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PASSERELLIDAE - New World Sparrows and allies1 (30:128)
SPIZELLA Bonaparte, 1832 F - Fringilla pusilla A. Wilson, 1810; type by original designation   2,3
Spizella passerina Chipping Sparrow
passerina (Bechstein, 1798) vSE Canada (from C Ontario), C USA (to SE Texas, NW Florida) >> S USA (Gulf Coast), NE Mexico
arizonae Coues, 1872 E Alaska, W and C Canada (east to W Ontario), W USA (east to C Texas), N Mexico (to Coahuila) >> Mexico
atremaea R.T. Moore, 19374,5 δvW Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental from S Chihuahua to Jalisco)
mexicana Nelson, 1899 vC and S Mexico (highlands from Nayarit to Chiapas), NW Guatemala
pinetorum Salvin, 18636 Honduras, N El Salvador, NE Nicaragua
Spizella pallida 7  (Swainson, 1832) Clay-colored Sparrow
vS Canada (to N Saskatchewan), NE USA (W Wisconsin to New York) >> SW USA, Mexico
Spizella atrogularis Black-chinned Sparrow
evura Coues, 1866 SW USA (SE California to W Texas), N Mexico (NE Sonora)
caurina A.H. Miller, 19298 vSW USA (C California)
cana Coues, 1866 vSW USA (mountains of SW California), NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> NW Mexico (S Baja California)
atrogularis (Cabanis, 1851) vC Mexico (central plateau from Durango to C Oaxaca)
Spizella pusilla 9,10  (A. Wilson, 1810) Field Sparrow
vSE Canada (from S Manitoba), USA (from SE Montana, S Maine to C Texas, Georgia) >> S USA, N Mexico
Spizella breweri11 Brewer's Sparrow
1 taverneri Swarth & A. Brooks, 192512 SE Alaska, W Canada (to W Alberta), N USA (W Montana) >> SW USA (Arizona, W Texas), N Mexico
2 breweri Cassin, 1856 SW Canada (to SW Saskatchewan), W USA (east from SW North Dakota to NW New Mexico) >> NW Mexico
Spizella wortheni13 Worthen's Sparrow
wortheni Ridgway, 1884 NE Mexico (SE Coahuila, SW Nuevo León)
browni Webster & Orr, 195414 NC Mexico (W Zacatecas)
AMPHISPIZA Coues, 1874 F - Emberiza bilineata Cassin, 1850; type by original designation   15
Amphispiza bilineata Black-throated Sparrow
bilineata (Cassin, 1850) vS USA (NC Texas), NE Mexico (E Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas)
opuntia T.D. Burleigh & Lowery, 193916 vS USA (SE Colorado to W Texas), N Mexico (NW Coahuila)
deserticola Ridgway, 1898 W USA (east to W Colorado), NW Mexico (C Baja California and adjacent islands, NW Chihuahua)
bangsi G.B. Grinnell, 1927 NW Mexico (S Baja California and adjacent islands, except Islas Tortuga and Cerralvo)
tortugae van Rossem, 1930 NW Mexico (Isla Tortuga, off S Baja California)
belvederei Banks, 196317 NW Mexico (Isla Cerralvo, off S Baja California)
pacifica Nelson, 1900 vNW Mexico (W Sonora, incl. Islas Tiburón and San Pedro Nolasco, N Sinaloa)
cana van Rossem, 1930 vNW Mexico (Isla San Esteban, in Golfo de California)
grisea Nelson, 1898 vNC Mexico (C Chihuahua to Hidalgo)
Amphispiza quinquestriata Five-striped Sparrow
septentrionalis (van Rossem, 1934) vSW USA (SC Arizona), NW Mexico (E Sonora, W Chihuahua to C Sinaloa, W Durango)
quinquestriata (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868) vW Mexico (N Jalisco)
CHONDESTES Swainson, 1827 M - Chondestes strigatus Swainson, 1827; type by monotypy   
Chondestes grammacus18 Lark Sparrow
grammacus (Say, 1822)19 vC USA (Minnesota, C Wisconsin to Texas, Louisiana) >> S USA, Mexico
strigatus Swainson, 182720 vS Canada (to S Manitoba), W USA (east to North Dakota and South Dakota), N Mexico >> Mexico
CALAMOSPIZA Bonaparte, 1838 F - Fringilla bicolor J.K. Townsend, 1837; type by monotypy = Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger, 1885  
Calamospiza melanocorys   Stejneger, 1885 Lark Bunting
iS Canada, WC USA (Great Plains to SE New Mexico, N Texas, W Oklahoma) >> SC USA, Mexico (to Jalisco)
RHYNCHOSPIZA Ridgway, 1898 F - Haemophila stolzmanni Taczanowski, 1877; type by original designation and monotypy21
Rhynchospiza stolzmanni   (Taczanowski, 1877) Tumbes Sparrow
SW Ecuador (W Loja), NW Peru (Tumbes to La Libertad)
Rhynchospiza strigiceps Stripe-capped Sparrow
dabbenei (Hellmayr, 1912) SE Bolivia, NW Argentina (Jujuy to Tucumán)
strigiceps (Gould, 1839)22 SC Paraguay, N Argentina (to Córdoba, N Buenos Aires)
PEUCAEA Audubon, 1839 F - Fringilla bachmani Audubon, 1833; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1841, A List of the Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 60). 23
Peucaea sumichrasti   (Lawrence, 1871) Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow
S Mexico (Pacific slope of SE Oaxaca, SW Chiapas)
Peucaea carpalis Rufous-winged Sparrow
carpalis Coues, 1873 vSW USA (SC Arizona), NW Mexico (C Sonora)
cohaerens (R.T. Moore, 1946)24 NW Mexico (N and C Sinaloa)
Peucaea ruficauda Stripe-headed Sparrow
acuminata (Salvin & Godman, 1886) vW Mexico (Pacific slope from S Durango to SE Guerrero)
lawrencii (Salvin & Godman, 1886) S Mexico (S Oaxaca, W Chiapas)
connectens (Griscom, 1930) E Guatemala
ruficauda (Bonaparte, 1853)25 Pacific slope from SE Guatemala to NW Costa Rica
Peucaea humeralis   (Cabanis, 1851) Black-chested Sparrow
vWC Mexico (S Jalisco to SW Oaxaca)
Peucaea mystacalis   (Hartlaub, 1852) Bridled Sparrow
vSC Mexico (E México to N and C Oaxaca)
Peucaea botterii26 Botteri's Sparrow
1 arizonae Ridgway, 1873 SW USA (SE Arizona, SW New Mexico), N Mexico (to N Durango) >> SC Mexico (Morelos)
1 texana (A.R. Phillips, 1943)27 vSW USA (S Texas), NE Mexico (NE Tamaulipas)
1 goldmani (A.R. Phillips, 1943) NW Mexico (coastal S Sinaloa to Nayarit)
1 botterii (P.L. Sclater, 1858)28 C and S Mexico (highlands from SE Durango to W Chiapas)
2 petenica (Salvin, 1863)29 vSE Mexico (EC Veracruz to E Chiapas, N Yucatán), Belize, N Guatemala (Petén)
2 spadiconigrescens (T.R. Howell, 1965) Lowlands of N Honduras, NE Nicaragua
2 vantynei (Webster, 1959) Highlands of C Guatemala
2 vulcanica (W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925) vHighlands of W Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica
Peucaea cassinii   (Woodhouse, 1852) Cassin's Sparrow
C and S USA (Wyoming and South Dakota to New Mexico and Texas), N Mexico (south to S Tamaulipas) >> C Mexico
Peucaea aestivalis30 Bachman's Sparrow
bachmani (Audubon, 1833) SE USA (S Kentucky, S Virginia to Mississippi, Georgia) >> S USA (Gulf Coast to C Florida)
illinoensis Ridgway, 1879 vEC USA (SE Oklahoma, S Kentucky to E Texas, S Louisiana) >> S USA (Gulf Coast)
aestivalis (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vSE USA (E South Carolina to S Florida)
ARREMONOPS Ridgway, 1896 M - Embernagra rufivirgata Lawrence, 1851; type by original designation   
Arremonops rufivirgatus31,32 Olive Sparrow
1 rufivirgatus (Lawrence, 1851)33 vS USA (S Texas), E Mexico (NE Coahuila to E Tabasco)
1 crassirostris (Ridgway, 1878) vSE Mexico (Atlantic coast of C Veracruz to N Oaxaca, E Tabasco)
2 rhyptothorax Parkes, 197434 SE Mexico (N Yucatan Pen.) [Parkes, 1974 #2928]
2 verticalis (Ridgway, 1878) vSE Mexico (E Tabasco, Yucatan Pen.), N Belize, N Guatemala (Petén)
3 sinaloae Nelson, 1899 W Mexico (C Sinaloa to Nayarit)
3 sumichrasti (Sharpe, 1888) W Mexico (coastal Jalisco to Oaxaca)
3 chiapensis Nelson, 1904 vS Mexico (Chiapas)
3 superciliosus (Salvin, 1865)35 vNW Costa Rica (Pacific coast)
Arremonops tocuyensis   Todd, 1912 Tocuyo Sparrow
vNE Colombia (Guajira Pen.), NW Venezuela (Zulia, Falcón, Lara)
Arremonops chloronotus Green-backed Sparrow
chloronotus (Salvin, 1861) vSE Mexico (Caribbean slope from Tabasco to Quintana Roo), Belize, Guatemala, NW Honduras
twomeyi Monroe, 1963 NC Honduras
Arremonops conirostris Black-striped Sparrow
striaticeps (Lafresnaye, 1853)36 E Honduras to Pacific slope of Colombia, W Ecuador
viridicatus Wetmore, 1957 vIsla de Coiba, off SW Panama
inexpectatus Chapman, 191437 vN Colombia (upper Magdalena Valley)
conirostris (Bonaparte, 1850)38 αvN and E Colombia, N Venezuela (south to NW Táchira, N Bolívar), N Brazil (R. Branco)
umbrinus Todd, 1923 vE Colombia (Norte de Santander), W Venezuela (Zulia)
pastazae Krabbe & Stejskal, 200839 E Ecuador (Pastaza) [Krabbe, 2008 #10691]
AMMODRAMUS Swainson, 1827 M - Ammodramus bimaculatus Swainson, 1827; type by monotypy   40
Ammodramus savannarum41 Grasshopper Sparrow
pratensis (Vieillot, 1818)42 vEast of Great Plains in S Canada, USA (to Oklahoma, West Virginia) >> West Indies, Mexico to Guatemala
floridanus (Mearns, 1902) vSE USA (C Florida)
perpallidus (Coues, 1872) vSW Canada (to W Ontario), W USA (to California, Texas), NW Mexico (N Baja California) >> El Salvador
ammolegus Oberholser, 1942 vSW USA (S Arizona), NW Mexico (N Sonora) >> W Mexico (to Oaxaca), Guatemala
bimaculatus Swainson, 1827 vC and S Mexico (south from México) to Costa Rica
beatriceae Olson, 198043 C Panama (Coclé) [Olson, 1980 #2838]
cracens (Bangs & Peck, 1908) Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador
caucae Chapman, 1912 S Colombia (upper Cauca valley), NW Ecuador
savannarum (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Jamaica
intricatus E. Hartert, 1907 vHispaniola
borinquensis J.L. Peters, 1917 vPuerto Rico
caribaeus (E. Hartert, 1902) vCuraçao and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)
Ammodramus humeralis Grassland Sparrow
humeralis (Bosc, 1792) vColombia, Venezuela (except Guajira Pen.), the Guianas, NE Brazil (to Paraná)
pallidulus (Wetmore, 1949)44 δvGuajira Pen. of NE Colombia, NW Venezuela
xanthornus Gould, 183945 SE Peru, NE Bolivia (Beni), S Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, Uruguay, C Argentina (Río Negro)
tarijensis (J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939) vSE Bolivia (Santa Cruz, Tarija, Chuquisaca)
Ammodramus aurifrons Yellow-browed Sparrow
apurensis (W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941) vNE Colombia (Norte de Santander to Arauca), W Venezuela (Táchira, Barinas, Apure)
cherriei (Chapman, 1914) C Colombia (Meta)
tenebrosus (J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1949)46 δvSE Colombia (Guainía, E Vaupés), SW Venezuela (SW Amazonas), NW Brazil
