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FALCONIDAE - Falcons and Caracaras1 (11:65)
HERPETOTHERES Vieillot, 1817 M - Falco cachinnans Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 3).  
Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing Falcon
cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758)2 iW and SE Mexico (S Sonora, S Tamaulipas) through Middle America and South America (east of Andes) to N Argentina (N Santa Fé and Corrientes) and SE Brazil (N Rio Grande do Sul)
fulvescens Chapman, 19153 Extreme E Panama (Darién) and NW Colombia to NW Peru (Tumbes) [Chapman, 1915 #694]
MICRASTUR G.R. Gray, 1841 M - Falco brachypterus Temminck, 1822; type by original designation = Sparvius semitorquatus Vieillot, 1817  
Micrastur ruficollis Barred Forest Falcon
guerilla Cassin, 1848 αiS Mexico (Veracruz and Guerrero) to Nicaragua
interstes Bangs, 1907 iCosta Rica, Panama, W Colombia, W Ecuador
zonothorax (Cabanis, 1866) αiCoastal Range of Venezuela; Sierra de Perijá; Santa Marta Mts.; Andean foothills of NW Venezuela and E slope of Andes of Colombia to Peru
concentricus (Lesson, 1830) vS Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonia
ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) vE and S Brazil, E Paraguay, N Argentina (E Formosa, E Chaco, Misiones)
olrogi Amadon, 1964 iAndean foothills of NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán)
Micrastur plumbeus 4  W.L. Sclater, 1918 Plumbeous Forest Falcon
vSW Colombia (S Chocó, Valle, Cauca, Nariño) and NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Pichincha)
Micrastur gilvicollis 5  (Vieillot, 1817) Lined Forest Falcon
vS Venezuela, the Guianas, N and W Amazonia (in Brazil south of R. Amazon, west of R. Madeira)
Micrastur mintoni   Whittaker, 2003 Cryptic Forest Falcon
SE Amazonia (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Madeira); SE Brazil (SE Bahia, N Espírito Santo) [Whittaker, 2003 #4206]
Micrastur mirandollei   (Schlegel, 1862) Slaty-backed Forest Falcon
iSE Costa Rica to W Colombia; the Guianas and Amazonia; E Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo)
Micrastur semitorquatus Collared Forest Falcon
naso (Lesson, 1842) iMexico (S Sinaloa and S Tamaulipas) to N and W Colombia, W Ecuador and NW Peru (Tumbes)
semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817) vE Colombia east to E Brazil, south to N Argentina and SE Brazil
Micrastur buckleyi 6,7  Swann, 1919 Buckley's Forest Falconα
iE Ecuador, E Peru (Amazonas and Loreto to Madre de Dios) and extreme W Brazil (W Acre)
SPIZIAPTERYX Kaup, 1852 F - Harpagus circumcinctus Kaup, 1852; type by monotypy  
Spiziapteryx circumcincta   (Kaup, 1852) Spot-winged Falconet
vSE Bolivia, W Paraguay, N and C Argentina (E Jujuy to W Formosa, south to E Mendoza and N Río Negro)
CARACARA Merrem, 1826 F - Falco plancus J.F. Miller, 1777; type by subsequent designation (Hellmayr & Conover, 1949, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., vol. 13, pt. 1, no. 4, p. 281).  8
Caracara cheriway 9,10  (von Jacquin, 1784) Crested Caracara
iS USA south to NW Peru (R. Marañón) and N Brazil (R. Amazon); Netherlands Antilles; Cuba; Islas Marías
Caracara lutosa   (Ridgway, 1876) Guadalupe Caracara
vGuadalupe I. (off W Baja California)
Caracara plancus 11  (J.F. Miller, 1777) Southern Caracara
iBrazil (south of R. Amazon), N Bolivia and SE Peru south to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
IBYCTER Vieillot, 1816 M - Petit aigle de l'Amérique Buffon; type by monotypy = Falco americanus Boddaert, 1783  12
Ibycter americanus   (Boddaert, 1783) Red-throated Caracara
vS Costa Rica (Golfo Dulce) to W Ecuador, C Peru, N and E Bolivia and S Brazil
PHALCOBOENUS d'Orbigny, 1834 M - Phalcoboenus montanus d'Orbigny, 1834; type by monotypy = Aquila megaloptera Meyen, 1834  
