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GRALLARIIDAE - Antpittas1 (4:53)
GRALLARIA Vieillot, 1816 F - Roi des Fourmilliers Buffon; type by monotypy = Formicarius varius Boddaert, 1783  
Grallaria squamigera2 Undulated Antpitta
squamigera Lafresnaye, 18423 αvW Venezuela (Andes of SE Trujillo to S Táchira), Colombia to S Ecuador [Lafresnaye, 1842 #12110]
canicauda Chapman, 1926 Andes of SE Ecuador, Peru (Cajamarca; south and east of R. Marañón), W and C Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
Grallaria gigantea4 Giant Antpitta
lehmanni Wetmore, 19455 SW Colombia (Cauca; Huila)
hylodroma Wetmore, 19456 vSW Colombia (Nariño), W slope of Andes in Ecuador (Pichincha, Cotopaxi)
gigantea Lawrence, 1866 vE slope of Andes in Ecuador (E Carchi, Napo)
Grallaria excelsa Great Antpitta
excelsa von Berlepsch, 1893 vW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá; Andes from Lara to N Táchira)
phelpsi Gilliard, 1939 N Venezuela (coastal mountains in Aragua)
Grallaria varia7 Variegated Antpitta
1 cinereiceps Hellmayr, 1903 S Venezuela (S Amazonas), NW Brazil (upper R. Negro), NE Peru (N bank of R. Napo in Loreto)
1 varia (Boddaert, 1783) vThe Guianas, N Amazonian Brazil (west from lower R. Negro)
1 distincta Todd, 1927 vS Amazonian Brazil (R. Madeira to R. Tapajós, south to Rondônia, N Mato Grosso)
2 intercedens von Berlepsch & Leverkühn, 1890 E and SE Brazil (Pernambuco; S Bahia to SE Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo)
2 imperator Lafresnaye, 1842 SE Brazil (S Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Grallaria alleni Moustached Antpitta
alleni Chapman, 1912 W slope of C Andes in C Colombia (Quindío, Risaralda)
andaquiensis Hernández-Camacho & Rodríguez, 19798 vS Colombia (Huila), N Ecuador (Napo, Cotopaxi, Pichincha) [Hernández-Camacho, 1979 #1952]
Grallaria guatimalensis9 Scaled Antpitta
ochraceiventris Nelson, 189810 vS Mexico (SE Jalisco to W Hidalgo, S Guerrero to S Oaxaca)
guatimalensis Lafresnaye, 184211 αvE and S Mexico (NW Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to NE Nicaragua [Lafresnaye, 1842 #12110]
princeps P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1869 Costa Rica to W Panama (Veraguas)
chocoensis Chapman, 1917 vE Panama (E Darién), NW Colombia (N Chocó)
carmelitae Todd, 191512 NE Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.; Sierra de Perijá to N Boyacá), NW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá)
aripoensis Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1912 vTrinidad
regulus P.L. Sclater, 1860 Foothills of Andes of N and SW Colombia, W Venezuela (SE Lara) to C Peru (S Ucayali), E Ecuador
sororia von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 190113 Foothills of Andes from S Peru (Cuzco) to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
roraimae C. Chubb, 1921 Tepuis of S Venezuela, N Brazil (Roraima); W Guyana
Grallaria chthonia 14  Wetmore & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1956 Tachira Antpitta
vAndes of W Venezuela (SW Táchira) [Wetmore, 1956 #4140]
Grallaria haplonota Plain-backed Antpitta
haplonota P.L. Sclater, 1877 vN Venezuela (Lara, Yaracuy, coastal mountains from Carabobo to Miranda)
pariae W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949 NE Venezuela (Cerros Humo, Azul in Paria Pen.)