aurifrons (von Spix, 1825) SE Colombia (SE of Andes) south to C Bolivia and east to N Brazil (Pará)
OREOTHRAUPIS P.L. Sclater, 1856 F - Saltator arremonops Jardine; type by monotypy = Saltator arremonops P.L. Sclater, 1855  47
Oreothraupis arremonops   (P.L. Sclater, 1855) Yellow-breasted Tanager Finch
iW Andes of Colombia, NW Ecuador (Imbabura, Pichincha)
CHLOROSPINGUS Cabanis, 1851 M - Chlorospingus leucophrys Cabanis, 1851; type by monotypy = Arremon ophthalmicus Du Bus, 1847  48
Chlorospingus flavopectus49,50,51,52,53 Common Tanager Finch
albifrons Salvin & Godman, 1889 SW Mexico (Sierra Madre del Sur, in Guerrero, Oaxaca)
wetmorei Lowery & R.J. Newman, 1949 E Mexico (E Veracruz)
ophthalmicus (Du Bus, 1847)54 vE Mexico (Atlantic slope from SE San Luis Potosí to NE Oaxaca)
dwighti Underdown, 1931 S Mexico (Caribbean slope of Chiapas), Guatemala
postocularis Cabanis, 1866 vS Mexico (Pacific slope of Chiapas), Guatemala
honduratius von Berlepsch, 1912 vEl Salvador, Honduras
regionalis Bangs, 1906 vNicaragua, E Costa Rica
punctulatus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 186955 vW Panama (Veraguas to Panamá)
jacqueti Hellmayr, 192156 δN Colombia (W slope of E Andes in Norte de Santander), N and SW Venezuela (Miranda, W slope of Andes from Lara to Táchira)
falconensis W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941 vNW Venezuela (Falcón, Yaracuy)
venezuelanus von Berlepsch, 1893 vSW Venezuela (W slope of Andes from Lara to Táchira)
ponsi W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1952 W Venezuela (E slope of Sierra de Perijá)
eminens J.T. Zimmer, 1946 NE Colombia (E slope of E Andes of S Norte de Santander, Boyacá)
trudis Olson, 198357 C Colombia (W slope of E Andes in E Santander) [Olson, 1983 #2844]
exitelus Olson, 198358 vW Colombia (C Andes in Antioquia) [Olson, 1983 #2844]
flavopectus (Lafresnaye, 1840) C Colombia (W slope of E Andes from Santander to Bogotá)
macarenae J.T. Zimmer, 1947 C Colombia (Sierra de la Macarena in Meta)
olsoni Avendaño, Stiles & Cadena, 2013 E slope of E Andes of Colombia [Avendaño, 2013 #15294]
nigriceps Chapman, 1912 C Colombia (Andes to upper end of Magdalena valley)
phaeocephalus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1877 vAndes of Ecuador and N Peru (NW Cajamarca, NE Piura)
cinereocephalus Taczanowski, 1874 vE slope of Andes of C and S Peru (Pasco to W Cuzco)
hiaticolus O'Neill & T.A. Parker, 198159 E slope of Andes of N and C Peru (Amazonas to Huánuco) [O'Neill, 1981 #2797]
peruvianus Carriker, 1933 vE slope of Andes of S Peru (E Cuzco, Puno)
bolivianus Hellmayr, 1921 vN Bolivia (Andes of La Paz to N Cochabamba)
fulvigularis von Berlepsch, 1901 vC Bolivia (Andes of S Cochabamba)
argentinus Hellmayr, 1921 vAndes of C Bolivia (Cochabamba) to N Argentina (to Tucumán)
Chlorospingus tacarcunae   Griscom, 1924 Tacarcuna Tanager Finch
iC Panama to NW Colombia (Cerro Tacarcuna, in NW Chocó)
Chlorospingus inornatus   (Nelson, 1912) Pirre Tanager Finch
vE Panama (Darién), NW Colombia (NW Chocó)
Chlorospingus semifuscus Dusky Tanager Finch
livingstoni J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940 W Colombia (W slope of W Andes from S Chocó to Cauca)
semifuscus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873 vSW Colombia (Pacific slope in Nariño) to W Ecuador (to W Cotopaxi)
Chlorospingus pileatus 60,61,62  Salvin, 1865 α Sooty-capped Tanager Finch
vC Costa Rica, W Panama
Chlorospingus parvirostris Short-billed Tanager Finch/Yellow-whiskered Tanager Finch
huallagae Carriker, 1933 C Colombia (E slope of E Andes from Cundinamarca) to NW Peru (La Libertad)
medianus J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vC Peru (E slope of Andes in Junín, Urubamba)
parvirostris Chapman, 1901 vE slope of Andes of SE Peru, N Bolivia
Chlorospingus flavigularis Yellow-throated Tanager Finch
hypophaeus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 186863 vW Panama (Chiriquí to Veraguas)
marginatus Chapman, 191464 vSW Colombia (W slope of W Andes from Valle) to SW Ecuador (El Oro)
flavigularis (P.L. Sclater, 1852) vAndes of Colombia (south from Córdoba, Boyacá) to Peru (on E slope to Puno)
Chlorospingus flavovirens   (Lawrence, 1867) Yellow-green Tanager Finch
iSW Colombia (W slope of W Andes from Valle) to Ecuador (Pichincha)
Chlorospingus canigularis Ashy-throated Tanager Finch
olivaceiceps Underwood, 189865 Mountains of Costa Rica, W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
canigularis (Lafresnaye, 1848) vSW Venezuela (Táchira), C Colombia (W slope of E Andes to Bogotá)
conspicillatus Todd, 1922 vW Colombia (W and C Andes from Antioquia to Cauca, Huila)
paulus J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vW slope of Andes from Ecuador (Chimborazo) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
signatus Taczanowski & von Berlepsch, 1885 vW slope of Andes from Ecuador (Napo) to C Peru (Cajamarca)
ARREMON Vieillot, 1816 M - L'Oiseau Silencieux Buffon; type by monotypy = Tanagra taciturna Hermann, 1783  66
Arremon crassirostris 67  (Cassin, 1865) Sooty-faced Finch
vMountains of Costa Rica, Panama, NW Colombia (Cerro Tacarcuna, in Chocó)
Arremon castaneiceps 68,69  (P.L. Sclater, 1860) Olive Finch
W Andes of Colombia (W slope from Antioquia, E slope in Nariño) to Peru (Cajamarca, Amazonas; Cuzco)
Arremon brunneinucha70,71,72 Chestnut-capped Brush Finch
apertus (Wetmore, 1942) vS Mexico (Sierra de los Tuxtlas in S Veracruz)
brunneinucha (Lafresnaye, 1839)73,74 δE Mexico (San Luis Potosí and Veracruz to NE Oaxaca)
suttoni (Parkes, 1954) SW Mexico (Guerrero)
nigrilatera (J.S. Rowley, 1968)75 S Mexico (C Oaxaca)
macrourus (Parkes, 1954) vS Mexico (Chiapas), SW Guatemala
alleni (Parkes, 1954) Honduras, N El Salvador, W Nicaragua
elsae (Parkes, 1954) Costa Rica, W and C Panama
frontalis von Tschudi, 1844 vE Panama, Colombia to Peru, N Venezuela (except Falcón, Yaracuy)
allinornatus (W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949) vNW Venezuela (Falcón, Yaracuy)
inornatus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1879) vSC Ecuador (SW Chimborazo to NW Azuay)
Arremon virenticeps 76,77  (Bonaparte, 1855) Green-striped Brush Finch
W and C Mexico (S Sinaloa to S Durango; Jalisco to W Puebla)
Arremon costaricensis 78  (Bangs, 1907) Costa Rican Brush Finch
vMountains of SW Costa Rica, W Panama (Chiriquí)
Arremon assimilis Gray-browed Brush Finch
larensis (W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1949) vW Venezuela (Andes in W Lara to W Táchira)
assimilis (Boissonneau, 1840) vAndes of W Venezuela (Mérida), Colombia to NW Peru (Amazonas, Cajamarca)
nigrifrons (Chapman, 1923) Andes of SW Ecuador (El Oro, Loja), NW Peru (Piura to La Libertad)
poliophrys (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896) E slope of Andes of C and S Peru (Huánuco to NW Puno)
Arremon basilicus   (Bangs, 1898) Bangs's Brush Finch/Sierra Nevada Brush Finch
vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
Arremon perijanus   (W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1940) Perija Brush Finch
vSierra de Perijá, on Colombia/Venezuela border
Arremon affinis White-browed Brush Finch
affinis (d'Orbigny, 1840)79 vExtreme SE Peru (Andes of E Puno) and W Bolivia (Andes of La Paz, Cochabamba)
fimbriatus (Chapman, 1923) vSC Bolivia (Andes of E Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca)
borellii (Salvadori, 1897)80 δS Bolivia (foothills of Andes of Chuquisaca, Tarija), NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta)
Arremon atricapillus Black-headed Brush Finch
tacarcunae (Chapman, 1923) E Panama (east from Panamá)
atricapillus (Lawrence, 1874) Andes of N Colombia
Arremon phaeopleurus   (P.L. Sclater, 1856) Caracas Brush Finch
vN Venezuela (C Coastal Range)
Arremon phygas   (von Berlepsch, 1912) Paria Brush Finch
NE Venezuela (E Coastal Range)
Arremon flavirostris Saffron-billed Sparrow
flavirostris Swainson, 1838 vEC Brazil (SE Mato Grosso to Bahia, C São Paulo)
dorbignii P.L. Sclater, 1856 C and S Bolivia (Cochabamba to Tarija), NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta to Catamarca)
polionotus Bonaparte, 185081,82 αvE Bolivia, SC Brazil (Mato Grosso to Goiás, Paraná), Paraguay, NE Argentina (Formosa, Misiones to Corrientes)
Arremon taciturnus83,84 Pectoral Sparrow
1 axillaris P.L. Sclater, 1855 vW Venezuela (Portuguesa to E Táchira), C Colombia (Boyacá, Casanare, Meta)
2 taciturnus (Hermann, 1783) vE Colombia (R. Orinoco), S Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil (south to Minas Gerais), NE Bolivia (Beni)
2 nigrirostris P.L. Sclater, 1886 vSE Peru (Cuzco, Puno), N Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
Arremon semitorquatus 85  Swainson, 1838 Half-collared Sparrow
vSE Brazil (Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul)
Arremon franciscanus 86  M.A. Raposo, 1997 São Francisco Sparrow
vEC Brazil (S Bahia, N Minas Gerais) [Raposo, 1997 #3207]
Arremon abeillei87 Black-capped Sparrow
1 abeillei Lesson, 1844 W Ecuador, NW Peru (to Cajamarca)
2 nigriceps Taczanowski, 188088 NW Peru (upper Marañón Valley in Cajamarca)
Arremon aurantiirostris Orange-billed Sparrow
saturatus Cherrie, 1891 vSE Mexico (Caribbean slope from S Veracruz to Tabasco), Belize, Guatemala
rufidorsalis Cassin, 1865 vCaribbean slope from Honduras to NW Panama
aurantiirostris Lafresnaye, 1847 vCosta Rica (Pacific slope), Panama (both slopes east to C Panamá)
strictocollaris Todd, 1922 vE Panama, NW Colombia (Chocó)
occidentalis Hellmayr, 1911 vPacific slope from W Colombia to NW Ecuador
santarosae Chapman, 1925 SW Ecuador
erythrorhynchus P.L. Sclater, 1855 vN Colombia (upper Sinú, lower Cauca, middle Magdalena valleys)
spectabilis P.L. Sclater, 1855 vSE Colombia (Putumayo) to NC Peru (San Martín)
Arremon schlegeli Golden-winged Sparrow
fratruelis Wetmore, 1946 N Colombia (Guajira Pen.)