Phalcoboenus chimango13 Chimango Caracara
chimango (Vieillot, 1816) iC Chile (Atacama to Bíobío); Paraguay and SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) to C Argentina (R. Chubut)
temucoensis (W.L. Sclater, 1918) vC Chile (Bíobío) and C Argentina (R. Chubut) south to Tierra del Fuego
Phalcoboenus carunculatus   Des Murs, 1853 Carunculated Caracara
vAndes of SW Colombia (Cauca) to S Ecuador (C Loja)
Phalcoboenus megalopterus   (Meyen, 1834) Mountain Caracara
vAndes of S Ecuador (Loja, Zamora-Chinchipe) to C Chile (Maule) and WC Argentina (Neuquén)
Phalcoboenus albogularis   (Gould, 1837) White-throated Caracara
vAndes of C Chile (Bíobío) and WC Argentina (SW Neuquén) to Tierra del Fuego
Phalcoboenus australis 14  (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Striated Caracara
vFalkland Is.; islands off S Chile and S Argentina
MILVAGO von Spix, 1824 F - Milvago ochrocephalus von Spix, 1824; type by monotypy = Polyborus chimachima Vieillot, 1816  
Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed Caracara
cordata Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1918 vS Costa Rica south to NE Peru and N Brazil (R. Amazon)
chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) iE Bolivia and Brazil (south of R. Amazon) to NE Argentina and N Uruguay
DAPTRIUS Vieillot, 1816 M - Daptrius ater Vieillot, 1816; type by monotypy  
Daptrius ater   Vieillot, 1816 Black Caracara
vE Colombia, S and E Venezuela and the Guianas south to E Peru, N Bolivia and C Brazil
MICROHIERAX Sharpe, 1874 M - Falco fringillarius Drapiez, 1824; type by original designation  
Microhierax caerulescens15 Collared Falconet
caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) iC Himalayas (W Uttarakhand to Bhutan), NE India (W Assam, Meghalaya)
burmanicus Swann, 1920 vContinental SE Asia (except NE)
Microhierax fringillarius   (Drapiez, 1824) Black-thighed Falconet
vExtreme SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas (except N Borneo)
Microhierax latifrons   Sharpe, 1879 White-fronted Falconet
iN Borneo
Microhierax erythrogenys Philippine Falconet
erythrogenys (Vigors, 1831) iBohol, Catanduanes, Luzon, Mindoro and Negros (Philippines)
meridionalis Ogilvie-Grant, 1897 vLeyte, Mindanao and Samar; formerly Cebu (Philippines)
Microhierax melanoleucos 16  (Blyth, 1843) Pied Falconetδ
iBhutan, NE India, S China, NE continental SE Asia
POLIHIERAX Kaup, 1847 M - Falco semitorquatus A. Smith, 1836; type by monotypy  17
Polihierax semitorquatus African Pygmy Falcon
castanonotus (von Heuglin, 1860)18 δvS Sudan and Ethiopia to C Tanzania
semitorquatus (A. Smith, 1836) vS Angola, Namibia, S Botswana, NW South Africa
Polihierax insignis White-rumped Pygmy Falcon
insignis Walden, 1872 vW and C Myanmar
cinereiceps E.C.S. Baker, 1927 iS Myanmar and NW Thailand to C Vietnam
harmandi (Oustalet, 1876) iC and S Laos, S Vietnam, Cambodia
FALCO Linnaeus, 1758 M - Falco subbuteo Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (A.O.U., 1886, Check List, 2nd ed., p. 193).  
Falco naumanni   E. Fleischer, 1818 Lesser Kestrelα
iNW Africa and S Europe to N China >> sub-Saharan Africa, N India, N continental SE Asia
Falco tinnunculus Common Kestrel
tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 iNW Africa, Europe to EC Siberia (Lena basin), SW Asia, W Pakistan, W and C Himalayas (N Pakistan to Bhutan) >> E Africa, S Asia, NW continental SE Asia
perpallidus (A.H. Clark, 1907)19 vE Siberia, Korea, NE China >> E China, mainland SE Asia (?)
interstinctus McClelland, 1840 vE Himalayas (?), Japan, China (except NE), NE Vietnam >> NE India, S China, mainland SE Asia, Sumatra, N Borneo, Philippines
objurgatus (E.C.S. Baker, 1927) vS India, Sri Lanka
canariensis (A.F. Koenig, 1890) vMadeira, W Canary Is.