parambae Rothschild, 1900 Pacific slope from W Colombia (Risaralda) to S Ecuador (El Oro)
chaplinae Robbins & Ridgely, 198615 E slope of E Andes in Colombia to N Peru (Cordillera del Cóndor, San Martín) [Robbins, 1986 #3345]
Grallaria dignissima 16,17  P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1880 Ochre-striped Antpitta
vSE Colombia (Putumayo, Amazonas) to NE Peru (north of R. Marañón in Loreto)
Grallaria eludens   Lowery & O'Neill, 1969 Elusive Antpitta
iE Peru (east of R. Ucayali), SW Amazonian Brazil (Amazonas, Acre on upper R. Juruá) [Lowery, 1969 #2449]
Grallaria ruficapilla18 Chestnut-crowned Antpitta
perijana W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1940 vColombia/Venezuela border (Sierra de Perijá)
nigrolineata P.L. Sclater, 1890 vAndes of W Venezuela (N Trujillo to NE Táchira)
avilae Hellmayr & von Seilern, 1914 N Venezuela (Andes in S Lara, coastal mountains in Aragua, Distrito Federal, Miranda)
ruficapilla Lafresnaye, 1842 Andes of Colombia to WC and SE Ecuador; N Peru (Cerro Chinguela in Piura)
connectens Chapman, 1923 SW Ecuador (El Oro, Loja)
albiloris Taczanowski, 1880 vW slope of Andes in NW Peru (Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, Ancash)
interior J.T. Zimmer, 1934 vW slope of C Andes in N Peru (Amazonas, San Martín)
Grallaria watkinsi 19  Chapman, 1919 Watkins's Antpitta
iW and SW Ecuador (SW Manabí, W Guayas, El Oro, W Loja), NW Peru (Tumbes, N Piura)
Grallaria bangsi   J.A. Allen, 1900 Santa Marta Antpitta
iNE Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
Grallaria kaestneri   Stiles, 1992 Cundinamarca Antpitta
iE slope of E Andes in Colombia (E Cundinamarca, Meta) [Stiles, 1992 #3735]
Grallaria andicolus20,21 Stripe-headed Antpitta
1 andicolus (Cabanis, 1873) C Peru (W Andes in S Cajamarca to Ayacucho, C Andes from S Amazonas to Apurímac)
2 punensis C. Chubb, 191822 vE slope of Andes from SE Peru (Cuzco) to NW Bolivia (W La Paz)
Grallaria griseonucha Gray-naped Antpitta
griseonucha P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1871 Andes of W Venezuela (C Mérida, E Trujillo)
tachirae J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1945 Andes of W Venezuela (NE Táchira)
Grallaria rufocinerea Bicolored Antpitta
rufocinerea P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1879 vWC Colombia (W slope of C Andes in S Antioquia to W Huila)
romeroana Hernández-Camacho & Rodríguez, 197923 vS Colombia (head of Magdalena valley, W Putumayo) to NE Ecuador (NW Sucumbíos) [Hernández-Camacho, 1979 #1952]
Grallaria ridgelyi   Krabbe et al., 1999 Jocotoco Antpitta
iE slope of Andes in S Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe), N Peru [Krabbe, 1999 #2276]
Grallaria nuchalis24 Chestnut-naped Antpitta
ruficeps P.L. Sclater, 1874 C Colombia (C Andes to Cauca, W slope of E Andes in Cundinamarca)
obsoleta C. Chubb, 191625 vW slope of Andes in NW Ecuador (Imbabura, Pichincha)
nuchalis P.L. Sclater, 1860 αvE slope of Andes in E Ecuador, N Peru (Cerro Chinguela in Piura)
Grallaria carrikeri   Schulenberg & M.D. Williams, 1982 Pale-billed Antpitta
iE slope of Andes in N Peru (S Amazonas to E La Libertad) [Schulenberg, 1982 #3542]
Grallaria albigula 26  Chapman, 1923 White-throated Antpitta
SE Peru (Madre de Dios, Puno), C Bolivia (N Cochabamba) to NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta)
Grallaria flavotincta 27  P.L. Sclater, 1877 Yellow-breasted Antpitta
vPacific slope of W Andes in Colombia, NW Ecuador (to Pichincha)
Grallaria hypoleuca28 White-bellied Antpitta
hypoleuca P.L. Sclater, 1855 vColombia (C Andes of Antioquia, W slope of E Andes from SE Santander to Cundinamarca)
castanea Chapman, 1923 vS Colombia (head of Magdalena valley in Huila) to E Ecuador, N Peru (N Cajamarca)
Grallaria przewalskii   Taczanowski, 1882 Rusty-tinged Antpitta
iE slope of C Andes in N Peru (S Amazonas, San Martín, E La Libertad)