canidorsum J.T. Zimmer, 1941 N Colombia (W slope of E Andes in Santander)
schlegeli Bonaparte, 185089 αCaribbean coast of N Colombia, N Venezuela (incl. Andes to Táchira)
PIPILO Vieillot, 1816 M - Pinson aux yeux rouges Buffon; type by monotypy = Fringilla erythrophthalma Linnaeus, 1758  90
Pipilo ocai Collared Towhee
alticola (Salvin & Godman, 1889) W Mexico (W Jalisco, NE Colima)
nigrescens (Salvin & Godman, 1889) C Mexico (NC Michoacán)
ocai (Lawrence, 1865)91,92 αSW Mexico (Guerrero, Veracruz to C Oaxaca)
Pipilo chlorurus   (Audubon, 1839) Green-tailed Towhee
vW USA (Washington, Montana to California, SW Texas), NW Mexico >> Mexico (to Tamaulipas)
Pipilo maculatus93,94,95 Spotted Towhee
1 curtatus G.B. Grinnell, 1911 vSW Canada (S British Columbia), W USA (Idaho, NE California, Nevada) >> SW USA (California, Arizona)
1 arcticus (Swainson, 1832) vS Canada (C Alberta, C Saskatchewan), C USA (east of Rocky Mts. to NW Kansas) >> Mexico (Nuevo León)
1 oregonus Bell, 1849 vSW Canada (SW British Columbia), W USA (to SW Oregon) >> SW USA (California)
1 falcinellus Swarth, 1913 W USA (Oregon, California)
1 montanus Swarth, 1905 vSW USA (California to Colorado, New Mexico), N Mexico (NE Sonora, NW Chihuahua) >> N Mexico
1 falcifer McGregor, 1900 vSW USA (coastal N California)
1 megalonyx S.F. Baird, 1858 SW USA (coastal S California, incl. Santa Cruz I.), NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
1 clementae G.B. Grinnell, 1897 SW USA (Santa Rosa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente Is, off SW California)
1 umbraticola G.B. Grinnell & Swarth, 1926 NW Mexico (N Baja California)
1†? consobrinus Ridgway, 1876 Guadalupe I. (off W Baja California)
1 magnirostris Brewster, 1891 vNW Mexico (S Baja California)
1 gaigei Van Tyne & Sutton, 1937 SW USA (E and SE New Mexico, W Texas), N Mexico (N Coahuila)
1 griseipygius van Rossem, 1934 vW Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental from SW Chihuahua to Zacatecas)
1 orientalis Sibley, 1950 vE Mexico (Sierra Madre Oriental from SE Coahuila to N Hidalgo)
1 maculatus Swainson, 1827 vE Mexico (highlands from SE Tlaxcala to E Puebla)
1 macronyx Swainson, 182796 SC Mexico (E Michoacán to Distrito Federal)
1 vulcanorum Sibley, 1950 SC Mexico (México to W Puebla)
1 oaxacae Sibley, 195097 S Mexico (highlands of N and C Oaxaca)
1 repetens Griscom, 1930 S Mexico (SE Chiapas), W Guatemala
1 chiapensis van Rossem, 1938 vSE Mexico (mountains of C Chiapas)
2 socorroensis Grayson, 186798 vIsla Socorro (off W Mexico)
Pipilo erythrophthalmus Eastern Towhee
erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE Canada (from S Manitoba), E USA (Minnesota, S Maine to Oklahoma, Virginia) >> S USA
rileyi Koelz, 193999 SE USA (coastal SE Virginia to N Florida) >> SE USA (to C Florida)
alleni Coues, 1871 Florida
canaster A.H. Howell, 1913100 SC USA (NE Louisiana, W North Carolina to Gulf Coast, SE Georgia)
†? Pipilo naufragus   Olson & Wingate, 2012 Bermuda Towhee
Bermuda
PSELLIOPHORUS Ridgway, 1898 M - Tachyphonus tibialis Lawrence, 1864; type by original designation   
Pselliophorus tibialis 101  (Lawrence, 1864) Yellow-thighed Finch
vMountains of Costa Rica, W Panama (W Chiriquí)
Pselliophorus luteoviridis   Griscom, 1924 Yellow-green Finch
vWC Panama (E Chiriquí, Veraguas)
ATLAPETES Wagler, 1831 M - Atlapetes pileatus Wagler, 1831; type by monotypy   
Atlapetes pileatus Rufous-capped Brush Finch
dilutus Ridgway, 1898 vN Mexico (plateau from SW Chihuahua to San Luis Potosí)
pileatus Wagler, 1831 vS Mexico (Sinaloa to Michoacán, Veracruz; Guerrero, Oaxaca)
Atlapetes albofrenatus Moustached Brush Finch
meridae (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1871)102,103 W Venezuela (Andes of Mérida, E Táchira)
albofrenatus (Boissonneau, 1840) vC Colombia (E Andes in Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca)
Atlapetes semirufus104 Ochre-breasted Brush Finch
denisei (Hellmayr, 1911) N Venezuela (Carabobo to Sucre)
benedettii W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941 NW Venezuela (mountains of Falcón, Lara, Trujillo)
albigula J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1946 W Venezuela (N Táchira)
zimmeri Meyer de Schauensee, 1947 NE Colombia (E slope of E Andes in S Norte de Santander, NE Boyacá), W Venezuela (W Táchira)
majusculus Todd, 1919 vC Colombia (E Andes in N Boyacá)
semirufus (Boissonneau, 1840) vC Colombia (E slope of E Andes in Cundinamarca)
Atlapetes personatus Tepui Brush Finch
personatus (Cabanis, 1849)105 vSE Venezuela (Mt. Roraima in SE Bolívar)
collaris Chapman, 1939 vSE Venezuela (Auyan Tepui in SE Bolívar)
duidae Chapman, 1929 S Venezuela (Cerro Duida, in S Amazonas and Cerro Guaiquinima in WC Bolívar)
parui W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1950 S Venezuela (Serranía Parú in NC Amazonas)
paraquensis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1946 vS Venezuela (Cerro Paraque and Cerro Yaví in Amazonas)
jugularis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1955 vS Venezuela (Serranía de la Neblina in S Amazonas), N Brazil (Amazonas)
Atlapetes albinucha106 White-naped Brush Finch
1 albinucha (Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1838) S Mexico (Caribbean slope from Veracruz to Chiapas)
2 griseipectus Dwight & Griscom, 1921 S Mexico (SW Chiapas), highlands of W Guatemala, El Salvador
2 fuscipygius Dwight & Griscom, 1921 vHighlands of Honduras, NW El Salvador, NW Nicaragua
2 parvirostris Dwight & Griscom, 1921 vCosta Rica
2 brunnescens Chapman, 1915107 W Panama (Chiriquí)
2 azuerensis Aldrich, 1937108 vWC Panama (Azuero Pen.)