dacotiae E. Hartert, 1913 iE Canary Is.
neglectus Schlegel, 187320 vN Cape Verde Is.
alexandri Bourne, 1955 iS Cape Verde Is.
rupicolaeformis (C.L. Brehm, 1855) vEgypt, S Yemen
archeri E. Hartert & Neumann, 1932 iSocotra, Somalia, NE Kenya
rufescens Swainson, 1837 iSenegal and Guinea to Ethiopia and south to C Tanzania
rupicolus Daudin, 180021 iAngola, SE DR Congo and S Tanzania to South Africa
Falco newtoni Madagascar Kestrel
aldabranus Grote, 1928 vAldabra (Aldabra Is.)
newtoni (J.H. Gurney Sr., 1863) iMadagascar
Falco punctatus   Temminck, 1821 Mauritius Kestrel
Falco araeus   (Oberholser, 1917) Seychelles Kestrelδ
Falco moluccensis Spotted Kestrel
moluccensis (Bonaparte, 1850)22 vMoluccas
microbalius (Oberholser, 1917)23 αvJava, Bali, islands in Java Sea, Sulawesi, Talaud Is., Kai Is., Lesser Sundas
Falco cenchroides24 Nankeen Kestrel
baru Rand, 194025 Alpine WC New Guinea (summit plateau of Maoke Mts.)
cenchroides Vigors, 1827 Australia, Tasmania, Christmas I. >> Java, Bali, S Moluccas, S New Guinea, New Zealand
Falco sparverius American Kestrel
sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 iC Alaska to Newfoundland south through USA (except SE) to C Mexico (N Michoacán and N México) >> Central America
paulus (R.H. Howe, Jr. & King, 1902) vSE USA (South Carolina to Florida)
peninsularis Mearns, 1892 vNW Mexico (S Baja California, Sonora and Sinaloa)
tropicalis (Griscom, 1930) vS Mexico (Oaxaca) to C Honduras
nicaraguensis T.R. Howell, 1965 vE Honduras and NE Nicaragua (pine savannas)
sparverioides Vigors, 1827 iS Bahamas, Cuba, Isla de la Juventud, Jamaica
dominicensis J.F. Gmelin, 1788 vHispaniola
caribaearum J.F. Gmelin, 1788 iPuerto Rico, Virgin Is. and Lesser Antilles (south to Grenada)
brevipennis (von Berlepsch, 1892) vAruba, Curaçao, Bonaire I.
isabellinus Swainson, 1838 αvLowlands of N Colombia, Venezuela, Isla de Margarita, the Guianas and N Brazil (Roraima)
ochraceus (Cory, 1915) vAndes of NW Venezuela, E slope of C Andes and E Andes of Colombia (south to W Caquetá)
caucae (Chapman, 1915) iW slope of C Andes and W Andes of Colombia (south to Cauca)
aequatorialis Mearns, 1892 vAndes of SW Colombia (Nariño) and N and C Ecuador (south to Chimborazo)
peruvianus (Cory, 1915) vS Ecuador (south from Azuay), W Peru and N Chile (Tarapacá)
cinnamominus Swainson, 1838 αvSE Peru, Bolivia, N Chile, Paraguay and SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) south to Tierra del Fuego
fernandensis (Chapman, 1915) vIsla Robinson Crusoe (Juan Fernández Arch., off Chile)
cearae (Cory, 1915) iTableland of NE, C and S Brazil (S Maranhão and S Piauí south to Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo and Santa Catarina)
Falco rupicoloides Greater Kestrel
fieldi (Elliot, 1897) iEritrea, N Somalia, NE Ethiopia, N Kenya
arthuri (J.H. Gurney Sr., 1884) iC and S Kenya, N Tanzania
rupicoloides A. Smith, 1829 iSouth Africa to S and E Angola, W Zambia
Falco alopex   (von Heuglin, 1861) Fox Kestrel
iMauritania to Sudan and N and W Kenya
Falco ardosiaceus   Vieillot, 1823 Grey Kestrel
vSenegal to W Ethiopia, W Tanzania and Angola
Falco dickinsoni   P.L. Sclater, 1864 Dickinson's Kestrel
iAngola to C Tanzania and S Mozambique
Falco zoniventris   W. Peters, 1854 Banded Kestrel
Falco chicquera Red-necked Falcon
chicquera Daudin, 1800 iSE Iran, Pakistan, Nepal, India, Bangladesh