Grallaria capitalis   Chapman, 1926 Bay Antpitta
vE slope of Andes in C Peru (Huánuco, Pasco, Junín)
Grallaria erythroleuca   P.L. Sclater, 1874 Red-and-white Antpitta
vE slope of Andes in SE Peru (Cordillera Vilcabamba and Cordillera de Vilcanota in Cuzco)
Grallaria rufula29,30 Rufous Antpitta
spatiator Bangs, 1898 N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
saltuensis Wetmore, 194631 vVenezuela/Colombia border (Sierra de Perijá)
rufula Lafresnaye, 1843 vSW Venezuela (S Táchira), Colombia (E and N part of W Andes and middle C ranges) to N Peru
cajamarcae (Chapman, 1927) W Andes of N Peru (S Cajamarca)
obscura von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 vC Andes of C Peru (to Junín)
occabambae (Chapman, 1923) SE Peru (Cuzco) to W Bolivia (W La Paz)
cochabambae J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940 C Bolivia (N Cochabamba to C La Paz)
Grallaria blakei   G.R. Graves, 1987 Chestnut Antpitta
iAndes of N and C Peru (C Amazonas, NW San Martín through Huánuco to Pasco, NE Ayacucho) [Graves, 1987 #1777]
Grallaria quitensis Tawny Antpitta
quitensis Lesson, 1844 vC Andes from Colombia (Caldas) to N Peru (E Piura, NW Cajamarca)
alticola Todd, 191932 E Andes of E Colombia (NE Santander to Cundinamarca)
atuensis Carriker, 193333 vE slope of C Andes in N Peru (S Amazonas, E La Libertad)
Grallaria fenwickorum 34,35  Barrera & A. Bartels, 2010 Urrao Antpitta/Fenwick's Antpitta
Colombia (Urrao region in Antioquia) [Barrera, 2010 #12317]
Grallaria milleri Brown-banded Antpitta
gilesi Salaman, Donegan & Prŷs-Jones, 2009 C Andes of Colombia (Antioquia) [Salaman, 2009 #11434]
milleri Chapman, 1912 C Andes of Colombia (W slope in Caldas, Risaralda, Quindío; E slope in Tolima)
Grallaria erythrotis   P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876 Rufous-faced Antpitta
vAndes of W Bolivia (La Paz to W Santa Cruz)
HYLOPEZUS Ridgway, 1909 M - Grallaria perspicillata Lawrence, 1861; type by original designation  36
Hylopezus perspicillatus Streak-chested Antpitta
intermedius (Ridgway, 1884) vCaribbean slope from E Honduras to W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
lizanoi (Cherrie, 1891) Pacific slope of Costa Rica (to Quepos area)
perspicillatus (Lawrence, 1861) vE Panama (Veraguas, Coclé) to NW Colombia (N Chocó)
periophthalmicus (Salvadori & Festa, 1898) vPacific slope from W Colombia (Serranía del Baudó in Chocó) to NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
pallidior Todd, 1919 vC Colombia (upper Sinú valley, lower Cauca valley, middle Magdalena valley)
Hylopezus macularius37 Spotted Antpitta
1 dilutus (Hellmayr, 1910)38,39 vS Venezuela (Cerro Duida, upper R. Orinoco), SE Colombia (SE Amazonas), NE Peru [Hellmayr, 1910 #15625]
2 macularius (Temminck, 1830)40 αvNE Venezuela (E Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon Manaus to Amapá, south of R. Amazon R. Xingu to R. Tocantins) [Temminck, 1830 #11170]
Hylopezus paraensis 41  (E. Snethlage, 1910) Snethlage's Antpitta
vNW and S Amazonian Brazil (R. Negro, R. Solimões, south of R. Amazon R. Madeira to Belém, south to Rondônia)
Hylopezus whittakeri   Carneiro et al., 2012 Alta Floresta Antpitta
S Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon from R. Madeira to R. Xingu) [Carneiro, 2012 #13813]
Hylopezus auricularis 42  (Gyldenstolpe, 1941) Masked Antpitta
vN Bolivia (SE Pando, N Beni)
Hylopezus dives43,44 Thicket Antpitta
1 dives (Salvin, 1865) Caribbean slope from E Honduras to Costa Rica
1 barbacoae Chapman, 1914 E Panama (E Darién) to W Colombia (to W Nariño), NW Ecuador (N Esmeraldas)
2 flammulatus Griscom, 1928 vNW Panama (W and C Bocas del Toro)
Hylopezus fulviventris45 White-lored Antpitta
caquetae Chapman, 1923 S Colombia (W Caquetá, Putumayo)
fulviventris (P.L. Sclater, 1858) vE Ecuador, NE Peru (north of R. Amazon, south to lower R. Cenepa and Iquitos in Loreto)
