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TURNICIDAE - Buttonquails (2:16)
TURNIX Bonnaterre, 1791 M - Tetrao gibraltaricus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 63). = Tetrao sylvaticus Desfontaines, 1789  
Turnix sylvaticus1 Common Buttonquail
1 sylvaticus (Desfontaines, 1789) αvS Spain, NW Africa
2 lepurana (A. Smith, 1836)2,3 δiSenegal to Ethiopia, south to South Africa
3 dussumier (Temminck, 1828) iPakistan and N India to Myanmar
3 davidi Delacour & Jabouille, 19304 iS China and Taiwan, C Thailand, E continental SE Asia, C Thai-Malay Pen.
3 bartelsorum Neumann, 1929 iJava, Bali
whiteheadi Ogilvie-Grant, 1897 iLuzon (Philippines)
celestinoi McGregor, 19075 iBohol, Mindanao (Philippines)
nigrorum duPont, 1976 iNegros (Philippines) [duPont, 1976 #1448]
suluensis Mearns, 1905 vJolo (Sulu Arch.)
Turnix maculosus6 Red-backed Buttonquail
kinneari Neumann, 19397 iPeleng (Banggai Is.) [Neumann, 1939 #2763]
beccarii Salvadori, 1875 iSulawesi, Muna I., Tukangbesi Is.
obiensis Sutter, 1955 vC and SE Moluccas (Obi, Kai Is.), E Lesser Sundas (Babar) [Sutter, 1955 #3784]
sumbanus Sutter, 1955 vSumba (Lesser Sundas) [Sutter, 1955 #3783]
floresianus Sutter, 1955 vSumbawa to Alor (Lesser Sundas) [Sutter, 1955 #3783]
savuensis Sutter, 1955 vSavu (Lesser Sundas) [Sutter, 1955 #3783]
maculosus (Temminck, 1815) vRoti to Wetar and Moa (Lesser Sundas)
giluwensis Sims, 1954 vMontane EC New Guinea (grasslands of Central Highlands) [Sims, 1954 #3651]
furvus Parkes, 1949 vLowland NE New Guinea (grasslands of Huon Pen.) [Parkes, 1949 #2911]
horsbrughi C. Ingram, 1909 iLowland SE New Guinea
mayri Sutter, 1955 iLouisiade Arch. [Sutter, 1955 #3783]
saturatus W.A. Forbes, 1882 vNew Britain, Duke of York I. (Bismarck Arch.)
salomonis Mayr, 1938 iGuadalcanal (SE Solomons) [Mayr, 1938 #2544]
melanotus (Gould, 1837)8 vN and E Australia [Gould, 1837 #1741]
Turnix tanki Yellow-legged Buttonquail
tanki Blyth, 1843 iC Pakistan, Nepal, India, Nicobars and Andamans
blanfordii Blyth, 1863 iRussian Far East, Korea, NE to S China, NE India, mainland SE Asia to N Thai-Malay Pen.
Turnix hottentottus Black-rumped Buttonquail
nanus (Sundevall, 1850)9 αiIvory Coast, Ghana; SW Nigeria to W Kenya, south to N Angola, Zimbabwe and E South Africa
hottentottus Temminck, 1815 vS South Africa
Turnix ocellatus Spotted Buttonquail
benguetensis Parkes, 1968 vN Luzon (Philippines) [Parkes, 1968 #2920]
ocellatus (Scopoli, 1786) vC Luzon (Philippines)
Turnix suscitator Barred Buttonquail
plumbipes (Hodgson, 1837) iNepal and NE India to W Myanmar
bengalensis Blyth, 1852 vE India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh
taigoor (Sykes, 1832) iIndia (except West Bengal and NE)
leggei E.C.S. Baker, 1920 iSri Lanka
okinavensis A.R. Phillips, 1947 vRyukyu Is. (Japan) [Phillips, 1947 #3057]
rostratus Swinhoe, 186510 vTaiwan
blakistoni (Swinhoe, 1871) iS China, N Vietnam >> N continental SE Asia (east of Myanmar)
pallescens Robinson & E.C.S. Baker, 1928 iC and S Myanmar
thai Deignan, 1946 iNW and C Thailand [Deignan, 1946 #1186]
atrogularis (Eyton, 1839)11 vS Myanmar (Tenasserim), S and E Thailand, Thai-Malay Pen.
suscitator (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)12 iSumatra, Java, Bali, islands off SE Sumatra (Bangka I., Belitung I.) and in Java Sea (Bawean I.)