2 gutturalis (Lafresnaye, 1843)109 vColombia (Andes from Norte de Santander, Antioquia)
Atlapetes melanocephalus   (Salvin & Godman, 1880) Santa Marta Brush Finch
vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
Atlapetes pallidinucha Pale-naped Brush Finch
pallidinucha (Boissonneau, 1840) WC Venezuela (Táchira), C Colombia (E Andes in Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca)
papallactae Hellmayr, 1913 C Andes of Colombia (from Caldas) to N Peru (Piura/Cajamarca border)
Atlapetes flaviceps   Chapman, 1912 Yellow-headed Brush Finch
iE slope of C Andes of Colombia (N Tolima)
Atlapetes fuscoolivaceus 110  Chapman, 1914 δ Dusky-headed Brush Finch
vSW Colombia (upper Magdalena Valley, in Huila)
Atlapetes tricolor111 Tricolored Brush Finch
crassus Bangs, 1908112 vColombia (W Andes from Caldas) to W Ecuador (El Oro)
tricolor (Taczanowski, 1875)113 αC Peru (Andes from La Libertad to Cuzco)
Atlapetes leucopis   (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1878) White-rimmed Brush Finch
vS Colombia (Andes south of Huila) to Ecuador (S Loja)
Atlapetes latinuchus114 Yellow-breasted Brush Finch/Rufous-naped Brush Finch
nigrifrons W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1940115,116 Sierra de Perijá, on Colombia/Venezuela border
elaeoprorus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1879) vW Colombia (Andes in Antioquia)
yariguierum Donegan & Huertas, 2006117 C Colombia (Serranía de los Yariguíes in Santander) [Donegan, 2006 #9418]
caucae Chapman, 1927 SW Colombia (Andes in Valle, Cauca)
spodionotus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1879)118 vAndes in S Colombia (Nariño) to Ecuador (Chimborazo)
comptus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1879) vSW Ecuador (Cañar to W Loja), NW Peru (Piura)
latinuchus (Du Bus, 1855) SE Ecuador (E Azuay to E Loja), N Peru (Amazonas)
chugurensis Chapman, 1927 vNW Peru (Cajamarca)
baroni (Salvin, 1895) N Peru (upper Marañón valley in Cajamarca, La Libertad)
Atlapetes blancae 119  Donegan, 2007 Antioquia Brush Finch
W Colombia (C Andes of Antioquia)[Donegan, 2007 #10147]
Atlapetes rufigenis   (Salvin, 1895) Rufous-eared Brush Finch
vW Peru (Cajamarca to Huánuco)
Atlapetes forbesi 120  Morrison, 1947 Apurimac Brush Finch
iAndes of S Peru (Apurímac, Cuzco)
Atlapetes melanopsis 121,122  Valqui & Fjeldså, 2002 Black-spectacled Brush Finch
iSC Peru (S Junín, N Huancavelica) [Valqui, 2002 #3905]
Atlapetes schistaceus123,124 Slaty Brush Finch
1 fumidus Wetmore & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953 vSierra de Perijá, on Colombia/Venezuela border
1 castaneifrons (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1875) SW Venezuela (Andes from Trujillo to Táchira)
1 tamae Cory, 1913 SW Venezuela (SW Táchira), N Colombia (Norte de Santander)
1 schistaceus (Boissonneau, 1840) vColombia (W and C Andes from Antioquia, Norte de Santander) to C Ecuador
2 mystacalis (Taczanowski, 1875)125,126 vC Peru (Andes of Huánuco to Junín)
Atlapetes leucopterus127 White-winged Brush Finch
1 leucopterus (Jardine, 1856) vW slope of Andes in Ecuador
2 dresseri (Taczanowski, 1883) Andes in SW Ecuador (El Oro, Loja), NW Peru (Tumbes to Cajamarca)
3 paynteri Fitzpatrick, 1980128,129 NW Peru (Andes of NE Piura, N Cajamarca) [Fitzpatrick, 1980 #1557]
Atlapetes albiceps   (Taczanowski, 1884) White-headed Brush Finch
iW slope of Andes of SW Ecuador (Loja) to NW Peru (Lambayeque)
Atlapetes pallidiceps   (Sharpe, 1900) Pale-headed Brush Finch
iSW Ecuador (S Azuay)
Atlapetes seebohmi130,131 Bay-crowned Brush Finch
1 simonsi (Sharpe, 1900)132 SW Ecuador (Loja)
2 seebohmi (Taczanowski, 1883) NW Peru (pacific slope of Andes to Ancash)
Atlapetes nationi Rusty-bellied Brush Finch
nationi (P.L. Sclater, 1881) W Peru (Andes of Lima)
brunneiceps (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1906) SW Peru (Andes from Ayacucho to Arequipa)
Atlapetes canigenis 133  Chapman, 1919 Cuzco Brush Finch
vS Peru (Andes of Cuzco)
Atlapetes terborghi 134  Remsen, 1993 Vilcabamba Brush Finch
iS Peru (Cordillera Vilcabamba in Cuzco) [Remsen, 1993 #3245]
Atlapetes melanolaemus 135  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1879) Black-faced Brush Finch/Gray-eared Brush Finch
vSE Peru (E Cuzco, Puno), W Bolivia (N La Paz)
Atlapetes rufinucha Bolivian Brush Finch
rufinucha (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) WC Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
carrikeri J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939 C Bolivia (Andes of Santa Cruz)
Atlapetes fulviceps 136  (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Fulvous-headed Brush Finch
iAndes from C Bolivia (La Paz to Tarija) to NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta)
Atlapetes citrinellus   (Cabanis, 1883) Yellow-striped Brush Finch
vNW Argentina (Jujuy to Catamarca)
PEZOPETES Cabanis, 1861 M - Pezopetes capitalis Cabanis, 1861; type by monotypy   137
Pezopetes capitalis 138  Cabanis, 1861 Large-footed Finch
vMountains of Costa Rica, W Panama (W Bocas del Toro, W Chiriquí)
TORREORNIS Barbour & J.L. Peters, 1927 F - Torreornis inexpectata Barbour & J.L. Peters, 1927; type by monotypy   
Torreornis inexpectata Zapata Sparrow
inexpectata Barbour & J.L. Peters, 1927 vW Cuba (Zapata Swamp)
sigmani M.J. Spence & B.L. Smith, 1961 SE Cuba
varonai Regalado Ruiz, 1981139 Cayo Coco, off NC Cuba [Regalado Ruiz, 1981 #3230]
KIENERIA Bonaparte, 1855 F - Pyrgisoma kieneri Bonaparte, 1850; type by original designation and virtual tautonymy140
Kieneria kieneri Rusty-crowned Ground Sparrow
grisior (van Rossem, 1933)141 vNW Mexico (SE Sonora, N Sinaloa)
kieneri (Bonaparte, 1850)142 αW Mexico (S Sonora to Colima)
rubricata (Cabanis, 1851) vC and SW Mexico (S Guanajuato, Michoacán to W Oaxaca)
Kieneria fusca143 Canyon Towhee
mesoleuca (S.F. Baird, 1854) vSW USA (Arizona to W Texas), N Mexico (N Sonora, N Chihuahua)
intermedia (Nelson, 1899) vNW Mexico (Sonora to N Sinaloa)
jamesi (C.H. Townsend, 1923) NW Mexico (Isla Tiburón, off W Sonora)
mesata (Oberholser, 1937) vSW USA (SE Colorado to NE New Mexico)
texana (van Rossem, 1934)144 vSW USA (W and C Texas), N Mexico (NW Coahuila)
perpallida (van Rossem, 1934) vWC Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental from Chihuahua to SW Zacatecas)
fusca (Swainson, 1827) vE and C Mexico (Nayarit, México to NC Guerrero)
potosina (Ridgway, 1899) vN and C Mexico (Coahuila, W Nuevo León to NE Jalisco, Querétaro)
campoi (R.T. Moore, 1949) EC Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla, W Veracruz)
toroi (R.T. Moore, 1942)145 SC Mexico (Tlaxcala, Veracruz to N Oaxaca)
Kieneria albicollis White-throated Towhee
marshalli (Parkes, 1974)146 S Mexico (S Puebla) [Parkes, 1974 #2929]
albicollis (P.L. Sclater, 1858)147 vS Mexico (E Guerrero to C Oaxaca)
Kieneria crissalis148 California Towhee
petulans (G.B. Grinnell & Swarth, 1926) SW USA (coastal N and C California)
crissalis (Vigors, 1839)149 vW USA (SW Oregon, California)
senicula (Anthony, 1895) SW USA (coastal C California), NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
aripolia (Oberholser, 1919) vNW Mexico (C Baja California)
albigula (S.F. Baird, 1860) NW Mexico (S Baja California)
Kieneria aberti150 Abert's Towhee
aberti (S.F. Baird, 1852)151 SW USA (S Arizona, SW New Mexico)
dumeticolus (van Rossem, 1946)152 SW USA (SE Nevada, SW Utah to California, S Arizona), NW Mexico (N Baja California, NW Sonora)
MELOZONE Reichenbach, 1850 F - Pyrgita biarcuata Prévost & Des Murs, 1846; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1888, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 12, p. 731).   153
Melozone biarcuata154 Prevost's Ground Sparrow
1 hartwegi Brodkorb, 1938155 S Mexico (Chiapas)
1 biarcuata (Prévost & Des Murs, 1846)156 vHighlands of Guatemala, W Honduras, El Salvador
2 cabanisi (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868)157 Highlands of C Costa Rica
Melozone leucotis White-eared Ground Sparrow
occipitalis (Salvin, 1878) vPacific coast of S Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador
nigrior W. deW. Miller & Griscom, 1925 vHighlands of NC Nicaragua
leucotis Cabanis, 1861158 vHighlands of Costa Rica
AIMOPHILA Swainson, 1837 F - Pipilo rufescens Swainson, 1827; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 46).   159
Aimophila rufescens Rusty Sparrow
antonensis van Rossem, 1942 vNW Mexico (NC Sonora)
mcleodii Brewster, 1888 NW Mexico (E Sonora, W Chihuahua to N Sinaloa, NW Durango)
rufescens (Swainson, 1827)160 W and SW Mexico (S Sinaloa to SW Chiapas)
pyrgitoides (Lafresnaye, 1839)161 E and SE Mexico (S Tamaulipas to Chiapas), Honduras, El Salvador, NW Nicaragua
discolor Ridgway, 1888162 N Honduras, NE Nicaragua
pectoralis Dickey & van Rossem, 1927 vSE Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador
hypaethra Bangs, 1909163 δvNW Costa Rica (Pacific slope)
Aimophila ruficeps164 Rufous-crowned Sparrow
ruficeps (Cassin, 1852) SW USA (C California)
canescens Todd, 1922 SW USA (SW California), NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
sanctorum van Rossem, 1947 NW Mexico (Isla Todos Santos, off NW Baja California)
obscura Dickey & van Rossem, 1923 vSW USA (Santa Catalina I., Anacapa I., Santa Cruz I., off SW California)
sororia Ridgway, 1898165 δvSW Mexico (S Baja California)
scottii (Sennett, 1888)166,167 SW USA (Arizona, SW New Mexico), N Mexico (NE Sonora, NW Coahuila)
eremoeca (N.C. Brown, 1882) vS USA (SE Colorado, SW Kansas to E New Mexico, W Texas), N Mexico (N Chihuahua, C Coahuila)
simulans van Rossem, 1934 NW Mexico (SE Sonora, SW Chihuahua to N Jalisco, W Guanajuato)
pallidissima A.R. Phillips, 1966168 vNE Mexico (S Coahuila, N San Luis Potosí, SE Tamaulipas)
phillipsi Hubbard & Crossin, 1974169 NW Mexico (SE Sinaloa) [Hubbard, 1974 #2029]
boucardi (P.L. Sclater, 1867) E Mexico (C Coahuila to W Veracruz)
suttoni Hubbard, 1975170 W Mexico (E Nayarit, W and N Jalisco) [Hubbard, 1974 #2029]