ruficollis Swainson, 1837 vSenegal to W Ethiopia, E Africa to N Zimbabwe and C Mozambique
horsbrughi Gunning & Roberts, 1911 iNamibia, Botswana and NW South Africa
Falco vespertinus 26  Linnaeus, 1766 Red-footed Falcon
vC Europe to C Asia >> C and S Africa
Falco amurensis   Radde, 1863 Amur Falcon
vE Siberia, NE China, N Korea >> SE Africa, S Asia, rarely mainland SE Asia
Falco eleonorae   Gené, 1839 Eleonora's Falcon
iMediterranean basin, Canary Is., NW Morocco >> Madagascar
Falco concolor   Temminck, 1825 Sooty Falcon
iNE Africa and SW Asia (Israel to Arabian Pen.) >> SE Africa, Madagascar
Falco columbarius Merlin
subaesalon C.L. Brehm, 1827 iIceland >> W Europe
aesalon Tunstall, 1771 iEurope to N Russia and NW Siberia
insignis (A.H. Clark, 1907) vNC Siberia >> NE Africa and S and E Asia
pacificus (Stegmann, 1929) vNE Siberia and Sakhalin >> Japan and E China
pallidus (Sushkin, 1900) vS Ural Mts., N and NE Kazakhstan
lymani Bangs, 1913 iPamir-Alai and Altai Mts. to Transbaikalia and Mongolia
columbarius Linnaeus, 1758 vAlaska to Newfoundland and N USA >> S USA, C America and NW South America
suckleyi Ridgway, 1874 αiNW North America (coastal SE Alaska to NW Washington)
richardsonii Ridgway, 187127 δiWC North America (Great Plains) >> C USA to N Mexico
Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon
petoensis C. Chubb, 191828 vN Mexico (S Sonora and S Tamaulipas) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
rufigularis Daudin, 1800 vE Colombia east to the Guianas and Trinidad, south to SC Bolivia and NW Argentina (Tucumán)
ophryophanes (Salvadori, 1895) iTableland of NE, C and S Brazil, E Bolivia, Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones to N Santa Fé)
Falco deiroleucus   Temminck, 1825 Orange-breasted Falcon
vS Mexico (S Veracruz) to N Honduras; SE Panama (Darién) and South America (east of the Andes) south to N Argentina and SE Brazil
Falco femoralis29 Aplomado Falcon
septentrionalis Todd, 1916 vMexico (Chihuahua; SE San Luis Potosí and Veracruz to W Campeche; Oaxaca) and S Guatemala (?)
femoralis Temminck, 1822 vBelize; E Honduras and NE Nicaragua; SC Panama; South America east of Andes (except Amazonia)
pichinchae Chapman, 1925 iAndes of SW Colombia (Cauca) to C Chile (N Maule) and NW Argentina (Tucumán)
Falco subbuteo30 Eurasian Hobby
subbuteo Linnaeus, 175831 iEurope to Japan, W and N China, N Afghanistan, W and C Himalayas (east to Nepal) >> sub-Saharan Africa, S China, mainland SE Asia
streichi E. Hartert & Neumann, 1907 iS China >> N continental SE Asia
Falco cuvierii 32  A. Smith, 1830 African Hobbyδ
iSenegal and Guinea to Ethiopia and E Africa, south to N Namibia, Zimbabwe and W Mozambique
Falco severus33 Oriental Hobby
severus Horsfield, 1821 vHimalayas, NE India, S China, mainland SE Asia to N Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Philippines
papuanus A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1893 αvSulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Solomons
Falco longipennis Australian Hobby
hanieli Hellmayr, 1914 iW and C Lesser Sundas (east to Timor and Wetar)
longipennis Swainson, 1838 αvSW and SE Australia >> New Guinea, Moluccas
murchisonianus Mathews, 1912 vAustralia (except SW and SE) >> New Guinea, Moluccas
Falco novaeseelandiae 34  J.F. Gmelin, 1788 New Zealand Falconδ
iNew Zealand, Auckland Is.