Hylopezus berlepschi46 Amazonian Antpitta
yessupi (Carriker, 1930) E and C Peru (from C Loreto), W Brazil (W Amazonas)
berlepschi (Hellmayr, 1903) S Amazonian Brazil (lower R. Xingu to lower R. Tapajós in Pará; south to N Mato Grosso), SE Peru, N and C Bolivia
Hylopezus ochroleucus 47  (zu Wied, 1831) White-browed Antpitta
vE Brazil (W and S Ceará, E Piauí, W Pernambuco, Bahia, N Minas Gerais)
Hylopezus nattereri 48  (O.M. de O. Pinto, 1937) Speckle-breasted Antpitta
iSE Brazil (S Minas Gerais, W Paraná to W Rio de Janeiro, N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina
MYRMOTHERA Vieillot, 1816 F - Le Grand Béfroi Buffon; type by subsequent designation (P.L. Sclater, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 15, p. 311). = Myrmornis campanisona Hermann, 1783  
Myrmothera campanisona Thrush-like Antpitta
modesta (P.L. Sclater, 1855) vE slope of E Andes in Colombia (from Meta)
dissors J.T. Zimmer, 1934 E Colombia (Guainía, Vaupés), S Venezuela (C and S Amazonas), NW Amazonian Brazil (R. Negro to R. Amazon; left bank of lower R. Madeira)
campanisona (Hermann, 1783) vE Venezuela, the Guianas, N Amazonian Brazil (north of R. Amazon, from R. Atabaní, R. Negro)
signata J.T. Zimmer, 1934 vE Ecuador, NE Peru (north of R. Amazon in Loreto)
minor (Taczanowski, 1882) vE Peru (south of R. Amazon), W Amazonian Brazil (to R. Purus), NW Bolivia (Pando)
subcanescens Todd, 192749 S Amazonian Brazil (R. Madeira to lower R. Tapajós, south to Rondônia)
Myrmothera simplex Tepui Antpitta
duidae Chapman, 1929 S Venezuela (Cerros Yaví, Paraque south to Sierra de Unturán, Serranía de la Neblina in Amazonas)
guaiquinimae J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1946 SE Venezuela (Cerros Guaiquinima, Paurai-tepui in C and SE Bolivar)
simplex (Salvin & Godman, 1884) SE Venezuela (La Gran Sabana in SE Bolívar), Guyana (Mt. Roraima)
pacaraimae W.H. Phelps, Jr. & Dickerman, 198050 SE Venezuela (R. Ocamo in SE Amazonas; Pakaraima Mts. in S Bolívar), N Brazil (Pakaraima Mts.) [Phelps, 1980 #3052]
GRALLARICULA P.L. Sclater, 1858 F - Grallaria flavirostris P.L. Sclater, 1858; type by subsequent designation (P.L. Sclater, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 15, p. 325).  
Grallaricula flavirostris Ochre-breasted Antpitta
costaricensis Lawrence, 1866 vCosta Rica, W Panama (to Veraguas)
brevis Nelson, 1912 vE Panama (Cerro Pirre in E Darién)
ochraceiventris Chapman, 1922 vW Andes of Colombia
mindoensis Chapman, 192551 vW slope of Andes in NW Ecuador (Carchi to Pichincha)
zarumae Chapman, 192252 W slope of Andes in SW Ecuador (W Azuay, El Oro)
flavirostris (P.L. Sclater, 1858) vE slope of Andes in Colombia (from W Meta) and Ecuador
similis Carriker, 1933 vC Peru (south and east of R. Marañón to Pasco)
boliviana Chapman, 191953 vSE Peru (Puno) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Grallaricula loricata   (P.L. Sclater, 1857) Scallop-breasted Antpitta
vN Venezuela (Yaracuy, coastal mountains in Carabobo, Aragua, Distrito Federal)
Grallaricula cucullata Hooded Antpitta
venezuelana W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 195654 vAndes of NW Venezuela (SW Táchira, W Apure), C Colombia (E slope in E Cundinamarca) [Phelps, 1956 #3042]
cucullata (P.L. Sclater, 1856) vW Colombia (W Andes in Valle and Cauca; W slope of C Andes in Valle and Risaralda; W slope of E Andes in Huila)
Grallaricula peruviana 55  Chapman, 1923 Peruvian Antpitta
vE slope of Andes from E Ecuador (W Napo) to N Peru (E Piura, N Cajamarca)
Grallaricula ochraceifrons   G.R. Graves, O'Neill & T.A. Parker, 1983 Ochre-fronted Antpitta
iC Andes of N Peru (Cordillera de Colán in S Amazonas, Abra Patricia in San Martín) [Graves, 1983 #1773]
Grallaricula ferrugineipectus56 Rusty-breasted Antpitta