laybournae Hubbard, 1975171 E Mexico (WC Veracruz to NC Oaxaca) [Hubbard, 1974 #2029]
duponti Hubbard, 1975172 C Mexico (Mexico City area) [Hubbard, 1974 #2029]
fusca (Nelson, 1897) vW Mexico (S Nayarit to Michoacán)
australis (Nelson, 1897) vS Mexico (Guerrero, S Puebla, Oaxaca)
extima A.R. Phillips, 1966173 vS Mexico (E Jalisco, N Michoacán)
Aimophila notosticta   (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868) Oaxaca Sparrow
vS Mexico (NW and C Oaxaca)
JUNCO Wagler, 1831 M - Junco phaeonotus Wagler, 1831; type by monotypy   174
Junco vulcani   (Boucard, 1878) Volcano Junco
iVolcanic summits of Costa Rica and W Panama
Junco hyemalis175,176 Dark-eyed Junco
1 hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758) vAlaska, Canada, NE USA (to C Minnesota, Massachusetts) >> S USA, N Mexico
1 carolinensis Brewster, 1886 vE USA (Appalachian Mts. from West Virginia to N Georgia) >> lower elevations
1 cismontanus Dwight, 1918 vW Canada (Yukon to British Columbia) >> S USA (east to Wisconsin), NW Mexico (N Baja California)
2 aikeni Ridgway, 1873 WC USA (SE Montana to NW Nebraska) >> S USA (to N New Mexico, W Oklahoma)
3 oreganus (J.K. Townsend, 1837) vSE Alaska, SW Canada (to Calvert I., in W British Columbia) >> SW USA (coastal California)
3 shufeldti Coale, 1887177 W slope of SW Canada (SW British Columbia), NW USA (to W Oregon) >> S USA (California to W Texas)
3 montanus Ridgway, 1898 vInterior SW Canada (C British Columbia), NW USA (to W Oregon) >> S USA, N Mexico
3 thurberi Anthony, 1890 W USA (S Oregon, California) >> SW USA (to SW New Mexico), NW Mexico (Baja California, Sonora)
3 pinosus Loomis, 1893 vSW USA (coastal ranges of C California)
3 pontilis Oberholser, 1919178 δvNW Mexico (Sierra de Juárez, in N Baja California)
3 townsendi Anthony, 1889 NW Mexico (Sierra de San Pedro Martir, in N Baja California)
4 mearnsi Ridgway, 1897 SW Canada (SE Alberta, SW Saskatchewan), NC USA (E Idaho to E Wyoming), W USA, N Mexico (to Durango)
5 insularis Ridgway, 1876179 vNW Mexico (Guadalupe I., off NW Baja California)
6 caniceps (Woodhouse, 1853) SW USA (Wyoming to C Nevada, N New Mexico) >> SW USA (to W Texas), N Mexico (to N Durango)
6 dorsalis Henry, 1858 vSW USA (mountains of N Arizona, New Mexico, W Texas)
6 mutabilis van Rossem, 1931 vSW USA (mountains of SE California, S Nevada)
Junco phaeonotus180 Yellow-eyed Junco
1 palliatus Ridgway, 1885 vMountains of SW USA (S Arizona, SW New Mexico), N Mexico (to N Jalisco)
1 phaeonotus Wagler, 1831 vC and S Mexico (mountains of Coahuila, Nayarit to Veracruz, Oaxaca)
2 bairdi Ridgway, 1883181 NW Mexico (S Baja California)
3 fulvescens Nelson, 1897 S Mexico (mountains of interior Chiapas)
4 alticola Salvin, 1863 Mountains of S Mexico (SE Chiapas) and W Guatemala
ZONOTRICHIA Swainson, 1832 F - Fringilla pennsylvanica Latham, 1790; type by subsequent designation (Bonaparte, 1832, Giornale Arcadico di Scienze Lett. Arti Roma, 52 (1831), p. 206). = Fringilla albicollis J.F. Gmelin, 1789  182
Zonotrichia capensis183 Rufous-collared Sparrow
septentrionalis Griscom, 1930 vHighlands of S Mexico (Chiapas) to Honduras, El Salvador
antillarum (Riley, 1916) Hispaniola (Cordillera Central of Dominican Republic)
costaricensis J.A. Allen, 1891184 vEl Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama, N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.), Venezuela (C Lara) to Ecuador
insularis (Ridgway, 1898) vNetherlands Antilles (Curaçao and Aruba)
venezuelae Chapman, 1939 N and C Venezuela (mountains of northern coastal region, NW Bolívar)
inaccessibilis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1955 vS Venezuela (Serranía de la Neblina in S Amazonas)
perezchinchillorum (W.H. Phelps, Jr. & Aveledo, 1984)185,186 δS Venezuela (Cerro Marahuaca in C Amazonas) [Phelps, 1984 #3053]
roraimae (Chapman, 1929) C Colombia (Meta, Guaviare); S Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar), W Guyana, N Brazil (Roraima)
macconnelli Sharpe, 1900187 δSE Venezuela (summit of Mt. Roraima, in SE Bolívar)
capensis (Statius Muller, 1776) vNE French Guiana
bonnetiana Stiles, 1995188 vS Colombia (Sierra de Chiribiquete) [Stiles, 1995 #3736]
tocantinsi Chapman, 1940 E Amazonian Brazil (along R. Tocantins in Pará)
novaesi Oren, 1985189 EC Brazil (Serra dos Carajás in Pará) [Oren, 1985 #2868]
matutina (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vNE and C Brazil (Maranhão to C Mato Grosso, Bahia), E Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
subtorquata Swainson, 1837 vC and S Brazil (from S Mato Grosso, Espírito Santo), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones), Uruguay
illescasensis Koepcke, 1963 vNW Peru (Piura)
markli Koepcke, 1971190 Lowland NW Peru (Piura) [Koepcke, 1971 #2258]
huancabambae Chapman, 1940 N and C Peru (Piura to Junín)
peruviensis (Lesson, 1834) vW Peru (coast and W slope of Andes from La Libertad to Tacna)
pulacayensis (Menegaux, 1909)191 vW Bolivia (Oruro)
carabayae Chapman, 1940 E slope of Andes from C Peru (Junín) to Bolivia (La Paz, Cochabamba)
antofagastae Chapman, 1940 NW Chile (Tarapacá, Antofagasta)
arenalensis (Nores, 1986)192 vNW Argentina (Catamarca) [Nores, 1986 #2780]
sanborni Hellmayr, 1932 High Andes of C Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaíso), W Argentina (San Juan)
hypoleuca (Todd, 1915)193 vE and S Bolivia (Cochabamba to Tarija), N Argentina (to San Luis, S Buenos Aires)
choraules (Wetmore & J.L. Peters, 1922) WC Argentina (lowlands of Mendoza to Río Negro)
chilensis (Meyen, 1834) vC Chile (Atacama to C Los Lagos), WC Argentina (E slope of Andes from Mendoza to Río Negro)
australis (Latham, 1790) vS Chile (from Aisén), S Argentina (from Neuquén, Río Negro) >> N Bolivia
Zonotrichia querula   (Nuttall, 1840) Harris's Sparrow
vWC Canada (N British Columbia to NW Ontario) >> W USA (to Texas)
Zonotrichia albicollis   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) White-throated Sparrow
vCanada (east of Rocky Mts.), NE USA (NC North Carolina to N Pennsylvania) >> S USA, N Mexico
Zonotrichia leucophrys194 White-crowned Sparrow
leucophrys (J.R. Forster, 1772)195 C and E Canada (Manitoba to Newfoundland) >> SE USA (from Kansas, North Carolina), N Mexico (Sonora)
gambelii (Nuttall, 1840) Alaska, W Canada (to N Manitoba) >> SW Canada (S British Columbia), W USA (east to Kansas), N Mexico
oriantha Oberholser, 1932 SW Canada (to SW Saskatchewan), W USA (east to Colorado) >> SW USA (to C Texas), Mexico (to Jalisco)
pugetensis G.B. Grinnell, 1928 vSW Canada (SW British Columbia), coastal W USA (to NW California) >> W USA (to SW California)
nuttalli Ridgway, 1899 SW USA (WC California)
Zonotrichia atricapilla   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Golden-crowned Sparrow
iAlaska, W Canada (Yukon), NW USA (NW Washington) >> SW USA, NW Mexico (C Baja California)
PASSERELLA Swainson, 1837 F - Fringilla iliaca Merrem, 1786; type by monotypy   196
Passerella iliaca197,198 Fox Sparrow
1 iliaca (Merrem, 1786) vE Canada (NE Manitoba to S Newfoundland) >> SE Canada, E USA (S Wisconsin to C Florida)
1 zaboria Oberholser, 1946199 vN and W Alaska, W Canada (to S Manitoba) >> C and S USA (to S Texas, N Georgia)
2 unalaschcensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)200 δvAlaska (Aleutian Is., Alaska Pen.) >> SW Canada (SW British Columbia), W USA (to California)
2 insularis Ridgway, 1900201 vAlaska (Kodiak I.) >> coastal S California
2 sinuosa G.B. Grinnell, 1910 vAlaska (Prince William Sound, Middleton I.) >> SW Canada to NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
2 annectens Ridgway, 1900 SC Alaska >> SW Canada to California
2 townsendi (Audubon, 1838) SE Alaska, SW Canada (Queen Charlotte Is.) >> to coastal California
2 fuliginosa Ridgway, 1899 vSE Alaska to NW USA (NW Washington) >> to coastal C California
2 chilcatensis Webster, 1983202 vSE Alaska, SW Canada (NE British Columbia) >> coastal Oregon to N California [Webster, 1983 #4094]
3 olivacea Aldrich, 1943 vSW Canada (British Columbia), NW USA (C and E Washington) >> SW USA, NW Mexico (N Baja California)
3 altivagans Riley, 1911 SW Canada (British Columbia, SW Alberta) >> to California, NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
3 schistacea S.F. Baird, 1858 vSW Canada, NC USA (to N Nevada, C Colorado) >> SW USA, NW Mexico (N Baja California)
3 swarthi Behle & Selander, 1951 NW USA (SE Idaho, NW Utah)
3 canescens Swarth, 1918 W USA (E California, C Nevada) >> SW USA (California, Nevada), NW Mexico (N Baja California)
4 megarhyncha S.F. Baird, 1858203 vW USA (C and SW Oregon to California) >> California, NW Mexico (N Baja California)
Passerella arborea204,205 American Tree Sparrow
ochracea (Brewster, 1882)206 δvAlaska, W Canada (N Yukon, NW Northwest Territories to NW British Columbia) >> W USA (to C Texas)
arborea (A. Wilson, 1810) vNC and NE Canada (from C Northwest Territories) >> E USA (to North Carolina)
AMMOSPIZA Oberholser, 1905 F - Oriolus caudacutus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by original designation207,208
Ammospiza leconteii 209  (Audubon, 1844) α Le Conte's Sparrow
WC Canada (to Ontario), N USA (Montana to Michigan) >> S USA (Gulf Coast)
Ammospiza maritima210 Seaside Sparrow
1 maritima (A. Wilson, 1811) vE USA (coastal New Hampshire to N North Carolina) >> S USA (NE Florida)
1 macgillivraii (Audubon, 1834)211,212 δE USA (North Carolina to NE Florida)
1 peninsulae (J.A. Allen, 1888)213 SE USA (NW and W Florida)
1 fisheri (Chapman, 1899) S USA (Gulf Coast from SE Texas to SW Alabama)
1 sennetti (J.A. Allen, 1888) S Texas (Gulf Coast) >> NE Mexico (NE Tamaulipas)
2 mirabilis (A.H. Howell, 1919) vSE USA (SW Florida)
3†? nigrescens (Ridgway, 1874)214,215 αSW USA (EC Florida) [Baird, 1874 #130]
Ammospiza nelsoni216,217 Nelson's Sparrow
nelsoni (J.A. Allen, 1875) W and C Canada (east to C Manitoba), N USA (North Dakota, South Dakota, NW Minnesota) >> S USA, NW Mexico
altera Todd, 1938218 vEC Canada (N Manitoba to W Québec) >> S USA (Gulf Coast)
