuela (W Amazonas); Surinam (?)
major Des Murs, 1856 vS Colombia, NE Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia, W and C Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Tapajós)
Schiffornis virescens   (Lafresnaye, 1838) Greenish Schiffornis
iSE Brazil (N Goiás and SE Bahia to E Mato Grosso do Sul and N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones, NE Corrientes)
Schiffornis olivacea   (Ridgway, 1906) Olivaceous Schiffornis/Guianan Schiffornis
vE Venezuela (Bolívar and Delta Amacuro), the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Negro)
Schiffornis stenorhyncha Russet-winged Schiffornis
panamensis Hellmayr, 1929 vC Panama (E Colón, C Panamá) to NW Colombia (N Chocó to Córdoba)
stenorhyncha (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869) vN and NE Colombia (Sucre to Guajira, south to middle Magdalena valley and N Boyacá) and N Venezuela (Zulia and Táchira to Aragua)
Schiffornis turdina24,25 Brown-winged Schiffornis
1 amazonum (P.L. Sclater, 1861)26 ΘSE Colombia, S Venezuela, E Ecuador, E Peru and W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and R. Tapajós)
2 wallacii (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1867)27 E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Tapajós)
2 steinbachi Todd, 1928 SE Peru and N Bolivia
2 intermedia O.M. de O. Pinto, 1954 vNE Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas)
2 turdina (zu Wied, 1831) vE Brazil (SE Bahia, Espírito Santo)
Schiffornis aenea   J.T. Zimmer, 1936 Foothill Schiffornis
vE slope of Andes of Ecuador to N Peru (San Martín)
Schiffornis veraepacis28 Northern Schiffornis
1 veraepacis (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1860) Caribbean slope from SE Mexico to Nicaragua and on both slopes of Costa Rica
1 dumicola (Bangs, 1903) W and C Panama (Veraguas and Colón on Caribbean slope, Chiriquí to W Panamá on Pacific slope)
2 acrolophites Wetmore, 1972 Mountains of E Panama (Cerro Malí, Cerro Tacarcuna) and NW Colombia (Serraniá de Baudó)
2 rosenbergi (E. Hartert, 1898) W Colombia (S Chocó) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
LANIOCERA Lesson, 1841 F - Laniocera sanguinaria Lesson, 1841; type by monotypy = Ampelis hypopyrra Vieillot, 1817  
Laniocera rufescens29 Speckled Mourner
rufescens (P.L. Sclater, 1858) SE Mexico (N Oaxaca, N Chiapas) to coastal NW Colombia
griseigula Meyer de Schauensee, 1950 NC Colombia (N Chocó and N Antioquia to Santander)
tertia (E. Hartert, 1902) vSW Colombia (Cauca) to NW Ecuador (Pichincha)
Laniocera hypopyrra 30  (Vieillot, 1817) Cinereous Mourner
vS and E Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonia; coastal E Brazil (SE Bahia, N Espírito Santo)
LANIISOMA Swainson, 1832 N - Laniisoma arcuatum Swainson, 1832; type by original designation = Ampelis elegans Thunberg, 1823  
Laniisoma elegans31 Laniisoma
1 venezuelense W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 194132 vE Andean foothills of W Venezuela (Táchira, Barinas) and Colombia (Boyacá)
1 buckleyi (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1880) Locally in E Andean foothills of C Colombia (W Meta) to SE Peru (Cuzco)
1 cadwaladeri Carriker, 193533 E Andean foothills of NW Bolivia (La Paz, Beni)
2 elegans (Thunberg, 1823) SE Brazil (S Bahia to São Paulo and E Paraná)

1 For recognition of this family and its composition, see Chesser (2004) [Chesser, 2004 #744], Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
2 For recognition of two subfamilies see Tello et al. (2009) [Tello, 2009 #12002] and Ohlson et al. (2013) [Ohlson, 2013 #14910].
3 Includes paraensis; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497], but see Snow (2004) [Snow, 2004 #12195].
4 Considered to form a superspecies with I. isabellae; see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
5 Occasionally placed in a monotypic genus, Erator Kaup, 1852 [Kaup, 1852 #14920] based on skull structure, lack of bare facial skin etc., see Ridgway (1907) [Ridgway, 1907 #14921], and Wetmore (1972) [Wetmore, 1972 #4153].
6 For recognition see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
7 Often treated as a colour morph or hybrid, see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197]; however, see Whittaker (2009) [Whittaker, 2009 #11804] for suggested validity as a species.
8 For rationale for maintenance as a separate genus; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
9 For conservation of this generic name from corrected, earlier source, and thus with different implications, see I.C.Z.N. (2010) [I.C.Z.N., 2010 #12647].
10 Species sequence drawn from Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204], accepting their suggestion for unscreened P. niger.
11 For treatment as a separate species from P. viridis see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) [Ridgely, 1994 #3272] and Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
12 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197] and Aleixo et al. (2008) [Aleixo, 2008 #12291].
13 Considered to form a superspecies with P. spodiurus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
14 The three recognised subspecies are doubtfully distinct; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
15 Considered to form a superspecies with P. aglaiae, P. homochrous and P. minor by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
16 Considered to form a superspecies with P. cinnamomeus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496].
17 Considered to form a superspecies with P. albogriseus by Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496], but see Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204].
18 May comprise more than one species; see Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
19 The genus name Ptilochlorus is a junior synonym of Laniisoma Swainson, 1832; see Bock (1994) [Bock, 1994 #398]; Bock's view (his p. 200) is superseded by Article 40.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]; this family-group name does not require replacement on the basis of synonymy.
20 See also Barber & Rice (2007) [Barber, 2007 #11204], but had their proposal been complete it would have led to an unnecessary junior synonym. It was not Code-compliant as it lacked a formal diagnosis or description and the required Subfam. Nov. (see Arts. 13 and 16 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
21 Sequence of species follows Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
22 Gender is feminine, see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1125].
23 Perhaps not diagnosable from major; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
24 For treatment of olivacea, stenorhyncha, aenea and veraepacis as separate species, see Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992] and Donegan et al. (2011) [Donegan, 2011 #15449]. So treated they can be considered as forming a superspecies with S. virescens; see Snow (1979) [Snow, 1979 #14496] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
25 Subspecies groups based on Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
26 For correct spelling see David & Gosselin (2011) [David, 2011 #13197].
27 May belong with S. olivacea; see Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
28 Subspecies groups based on Nyári (2007) [Nyári, 2007 #9992].
29 A revision of the taxonomy of this species is needed; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
30 Forms a superspecies with L. rufescens; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and Fitzpatrick (2004) [Fitzpatrick, 2004 #12197].
31 Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] treated the three Andean subspecies as a separate species from nominate elegans.
32 Perhaps not diagnosable from buckleyi; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
33 Perhaps not diagnosable from buckleyi; see Kirwan & Green (2011) [Kirwan, 2011 #14497].
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