1 ferrugineipectus (P.L. Sclater, 1857) N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.), N and W Venezuela (Andes from SE Lara; NW Lara; C and E Falcón, Yaracuy; coastal mountains to Distrito Federal, Miranda)
2 rara Hellmayr & von Madarász, 1914 vColombia/Venezuela border (Sierra de Perijá); E Andes in Colombia (W slope in Cundinamarca, E slope in Norte de Santander)
3 leymebambae Carriker, 193357 W slope of Andes in SW Ecuador (S Loja), NW Peru (Piura); E slope of Andes from N Peru (S Amazonas) to W Bolivia (La Paz)
Grallaricula nana58,59 Slate-crowned Antpitta
1 occidentalis Todd, 192760 vW and C Andes of Colombia through E Andes of Ecuador to N Peru (Cajamarca)
1 nana (Lafresnaye, 1842) Andes of Colombia, E Ecuador, N Peru (N Cajamarca)
1 hallsi Donegan, 2008 N Colombia (Serranía de los Yariguíes in Santander) [Donegan, 2008 #11076]
1 nanitaea Donegan, 200861 Andes of W Venezuela (NE Trujillo to Táchira) [Donegan, 2008 #11076]
1 olivascens Hellmayr, 1917 N Venezuela (coastal mountains in Aragua, Distrito Federal; Cerro Tucucito on Miranda/Anzoátegui border)
2 kukenamensis C. Chubb, 191862 vSE Venezuela (La Gran Sabana in SE Bolívar), W Guyana (Mt. Roraima)
Grallaricula cumanensis63 Sucre Antpitta
cumanensis E. Hartert, 1900 vNE Venezuela (NE Anzoátegui, W Sucre, coastal mountains of N Monagas)
pariae W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949 NE Venezuela (Cerros Humo, Azul in Paria Pen.)
Grallaricula lineifrons   (Chapman, 1924) Crescent-faced Antpitta
iC Andes of Colombia (Quindío; E Cauca), E Ecuador (E slope in W Napo, SE Carchi, Cañar, N Loja)

1 For separation of the Grallariidae from the Formicariidae, see Irestedt et al. (2002) [Irestedt, 2002 #2073], Chesser (2004) [Chesser, 2004 #744], Rice (2005a,b) [Rice, 2005 #10048], [Rice, 2005 #10049] and Moyle et al. (2009) [Moyle, 2009 #11813].
2 Fjeldså (1992) [Fjeldså, 1992 #14901] proposed that G. squamigera and G. gigantea were sister species.
3 In his article Lafresnaye referred to the plate which is not known to have been published until later.
4 Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] and Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400] suggested that G. excelsa and G. gigantea may be conspecific.
5 Perhaps a subspecies of G. excelsa; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
6 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
7 Subspecies groups follow Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
8 For recognition see Krabbe & Coopmans (2000) [Krabbe, 2000 #2279].
9 Considered to form a superspecies with G. alleni; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
10 Includes binfordi Dickerman, 1990 [Dickerman, 1990 #1344]; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
11 In his text Lafresnaye referred to the plate which is not known to have been published until later.
12 Probably not diagnosable from subspecies regulus; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
13 Probably not diagnosable from regulus; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
14 Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] noted that G. chthonia might be better treated as a subspecies of G. guatimalensis. Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400] considered G. chthonia and G. alleni to be more closely related.
15 For recognition see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) [Ridgely, 1994 #3272] and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
16 Forms a superspecies with G. eludens; see Haffer (1987) [Haffer, 1987 #13890], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400]. Genetic data indicate that they are sister species, see Rice (2005) [Rice, 2005 #10049].
17 Formerly placed in the monotypic genus Thamnocharis, e.g. by Peters (1951) [Peters, 1951 #3015]; but see Lowery & O'Neill (1969) [Lowery, 1969 #2449] for subsumation within Grallaria; see also Rice (2005) [Rice, 2005 #10049].