Falco berigora35 Brown Falcon
novaeguineae (A.B. Meyer, 1894) iLowland to alpine N, NE, C, SC and SE New Guinea (including Manam I., Karkar I. and Long I.)
berigora Vigors & Horsfield, 182736 iAustralia, Tasmania
Falco hypoleucos   Gould, 1841 Grey Falcon
iInland Australia
Falco subniger   G.R. Gray, 1843 Black Falcon
vInland and E Australia
Falco biarmicus Lanner Falcon
feldeggii Schlegel, 1843 iItaly to Transcaucasia and NW Levant
erlangeri O. Kleinschmidt, 1901 iNW Africa
tanypterus Schlegel, 1843 vNE Africa, Israel, Arabian Pen. and Iraq
abyssinicus Neumann, 1904 vN tropical Africa
biarmicus Temminck, 1825 vE and S Africa
Falco jugger   J.E. Gray, 1834 Laggar Falcon
iPakistan, Nepal, N and C India, Bangladesh, C Myanmar
Falco cherrug37 Saker Falcon
cherrug J.E. Gray, 183438 iC Europe to SC Siberia and N Kazakhstan >> south to NE Africa and SW Asia
milvipes Jerdon, 187139 iC Tien Shan Mts. and Altai Mts. to S Transbaikalia and N China
coatsi Dementiev, 194540 iTranscaspian plains to E Uzbekistan and S Kazakhstan
hendersoni Hume, 1871 iPamir Mts. to Tibetan Plateau
Falco rusticolus 41,42  Linnaeus, 1758 Gyrfalcon
iArctic Europe, Asia, North America
Falco mexicanus   Schlegel, 1850 Prairie Falconα
vSC British Columbia east to S Saskatchewan and south to Arizona, W Texas and NC Mexico
Falco peregrinus Peregrine Falcon
peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 vW, C and SE Europe to SE Siberia and NE China
calidus Latham, 1790 vN Russia to NE Siberia >> Africa, Europe, SW, S and E Asia, SE Asia to Wallacea, New Guinea
japonensis J.F. Gmelin, 1788 vExtreme NE Siberia to N Japan >> China, mainland SE Asia, Borneo, Philippines
babylonicus P.L. Sclater, 1861 vE Iran to Mongolia >> N Pakistan and N India43
peregrinator Sundevall, 1837 iHimalayas, S Asia to Sri Lanka, (S and E China, S Myanmar?) >> continental SE Asia to far N Thai-Malay Pen.
furuitii Momiyama, 192744 δiOgasawara Is. (Japan)
brookei Sharpe, 1873 iMediterranean region to Crimea, Caucasus area and N Iran
pelegrinoides Temminck, 182945 Canary Is., Saharan hills to Somalia, Arabian Pen., and Israel to SW Iran >> N tropical Africa
madens Ripley & Watson, 1963 iCape Verde Is.
minor Bonaparte, 1850 vIvory Coast to Ethiopia and South Africa
radama Hartlaub, 1861 iMadagascar, Comoros
ernesti Sharpe, 1894 iMainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas, Philippines, Wallacea, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Solomons
macropus Swainson, 183846 αiAustralia, Tasmania
nesiotes Mayr, 1941 iTorres Is., Banks Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is., Fiji
tundrius C.M. White, 1968 vTundra of N North America and Greenland >> South America
pealei Ridgway, 1874 αiKuril Is., Commander Is., Aleutian Is., coastal NW North America (S Alaska to NW Washington)
anatum Bonaparte, 1838 iW North America and NW Mexico (south to Puebla) >> C America
cassini Sharpe, 187347 iAndes from Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
Falco fasciinucha   Reichenow & Neumann, 1895 Taita Falcon
iE Africa from S Ethiopia to N South Africa (Mpumalanga)
Falco duboisi   Cowles, 1994 Réunion Kestrel

1 Subfamily designations and sequence of genera derived from Griffiths (1999) [Griffiths, 1999 #13704], Griffiths et al. (2004) [Griffiths, 2004 #1820], and Fuchs et al. (2011) [Fuchs, 2011 #12778].
2 Includes excubitor, chapmani and queribundus; see Hellmayr & Conover (1949) [Hellmayr, 1949 #10404] and Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326], but see also Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
3 For recognition see Hellmayr & Conover (1949) [Hellmayr, 1949 #10404] and Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326]; apparently overlooked by Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
4 For recognition as a species see Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], but also see Bierregaard (1994) [Bierregaard, 1994 #300].
5 For recognition as a separate species from M. ruficollis and for treatment of pelzelni as a synonym, see Schwartz (1972) [Schwartz, 1972 #11943].
6 For treatment as a separate species from M. semitorquatus see Traylor (1948) [Traylor, 1948 #3858] and Fuchs et al. (2011) [Fuchs, 2011 #12778].