powelli Guillemard, 188513 iW and C Lesser Sundas (east to Alor)
rufilatus Wallace, 1865 vSulawesi
haynaldi W. Blasius, 1888 iCalamian Group and Palawan (Philippines) [Blasius, 1888 #340]
fasciatus (Temminck, 1815) vLuzon, Mindoro, Masbate, Sibuyan (Philippines)
nigrescens Tweeddale, 1878 iCebu, Guimaras, Negros, Panay (Philippines)
Turnix nigricollis   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Madagascar Buttonquail
vMadagascar, RĂ©union
Turnix melanogaster   (Gould, 1837) Black-breasted Buttonquail
iSE Queensland, NE New South Wales, Fraser I.
Turnix varius Painted Buttonquail
†? novaecaledoniae Ogilvie-Grant, 188914 αiNew Caledonia [Ogilvie-Grant, 1889 #12419]
scintillans (Gould, 1845) iHoutman Abrolhos Is. (off SW Australia)
varius (Latham, 1801) αvSW and SE to NE Australia, Tasmania
Turnix olivii 15  Robinson, 1900 Buff-breasted Buttonquail
iNE Australia (Cape York Pen.)
Turnix castanotus 16,17  (Gould, 1840) Chestnut-backed Buttonquail
vNW and NC Australia (Kimberley Division, Arnhem Land)
Turnix pyrrhothorax 18  (Gould, 1841) Red-chested Buttonquail
iN and E Australia
Turnix everetti   E. Hartert, 1898 Sumba Buttonquail
iSumba (Lesser Sundas)
Turnix worcesteri   McGregor, 1904 Worcester's Buttonquail
iLuzon (Philippines)
Turnix velox 19  (Gould, 1841) Little Buttonquail
iInland Australia
ORTYXELOS Vieillot, 1825 M - Turnix meiffrenii Vieillot, 1819; type by monotypy  
Ortyxelos meiffrenii   (Vieillot, 1819) Quail-plover
iSenegal to C Sudan, S Ethiopia to NW and E Kenya

1 Subspecies groups follow suggestions in Violani & Massa (1993) [Violani, 1993 #14063], but Philippine taxa not assigned.
2 Includes arenarius Stresemann, 1938 [Stresemann, 1938 #3762]; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
3 Correct original spelling; invariable, see David & Gosselin (2011) [David, 2011 #13197].
4 Includes mikado; see Sutter (1955) [Sutter, 1955 #3783] but see also Deignan (1963) [Deignan, 1963 #1245].
5 Formerly treated as a subspecies of T. maculosus, but see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361]. Includes masaaki; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
6 Formerly treated as a subspecies of T. sylvaticus but see Sutter (1955) [Sutter, 1955 #3783], who treated this and T. tanki as allospecies.
7 Described as a subspecies of T. sylvaticus, but see Sutter (1955) [Sutter, 1955 #3783].
8 Includes pseutes; see Marchant & Higgins (1993) [Marchant, 1993 #2487].
9 Includes luciana and insolata Ripley & Heinrich, 1960 [Ripley, 1960 #4428]; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191]. For possible treatment as a separate species see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
10 Diagnosability questioned by Collar (2004) [Collar, 2004 #1017].
11 Includes interrumpens; see Deignan (1963) [Deignan, 1963 #1245].
12 Includes kuiperi Chasen, 1937 [Chasen, 1937 #709], and baweanus Hoogerwerf, 1962 [Hoogerwerf, 1962 #2000]; see Mees (1986) [Mees, 1986 #2631]. Also includes machetes Deignan, 1946 [Deignan, 1946 #1186]; see Debus (1996) [Debus, 1996 #1156].
13 For treatment as a separate species from T. suscitator see Rensch (1931) [Rensch, 1931 #5298]; but see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194] and Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
14 Name introduced in index, but with indication to a description in the text, thus valid; see citation in range statement.
15 For treatment as a separate species from T. castonotus, see Macdonald (1971) [Macdonald, 1971 #14062].
16 Includes magnifica; see Condon (1975) [Condon, 1975 #1033].
17 For treatment with allospecies T. olivii and T. varius see Macdonald (1971) [Macdonald, 1971 #14062].
18 Includes berneyi; see Condon (1975) [Condon, 1975 #1033].
19 Includes picturata and leucogaster; see Condon (1975) [Condon, 1975 #1033].
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