18 Considered to form a superspecies with G. watkinsi and G. bangsi; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
19 For treatment as a separate species from G. ruficapilla, see Parker et al. (1995) [Parker, 1995 #14572], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
20 Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400] suggested that G. andicolus is not particularly closely related to other Grallaria and may warrant treatment in a monotypic genus.
21 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
22 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
23 For recognition see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400] and Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
24 Forms a superspecies with G. carrikeri; see Schulenberg & Williams (1982) [Schulenberg, 1982 #3542].
25 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
26 Includes cinereiventris Olrog & Contino, 1970 [Olrog, 1970 #2826], see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400]; however, further studies needed.
27 For treatment as a separate species from G. hypoleuca see Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967] and Ridgely & Tudor (1994) [Ridgely, 1994 #3272].
28 Forms a superspecies with G. flavotincta, G. przewalskii, G. erythroleuca, and G. capitalis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], and possibly also G. albigula; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
29 Probably consist of more than one species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
30 Forms a superspecies with G. blakei; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400]. G. rufula and G. blakei are sister species; see Rice (2005) [Rice, 2005 #10049].
31 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443], perhaps closer to G. quitensis; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
32 May deserve treatment as a separate species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
33 May deserve treatment as a separate species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
34 The name G. urraoensis Carantón-Ayala & Certuche-Cubillos, 2010 [Carantón-Ayala, 2010 #12397], published soon afterwards, is a synonym; see Peterson (2013) [Peterson, 2013 #14627].
35 A proposal to adopt a type specimen of G. urraoensis as the neotype of G. fenwickorum is under consideration by the I.C.Z.N.; this may affect the validity of the prior name but until the I.C.Z.N. decides the prior name must be used, see Art. 23.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999].
36 Formerly included in Grallaria, but see Lowery & O'Neill (1969) [Lowery, 1969 #2449]. Rice (2005) [Rice, 2005 #10049] found that Hylopezus and Myrmothera are sister genera.
37 May comprise two or more species, see Carneiro et al. (2012) [Carneiro, 2012 #13813].
38 For recognition see Carneiro et al. (2012) [Carneiro, 2012 #13813].
39 Includes diversa; see Carneiro et al. (2012) [Carneiro, 2012 #13813].
40 Date in Peters (1951) [Peters, 1951 #3015] erroneous.
41 For treatment as a separate species from H. macularius, see Carneiro et al. (2012) [Carneiro, 2012 #13813].
42 For treatment as a separate species from H. macularius, see Maijer (1998) [Maijer, 1998 #2472] and Carneiro et al. (2012) [Carneiro, 2012 #13813].
43 For treatment as a separate species from H. fulviventris, see Ridgely & Gwynne (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3270] and Ridgely & Tudor (1994) [Ridgely, 1994 #3272].
44 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
45 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], [Sibley, 1993 #9208] to form a superspecies with H. dives and H. berlepschi.
46 Possibly conspecific with H. fulviventris; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
47 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with H. nattereri, but see Carneiro et al. (2012) [Carneiro, 2012 #13813].
48 For treatment as a separate species from H. ochroleucus, see Whitney et al. (1995) [Whitney, 1995 #4197].
49 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
50 For recognition see Dickerman & Phelps (1982) [Dickerman, 1982 #15086] and Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
51 Perhaps not diagnosable from subspecies ochraceiventris; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
52 Possibly not diagnosable from subspecies ochraceiventris; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
53 Perhaps better treated as a separate species including similis; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
54 For recognition see Phelps & Phelps, Jr. (1963) [Phelps, 1963 #3050] and Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
55 Considered to form a superspecies with G. ochraceifrons by Parker et al. (1985) [Parker, 1985 #2907] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
56 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
57 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400].
58 Parker et al. (1985) [Parker, 1985 #2907] proposed that this forms a superspecies with G. ferrugineipectus and G. cumanensis.
59 Subspecies designations follow Donegan (2008) [Donegan, 2007 #11218].
60 Not considered diagnosable from nominate nana by Krabbe & Schulenberg (2003) [Krabbe, 2003 #4400], but see Donegan (2007) [Donegan, 2007 #11218].
61 Dual original spellings. Donegan in Donegan et al. (2009) [Donegan, 2009 #12331] selected nanitaea.
62 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Donegan (2008) [Donegan, 2008 #11076].
63 For treatment as a separate species from G. nana, see Donegan (2008) [Donegan, 2008 #11076].
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