subvirgata (Dwight, 1887)219 vSE Canada (from S Québec), NE USA (to S Maine, N Massachusetts) >> E USA (Atlantic coast)
Ammospiza caudacuta220 Saltmarsh Sparrow
caudacuta (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vNE USA (coastal S Maine to New Jersey) >> SE USA (New Jersey to Florida)
diversa (Bishop, 1901) vE USA (coastal New Jersey to Delaware) >> SE USA (to Florida)
ARTEMISIOSPIZA Klicka & Banks, 2011 F - Emberiza belli Cassin, 1850; type by original designation221,222
Artemisiospiza nevadensis 223,224  (Ridgway, 1874) α Sagebrush Sparrow
vW USA (E Washington to N New Mexico) >> SW USA (W Texas), NW Mexico (N Baja California, N Chihuahua)
Artemisiospiza belli Bell's Sparrow
canescens (G.B. Grinnell, 1905)225 SW USA (C California, W Nevada) >> SW USA, NW Mexico (NE Baja California)
belli (Cassin, 1850)226 SW USA (California incl. San Clemente I.), NW Mexico (N Baja California)
cinerea (C.H. Townsend, 1890) vNW Mexico (C Baja California)
POOECETES S.F. Baird, 1858 M - Fringilla graminea J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy   227
Pooecetes gramineus Vesper Sparrow
gramineus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vSE Canada (from NE Ontario), E USA (N Minnesota, Maine to C Missouri, S Virginia) >> Gulf Coast
confinis S.F. Baird, 1858 vSW Canada (to W Ontario), W USA (east to W Nebraska) >> SW USA, Mexico (to Oaxaca)
altus A.R. Phillips, J.T. Marshall Jr., & G. Monson, 1964228,229 vSW USA (S Utah to N Arizona) [Phillips, 1964 #4743]
affinis G.S. Miller, 1888 vW USA (W Washington, W Oregon) >> SW USA, NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
ORITURUS Bonaparte, 1850 M - Oriturus mexicanus Bonaparte, 1850; type by subsequent designation (Bonaparte, 1856, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, p. 413). = Aimophila superciliosa Swainson, 1838230
Oriturus superciliosus231 Striped Sparrow
palliatus (van Rossem, 1938) vW Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental from E Sonora to W Zacatecas)
superciliosus (Swainson, 1838) vC and SW Mexico (C plateau from Jalisco to C Oaxaca)
PASSERCULUS Bonaparte, 1838 M - Fringilla savanna A. Wilson, 1811; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 46).   232
Passerculus sandwichensis233 Savannah Sparrow
1 princeps Maynard, 1872 E Canada (Sable I., off E Nova Scotia) >> E USA (E Massachusetts to S Georgia)
2 sandwichensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vE Aleutian Is., islands off Alaska Pen. >> coastal SW Canada (British Columbia) to W USA (N California)
2 anthinus Bonaparte, 1853234,235 δvNE Siberia, Alaska, NW Canada (Yukon, Northwest Territories, N British Columbia) >> SW USA, NW Mexico
2 brooksi Bishop, 1915 SW Canada (SW British Columbia), NW USA (W Washington to NW California) >> S California, N Baja California
2 nevadensis G.B. Grinnell, 1910 vC Canada (E British Columbia to Manitoba), WC USA (south to E California and South Dakota) >> SC USA to NW and C Mexico
2 labradorius R.H. Howe, Jr., 1901236 vE Canada (Ontario to Labrador) >> SE USA
2 savanna (A. Wilson, 1811)237 SE Canada (SE Québec to Nova Scotia), NE USA (south to Iowa and New Jersey) >> SE USA
2 alaudinus Bonaparte, 1853 vSW USA (coastal N and C California)
2 brunnescens (A.W. Butler, 1888)238 NC and C Mexico (S Chihuahua to Michoacán and Puebla)
2†? wetmorei van Rossem, 1938 SW Guatemala
3 beldingi Ridgway, 1885 SW USA (S California), NW Mexico (N Baja California)
3 anulus Huey, 1930 vNW Mexico (WC Baja California)
3 guttatus Lawrence, 1867 vNW Mexico (C Baja California)
3 magdalenae van Rossem, 1947 NW Mexico (SW Baja California)
4 sanctorum Coues, 1884 Islas Benito (off W Baja California)
5 rostratus (Cassin, 1852)239 vCoastal NW Mexico (NE Baja California, NW Sonora)
5 atratus van Rossem, 1930 vCoastal NW Mexico (SW Sonora, NW Sinaloa)
CENTRONYX S.F. Baird, 1858 M - Emberiza bairdii Audubon, 1844; type by monotypy240
Centronyx bairdii   (Audubon, 1844) Baird's Sparrow
SW Canada (SE Alberta to SW Manitoba), N USA (Montana to South Dakota) >> SW USA, N Mexico
Centronyx henslowii241 Henslow's Sparrow
susurrans (Brewster, 1918) NE USA (C New York, S New Hampshire to W West Virginia, E North Carolina) >> E USA (to C Florida)
henslowii (Audubon, 1829)242 C USA (E South Dakota, New York to C Kansas, C West Virginia) >> S USA (Gulf Coast)
XENOSPIZA Bangs, 1931 F - Xenospiza baileyi Bangs, 1931; type by original designation   243
Xenospiza baileyi   Bangs, 1931 Sierra Madre Sparrow
iC Mexico (S Durango; Distrito Federal)
MELOSPIZA S.F. Baird, 1858 F - Fringilla melodia A. Wilson, 1810; type by original designation   244
Melospiza melodia245 Song Sparrow
1 maxima Gabrielson & Lincoln, 1951 vSW Alaska (Attu to Atka, in W Aleutian Is.)
1 sanaka McGregor, 1900246,247 SW Alaska (Seguam to Unimak, in Aleutian Is., Alaska Pen. and islands south of peninsula)
1 insignis S.F. Baird, 1869 vSW Alaska (Kodiak I., E Alaska Pen.) >> along Alaskan coast
1 kenaiensis Ridgway, 1900 vS Alaska (Alaska Pen., islands in Prince William Sound) >> SW Canada (British Columbia)
1 caurina Ridgway, 1899 vCoastal SE Alaska >> SW USA (to NW California)
1 merrilli Brewster, 1896248 SW Canada (E British Columbia) NW USA (SE Washington, NW Montana) >> SW USA (SE California)
1 rufina (Bonaparte, 1850) vSE Alaska (Alexander Arch.), SW Canada (Queen Charlotte Is., off British Columbia)
1 morphna Oberholser, 1899 SW Canada (C and SW British Columbia), NW USA (to NW Oregon)
1 cleonensis McGregor, 1899 vW USA (SW Oregon, NW California)
2 montana Henshaw, 1884249 vW USA (Washington, Montana to California, New Mexico) >> N Mexico (Sonora to Coahuila)
2 melodia (A. Wilson, 1810)250 SE Canada (from Alberta), C and E USA (to N Georgia, except middle Atlantic coast) >> S USA (Texas to Florida)
2 atlantica Todd, 1924 vE USA (Atlantic coast from Long Island to C North Carolina) >> E USA (Maryland to Georgia)
3 gouldii S.F. Baird, 1858 SW USA (coastal C California, Santa Cruz I., off S California)
3 samuelsis (S.F. Baird, 1858)251 δSW USA (San Pablo Bay, N San Francisco Bay, in California)
3 maxillaris G.B. Grinnell, 1909 vSW USA (Suisun Bay, in C California)
3 pusillula Ridgway, 1899 vSW USA (S San Francisco Bay, in C California)
3 heermanni S.F. Baird, 1858252,253 δSW USA (C and SW California), NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
3 graminea C.H. Townsend, 1890254 vSW USA (Channel Is., off SW California), NW Mexico (Islas Los Coronados, off N Baja California)
4 fallax (S.F. Baird, 1854)255 SW USA (S Nevada, SW Utah to S California, SE Arizona)
4 rivularis W.E. Bryant, 1888 vNW Mexico (SC Baja California)
4 goldmani Nelson, 1899 WC Mexico (W Durango)
5 mexicana Ridgway, 1874256 vSC Mexico (S Hidalgo to N Puebla)
5 villai A.R. Phillips & Dickerman, 1957 SC Mexico (Guanajuato to México)
5 adusta Nelson, 1899257 vSC Mexico (Guanajuato to Michoacán)
5 zacapu Dickerman, 1963 SW Mexico (Jalisco)
Melospiza lincolnii258 Lincoln's Sparrow
lincolnii (Audubon, 1834) Alaska, Canada, extreme N USA >> S USA (from N California to N Georgia), Mexico, Guatemala
gracilis (von Kittlitz, 1858) vS Alaska, SW Canada (C British Columbia) >> SW USA, N Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Coahuila)
alticola (A.H. Miller & McCabe, 1935) W USA (mountains of NC Oregon to California, N New Mexico) >> S USA, Mexico, Guatemala
Melospiza georgiana Swamp Sparrow
ericrypta Oberholser, 1938259 vS Canada (E British Columbia to SE Québec), NC USA (To N Minnesota) >> S USA, C Mexico (to Veracruz)
georgiana (Latham, 1790) vSE Canada (Prince Edward I., Nova Scotia), NE USA (E Nebraska to West Virginia) >> S USA (to S Texas)
nigrescens G.M. Bond & Stewart, 1951260 Coastal E USA (New Jersey to SE Maryland)

1 Sequence of genera follows Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348] with genera not screened therein interpolated based on Carson & Spicer (2003) [Carson, 2003 #670], Klicka & Spellman (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #10146] and DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
2 Sequence of species follows Canales-del-Castillo et al. (2010) [Canales-del-Castillo, 2010 #12507].
3 Although published in the October to December issue of this journal that includes a table of meteorological readings to the end of December so printing and distribution cannot have been before January 1832. It has been suggested that a book of much the same name appeared in 1831; this has not yet been confirmed. See Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
4 Correct original spelling. Spelling atremaeus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] did not use gender agreement.
5 Includes comparanda; see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
6 Includes cicada; see Monroe (1968) [Monroe, 1968 #2706].
7 For correct date see Browning & Monroe (1991) [Browning, 1991 #542].
8 Treated as synonym of cana by Phillips et al. (1964) [Phillips, 1964 #4743]; but see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
9 Considered by A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with S. wortheni, but see Canales-del-Castillo et al. (2010) [Canales-del-Castillo, 2010 #12507].
10 Includes perissura Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809] and vernonia Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536]. Includes arenacea; see Carey et al. (2008) [Carey, 2008 #15521].
11 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
12 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Klicka et al. (1999) [Klicka, 1999 #15502], but see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9], Mayr & Johnson (2001) [Mayr, 2001 #15504] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
13 For treatment as a separate species from S. pusilla see A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9]; genetic data show that this is sister to S. breweri, see Canales-del-Castillo et al. (2010) [Canales-del-Castillo, 2010 #12507].