7 Name introduced in replacement page not in original part from same year.
8 For use of this name instead of Polyborus see Banks & Dove (1992) [Banks, 1992 #196].
9 For reasons to treat this and C. lutosa as separate species from C. plancus see Dove & Banks (1999) [Dove, 1999 #1411]; thus treated here as allospecies.
10 Includes pallidus and audubonii; for continued treatment as monotypic, see Dove & Banks (1999) [Dove, 1999 #1411].
11 For treatment as monotypic see Hellmayr & Conover (1949) [Hellmayr, 1949 #10404] and Banks & Dove (1992) [Banks, 1992 #196].
12 For treatment as separate from Daptrius see Griffiths (1995, 1999) [Griffiths, 1995 #1818] [Griffiths, 1999 #13704].
13 For transfer from Milvago see Fuchs et al. (2012) [Fuchs, 2012 #13887].
14 Forms a superspecies with P. carunculatus, P. megalopterus and P. albogularis; see Amadon & Bull (1988) [Amadon, 1988 #4349].
15 This and M. fringillarius may form a superspecies; see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770] but see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
16 Correct original spelling. Spelling melanoleucus in Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770] an ISS.
17 For suggested recognition of Neohierax see Griffiths (1995) [Griffiths, 1995 #1818].
18 Correct original spelling. Spelling castanotus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
19 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
20 For treatment of this and alexandri as species see Hazevoet (1995) [Hazevoet, 1995 #1923].
21 For treatment at species rank, with rufescens as a subspecies, see Jenkins in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724], based on Groombridge et al. (2002) [Groombridge, 2002 #1829].
22 Includes bernsteini; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
23 Includes javensis, timorensis, renschi and jungei Mees, 1961 [Mees, 1961 #2600]; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
24 Subspecies recognition follows Marchant & Higgins (1993) [Marchant, 1993 #2487].
25 Recognition follows Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
26 Forms a superspecies with F. amurensis; see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
27 Correct original spelling. Spelling richardsoni in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
28 Includes petrophilus; see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
29 For use of this name rather than fuscocaerulescens Vieillot, 1817, see Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326].
30 Considered to form a superspecies with F. cuvierii by Thiollay (1994) [Thiollay, 1994 #3827].
31 Includes jugurtha; see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
32 Correct original spelling. Spelling cuvieri in Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
33 For treatment as polytypic see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770], but see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
34 Correct original spelling. Spelling novaezeelandiae in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
35 Subspecies recognition follows Marchant & Higgins (1993) [Marchant, 1993 #2487], but see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
36 Includes centralia, occidentalis and tasmanicus; see Marchant & Higgins (1993) [Marchant, 1993 #2487].
37 Subspecies classification follows Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. But see Karyakin (2011) [Karyakin, 2011 #12424].
38 Incudes cyanopus; see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770].
39 Includes altaicus, a colour morph (Stepanyan 1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
40 Tentatively includes aralocaspius Pfeffer & Karyakin, 2010 [Pfeffer, 2010 #13261] (preoccupied) and korelovi Pfeffer & Karyakin, 2011 [Pfeffer, 2011 #13612] a nomen novum for the above; see Appendix 2.2.
41 For continued treatment as monotypic see Cade (1960) [Cade, 1960 #14024] and Vaurie (1961) [Vaurie, 1961 #8355], but see also Todd (1963) [Todd, 1963 #13945] and Godfrey (1986) [Godfrey, 1986 #1718].
42 This name selected over F. gyrfalco by Lonnberg (1930) [Lonnberg, 1930 #14033] acting as First Reviser.
43 Range still not well understood; may seem to breed in sympatry with other subspecies but have different ecological requirements.
44 Original spelling fruitii; here emended based on internal information.
45 For treatment within F. peregrinus, contra Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] see Stresemann & Amadon (1979) [Stresemann, 1979 #3770] and Naoroji (2006) [Naoroji, 2006 #14018]. Wink (2000) [Wink, 1998 #4232] found support for treating pelegrinoides as a separate species; however, later studies, e.g. Wink et al. (2010) [Wink, 2010 #14017] have contradicted this.
46 Includes submelanogenys; see Marchant & Higgins (1993) [Marchant, 1993 #2487].
47 Includes kreyenborgi, a colour morph; see Ellis & Peres (1983) [Ellis, 1983 #1499].