14 For recognition, see Miller et al. (1957) [Miller, 1957 #13814], Wege et al. (1993) [Wege, 1993 #15512], Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
15 Includes Amphispizopsis Wolters, 1980 [Wolters, 1980 #4263]; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
16 Includes dapolia Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
17 For continued recognition, see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
18 Possibly monotypic; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
19 For correct date see Woodman (2010) [Woodman, 2010 #13512] and Chesser et al. (2013) [Chesser, 2013 #14902].
20 Includes quillini Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
21 For separation from Aimophila see DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
22 Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] dated this 1841, but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296] and Steinheimer et al. (2006) [Steinheimer, 2006 #4439].
23 For recognition as separate from Aimophila, see DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836] and Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12460].
24 Includes bangsi and its substitute name distinguenda; see Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275]. See also Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
25 Includes ibarrorum Dickerman, 1987 [Dickerman, 1987 #1337]; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
26 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
27 Treated as synonym of arizonae by Miller et al. (1957) [Miller, 1957 #13814].
28 Includes mexicanus; see Webb & Bock (2012) [Webb, 2012 #15524]. But see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
29 Includes tabascensis; see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Webb & Bock (2012) [Webb, 2012 #15524].
30 Possibly monotypic; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
31 May form a superspecies with A. tocuyensis; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566] and A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
32 Subspecies groups follow Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
33 Includes ridgwayi; see Brush (2013) [Brush, 2013 #15527].
34 For recognition see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520] and Brush (2013) [Brush, 2013 #15527].
35 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
36 Includes richmondi; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154], but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
37 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967].
38 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
39 For recognition see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
40 For a circumscription of a reduced genus see DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836]; this included the replacement in this genus of the species A. humeralis and A. aurifrons which were treated in Myospiza by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
41 Geographical variation often minimal, and many subspecies poorly differentiated; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
42 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
43 For recognition, see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154], Vickery (1996) [Vickery, 1996 #15529] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
44 Correct original spelling. Selling pallidulus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] did not agree in gender with Myospiza.
45 For correction to authorship see Steinheimer at al. (2006) [Steinheimer, 2006 #4439].
46 Correct original spelling. Spelling tenebrosus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] did not agree in gender with Myospiza.
47 For confirmation that Oreothraupis belongs in the Emberizidae, not the Thraupidae, see Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
48 For transfer from Thraupidae see Yuri & Mindell (2002) [Yuri, 2002 #4290], Klicka et al. (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #9736], DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
49 The name flavopectus has priority over ophthalmicus.
50 Probably consists of more than one species; see Sánchez-González et al. (2007) [Sánchez-González, 2007 #9429], Weir et al. (2008) [Weir, 2008 #10848], Bonaccorso et al. (2008) [Bonaccorso, 2008 #11206] and Sosa-López et al. (2013) [Sosa-López, 2013 #14757].
51 Species paraphyletic with respect to C. tacarcunae, C. semifuscus, and C. inornatus; see Weir et al. (2008) [Weir, 2008 #10848].
52 The name novicius refers to intergrades between regionalis and punctulatus; see Olson (1993) [Olson, 1993 #14842].
53 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with C. tacarcunae and C. inornatus, but see Weir et al. (2008) [Weir, 2008 #10848].
54 See Sánchez-González et al. (2007) [Sánchez-González, 2007 #9429] for suggested treatment as a separate species .
55 For treatment as subspecies of C. flavopectus, see Olson (1981, 1993) [Olson, 1981 #2841], [Olson, 1993 #14842]. Sister to regionalis; see Weir et al. (2008) [Weir, 2008 #10848].
56 Correct original spelling. Spelling jaqueti in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
57 For recognition, see Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517] and Avendaño et al. (2013) [Avendaño, 2013 #15294].
58 For recognition, see Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517] and Avendaño et al. (2013) [Avendaño, 2013 #15294].
59 For recognition see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
60 Includes diversus; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154] and Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
61 C. zeledoni is considered to be a colour morph; see Johnson & Brush (1972) [Johnson, 1972 #15501].
62 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
63 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Hilty (2011) [Hilty, 2011 #13517].
64 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
65 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Stiles & Skutch (1989) [Stiles, 1989 #13786].
66 Includes the genera Lysurus and Buarremon, see Cadena et al. (2007) [Cadena, 2007 #9786] and Banks et al. (2008) [Banks, 2008 #10765]. See also Flórez-Rodríguez et al. (2011) [Flórez-Rodríguez, 2011 #12689].
67 For treatment as a separate species from A. castaneiceps see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. Formerly both placed in Lysurus, but see Cadena et al. (2007) [Cadena, 2007 #9786] and Banks et al. (2008) [Banks, 2008 #10765].
68 Forms a superspecies with A. crassirostris; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
69 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
70 Includes A. kuehnerii Navarro-Sigüenza, García-Hernández & Peterson, 2013 [Navarro-Sigüenza, 2013 #15236].
71 Species A. brunneinucha through A. phygas were formerly placed in Atlapetes, but see Cadena et al. (2007) [Cadena, 2007 #9786] and Banks et al. (2008) [Banks, 2008 #10765]. See also Remsen & Graves (1996) [Remsen, 1996 #3246] for earlier separation of them from Atlapetes and placement in Buarremon.
72 Species paraphyletic with respect to A. virenticeps; see Navarro-Sigüenza et al. (2008) [Navarro-Sigüenza, 2008 #10817].
73 Correct original spelling. Misspelled brunneinuchus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. Invariable.
74 Includes parkesi; see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
75 For recognition see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303], but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
76 For treatment as a separate species from A. torquatus, see Paynter (1978) [Paynter, 1978 #15507] and A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
77 Includes verecundus; see Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
78 For treatment of A. costaricensis, A. assimilis, A. basilicus, A. perijanus, A. atricapillus, A. phaeopleurus and A. phygas as separate species from A. torquatus, see Cadena et al. (2007) [Cadena, 2007 #9786], Cadena & Cuervo (2010) [Cadena, 2010 #11955], Cadena et al. (2011) [Cadena, 2011 #12843] and Chesser et al. (2012) [Chesser, 2012 #14108].
79 The name torquatus is preoccupied in Arremon by Arremon torquatus Vieillot, 1816, a junior synonym of Tanagra taciturnus Hermann, 1783.
80 Correct original spelling. Spelling borelli in Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
81 Includes devillii; see Silva (1991) [Silva, 1991 #15510]. But see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
82 For use of 1850 see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
83 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
84 Considered to form a superspecies with A. flavirostris, A. aurantiirostris, A. schlegeli and A. abeillei by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; A. franciscanus was not yet described at the time. However, the ranges of A. aurantiirostris and A. abeillei overlap in W Ecuador.
85 For treatment as a separate species from A. taciturnus, see Raposo & Parrini (1997) [Raposo, 1997 #3208].
86 For recognition see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
87 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
88 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
89 For use of date 1850 see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
90 For a circumscription of a reduced genus, see DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
91 Includes guerrerensis and brunnescens; see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303]. But see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
92 Dated 1867 by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
93 For treatment as a separate species from P. erythrophthalmus, see Ball & Avise (1992) [Ball, 1992 #169], Monroe et al. (1995) [Monroe, 1995 #15089] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
94 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
95 As circumscribed this species includes two taxa described in the same work. We have not traced an explicit First Reviser selection to give precedence to the name maculatus over macronyx. In the event this has not previously been done we hereby act as First Revisers and select the name maculatus to maintain current practice.
96 Sometimes treated as a separate species, including subspecies vulcanorum and oaxacae; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
97 Possibly synonym of chiapensis, see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520], but see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
98 Treated as a separate species making up a superspecies with P. erythrophthalmus by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but for placement in that species see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566]. Final position flows from separation of P. maculatus from P. erythrophthalmus see Monroe et al. (1995) [Monroe, 1995 #15089].
99 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Greenlaw (1996) [Greenlaw, 1996 #15533].
100 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Greenlaw (1996) [Greenlaw, 1996 #15533].
101 Forms a superspecies with P. luteoviridis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. Status as separate species advocated by Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
102 May be a separate species; see Donegan & Huertas (2006) [Donegan, 2006 #9418].
103 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
104 Considered to form a superspecies with A. fulviceps and A. personatus by Paynter (1978) [Paynter, 1978 #15507], but see García-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [García-Moreno, 1999 #1656] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
105 For correct date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287], based on Evenhuis (1997) [Evenhuis, 1997 #12439].
106 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337] includes griseipectus in albinucha subspecies group.
107 Includes coloratus; see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
108 For recognition, see Wetmore et al. (1984) [Wetmore, 1984 #4154].
109 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; but see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
110 Original spelling fusco-olivasceus is a misspelled Latin word and has been routinely corrected, e.g. by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982].
111 Thought to form a superspecies with A. flaviceps and A. fuscoolivaceus by Paynter (1978) [Paynter, 1978 #15507].
112 For treatment as a separate species see Garcia-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [Garcia-Moreno, 1999 #1656] and Ridgely & Tudor (2009) [Ridgely, 2009 #12008].
113 For correct date see Duncan (1937) [Duncan, 1937 #1442].
114 For treatment as a separate species from A. rufinucha, see García-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [García-Moreno, 1999 #1656]. May need further division; see Donegan & Huertas (2006) [Donegan, 2006 #9418].
115 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Donegan & Huertas (2006) [Donegan, 2006 #9418].
116 Includes phelpsi Paynter, 1970 see Art. 59.4 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] applies now that Atlapetes torquatus nigrifrons has been removed to the genus Arremon.
117 For recognition see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
118 Includes simplex; see Donegan & Huertas (2006) [Donegan, 2006 #9418].
119 For recognition see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
120 For treatment as a separate species from A. rufigenis, see García-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [García-Moreno, 1999 #1656]. But see Schulenberg et al. (2007) [Schulenberg, 2007 #14480].
121 The name melanops Valqui & Fjeldså, 1999 [Valqui, 1999 #4442] was preoccupied.
122 For recognition see Schulenberg et al. (2007) [Schulenberg, 2007 #14480] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
123 Forms a superspecies with A. seebohmi and A. nationi; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
124 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
125 Includes taczanowskii; as the supposed homonymy which led Sclater & Salvin (1875) to provide this replacement name does not qualify under the present Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] as there is one letter difference; see Mlíkovský (2009) [Mlíkovský, 2009 #11980]. However, it is not clear that this change is permitted due to Art. 59.3.
126 Possibly a separate species; see Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
127 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
128 For recognition, see e.g. Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
129 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271].
130 For treatment as a separate species from A. nationi, see e.g. Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676], [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Ridgely & Tudor (1989) [Ridgely, 1989 #3271] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
131 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
132 Includes celicae; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
133 For treatment as a separate species from A. schistaceus, see García-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [García-Moreno, 1999 #1656].
134 For treatment as a separate species from A. rufinucha, see García-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [García-Moreno, 1999 #1656].
135 For treatment as a separate species from A. rufinucha, see García-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [García-Moreno, 1999 #1656].
136 Considered to form a superspecies with A. semirufus and A. personatus by Paynter (1978) [Paynter, 1978 #15507]; but see García-Moreno & Fjeldså (1999) [García-Moreno, 1999 #1656] and Jaramillo (2011) [Jaramillo, 2011 #15337].
137 Issue cover dated May 1861.
138 Issue cover dated May 1861.
139 For recognition see Morton & Gonzalez Alonso (1982) [Morton, 1982 #11802] who clearly read this publication and presumably saw it in its final printed form. We have been unable to trace a copy.
140 Species in this genus were formerly either placed in Pipilo (K. albicollis, K. fusca, K. crissalis and K. aberti) or in Melozone (K. kieneri), but see DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836]. But see also Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12460].
141 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Miller et al. (1957) [Miller, 1957 #13814].
142 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
143 Considered by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] to form a superspecies with K. crissalis, but see DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
144 Includes aimophilus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
145 As the type of Tanagra rutila Deppe, 1830 is no longer extant the name is best treated as a nomen dubium and the name toroi retained here. See Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
146 For recognition, see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
147 Includes parvirostris; see Parkes (1974) [Parkes, 1974 #2929].
148 For treatment as a separate species from K. fusca, see Zink (1988) [Zink, 1988 #15513] and Monroe et al. (1989) [Monroe, 1989 #14912].
149 Includes bullatus, carolae and eremophilus; see Patten et al. (2003) [Patten, 2003 #13841]. But see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
150 Possibly monotypic; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
151 Includes vorhiesi see Hubbard (1972) [Hubbard, 1972 #15693] who, based on Abert's collecting, considered Baird's name is best attached to the eastern population, with which Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539] agreed (while getting the synonymy wrong). Note that the spelling voorhiesi appears to have originated with Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
152 Name proposed for the western population and rejected by Phillips (1962) [Phillips, 1962 #3061] who considered Baird's name should apply to that. But see Hubbard (1972) [Hubbard, 1972 #15693].
153 The genus-group name Pyrgisoma is a junior objective synonym having the same type species.
154 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
155 May be a synonym of nominate biarcuata; see Monroe (1968) [Monroe, 1968 #2706].
156 For date used see Sherborn (1924) [Sherborn, 1924 #15561] where the name is credited to Petit-Thouars and the plate list. If a list of the plates issued in each part has been published this is not known to us but this could perhaps justify an earlier date.
157 May deserve treatment as a separate species; see Stiles & Skutch (1989) [Stiles, 1989 #13786] and Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863].
158 Issue cover dated May 1861.
159 For a circumscription of a reduced genus see DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
160 Includes brodkorbi see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and disjuncta see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303]. See also Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
161 Includes newmani; see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520], but see also Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275] and Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
162 For recommended date see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
163 Correct original spelling. Misspelled hypaethrus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. Variable.
164 Many subspecies, particularly Mexican ones, are poorly differentiated, taxonomic revision needed; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
165 Correct original spelling. Spelling soraria in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
166 Includes rupicola; see Hubbard (1975) [Hubbard, 1975 #2031]. But see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
167 May be a synonym of eremoeca; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
168 For recognition see Hubbard (1975) [Hubbard, 1975 #2031] and Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275]. But may be a synonym of eremoeca; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
169 For recognition see Hubbard (1975) [Hubbard, 1975 #2031] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
170 May be better subsumed in extima; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
171 For recognition see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
172 For recognition see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
173 For recognition see Hubbard (1975) [Hubbard, 1975 #2031].
174 Systematics of Junco species needs revision; see Nolan et al. (2002) [Nolan, 2002 #15653], Johnson & Cicero (2004) [Johnson, 2004 #2145], Milá et al. (2007) [Milá, 2007 #9740], McCormack et al. (2012) [McCormack, 2012 #13433] and Aleixandre et al. (2013) [Aleixandre, 2013 #14750].
175 Considered by Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566] to form a superspecies with J. vulcani and J. phaeonotus. But see also Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
176 Subspecies groups follow Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
177 Includes eumesus Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536]. There are differences of opinion on the availability of the name shufeldti; see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Parkes in Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
178 Correct original spelling. Spelling pontilus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
179 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. See also Aleixandre et al. (2013) [Aleixandre, 2013 #14750].
180 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
181 For a suggestion that this deserves species rank see Pieplow & Francis (2011) [Pieplow, 2011 #12874].
182 Sequence of species follows Zink et al. (1991) [Zink, 1991 #15652].
183 Revision of subspecies taxonomy needed; see Rising & Jaramillo (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13522].
184 Includes orestera; see Olson (1981) [Olson, 1981 #2841].
185 Published as perezchincillae but named for two men; we correct the spelling here, see Art. 31.1.2 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
186 For recognition see Hilty (2003) [Hilty, 2003 #12443] and Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477]; but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
187 Correct original spelling. Spelling macconelli in Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
188 For recognition see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477]; but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
189 Not mentioned by Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
190 Not recognised by Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
191 The legal deposit date is shown as 1909.
192 For recognition see Piloni (2004) [Piloni, 2004 #15645].
193 Includes mellea, considered doubtfully distinct by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982]; but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
194 May comprise more than one species; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
195 Includes aphaea Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
196 For recognition of this genus see A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
197 May consist of more than one species; see Zink (1994) [Zink, 1994 #15518], Zink & Weckstein (2003) [Zink, 2003 #4336], Zink (2008) [Zink, 2008 #11776] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
198 Subspecies groups follow A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
199 Perhaps not diagnosable from nominate iliaca; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
200 Correct original spelling. Spelling unalaschensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
201 Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] provided the substitute name ridgwayi because insularis is preoccupied in Zonotrichia.
202 For recognition, see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539], Weckstein et al. (2002) [Weckstein, 2002 #15526] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
203 Includes fulva, monoensis, brevicauda and stephensi; see Zink (1986) [Zink, 1986 #4330]. But see Weckstein et al. (2002) [Weckstein, 2002 #15526] and Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520]. Also includes mariposae, recognised by Weckstein et al. (2002) [Weckstein, 2002 #15526], but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
204 Formerly placed in Spizella, but see Carson & Spicer (2003) [Carson, 2003 #670], Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
205 Geographical variation weakly marked; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
206 Correct original spelling. Spelling ochracae in Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
207 Species in this genus derive from subdivision of the genus Ammodramus, see Klicka & Spellman (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #10146] and DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
208 Sequence of species follows Klicka & Spellman (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #10146].
209 Dated 1843 by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] but 1844 by A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8]; [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
210 Subspecies groups follow Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
211 Correct original spelling. Spelling macgillivrayi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
212 Includes pelonota; see Post & Greenlaw (2009) [Post, 2009 #15520].
213 Includes juncicola; see Post & Greenlaw (2009) [Post, 2009 #15520]. Spelling junicola in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
214 For recognition, see Post & Greenlaw (2009) [Post, 2009 #15520].
215 For correct date see Banks & Browning (1979) [Banks, 1979 #190].
216 For treatment as a separate species from A. caudacuta see Greenlaw (1993) [Greenlaw, 1993 #1805]. See also Rising & Avise (1993) [Rising, 1993 #3343].
217 Possibly monotypic, see Rising & Avise (1993) [Rising, 1993 #3343]; but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
218 Perhaps not diagnosable from nominate nelsoni; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
219 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
220 Possibly monotypic; see Rising & Avise (1993) [Rising, 1993 #3343].
221 Species in this genus were formerly placed in Amphispiza, but see Carson & Spicer (2003) [Carson, 2003 #670], Klicka & Spellman (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #10146] and Chesser et al. (2012) [Chesser, 2012 #14108].
222 The name Artemisospiza Klicka & Spellman, 2007 [Klicka, 2007 #10146] was invalid as the requirements of Art. 13 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] were not met.
223 For treatment as a separate monotypic species from A. belli, see Cicero & Johnson (2007) [Cicero, 2007 #10594], Cicero & Koo (2012) [Cicero, 2012 #14754] and Chesser et al. (2013) [Chesser, 2013 #14902].
224 For correct date of publication see Banks & Browning (1979) [Banks, 1979 #190] contra Chesser et al. (2013) [Chesser, 2013 #14902].
225 Possibly a separate species; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520] and Chesser et al. (2013) [Chesser, 2013 #14902].
226 Includes clementeae; see Patten & Unitt (2002) [Patten, 2002 #2961].
227 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
228 For recognition, see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539] and Jones & Cornely (2002) [Jones, 2002 #15523]; but see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
229 A brief description in the Birds of Arizona antedates the description in the Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural by two years: see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
230 Dated '1851?' by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982], but see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
231 Possibly monotypic; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
232 For recognition of this genus see A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. Separation from Ammodramus supported by genetic data; see Klicka & Spellman (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #10146] and DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
233 Subspecies groups and sequence of subspecies follow Wheelwright & Rising (2008) [Wheelwright, 2008 #15696]. For a further reduction in the number of subspecies see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13522]. See also Rising et al. (2009) [Rising, 2009 #15044].
234 Correct original spelling. Spelling athinus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
235 Includes crassus see Wheelwright & Rising (2008) [Wheelwright, 2008 #15696].
236 Includes oblitus see Wheelwright & Rising (2008) [Wheelwright, 2008 #15696].
237 Includes mediogriseus see Wheelwright & Rising (2008) [Wheelwright, 2008 #15696].
238 Includes rufofuscus; see Wheelwright & Rising (2008) [Wheelwright, 2008 #15696].
239 Separation of this subspecies group as a species was proposed by Zink et al. (2005) [Zink, 2005 #4338].
240 Species in this genus were formerly placed in Ammodramus, but see Klicka & Spellman (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #10146].
241 Subspecies weakly differentiated; see Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
242 Includes houstonensis Arnold, 1983 [Arnold, 1983 #102]; see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
243 Placed in Ammodramus by Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] but is sister to Melospiza; see Klicka & Spellman (2007) [Klicka, 2007 #10146] and Barker et al. (2013) [Barker, 2013 #14348].
244 For recognition of this genus see A.O.U. (1983, 1998) [A.O.U., 1983 #8], [A.O.U., 1998 #9]. Separation from Zonotrichia also supported by genetic data in DaCosta et al. (2009) [DaCosta, 2009 #11836].
245 Subspecies groups follow Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
246 Includes amaka; see Pruett et al. (2004) [Pruett, 2004 #10030] and Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
247 Author's reprints mailed 25 November 1900. See Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982] and Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
248 Includes inexspectata; see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746]. Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520] considered inexspectata as a synonym of morphna.
249 Includes fisherella; see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
250 Includes euphonia and juddi, see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746]; callima Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809] and melanchra Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2809], see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536].
251 Original spelling samuelis. Here emended based on 'Mr. Samuels' mentioned in the original.
252 Correct original spelling. Spelling heermani in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
253 Includes mailliardi and cooperi; see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
254 Includes micronyx, clementae and coronatorum; see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
255 Includes saltonis; see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
256 Includes niceae and azteca; see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
257 Includes yuriria; see Patten & Pruett (2009) [Patten, 2009 #11746].
258 Diagnosibility of subspecies doubted by Rising (2011) [Rising, 2011 #13520].
259 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Paynter (1970) [Paynter, 1970 #2982].
260 For recognition see Greenberg & Droege (1990) [Greenberg, 1990 #15519] and Mowbray (1997) [Mowbray, 1997 #15644].
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