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RECURVIROSTRIDAE - Stilts and Avocets (3:7)
RECURVIROSTRINAE
CLADORHYNCHUS G.R. Gray, 1840 M - Leptorhynchus pectoralis Du Bus, 1835; type by original designation and monotypy = Recurvirostra leucocephala Vieillot, 1816  
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus   (Vieillot, 1816) Banded Stilt
vC and S Australia
RECURVIROSTRA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  
Recurvirostra avosetta   Linnaeus, 1758 Pied Avocet
iN, E and S Africa, W Europe to SW and C Asia >> W Europe to SW and S Asia, SE China, W continental SE Asia
Recurvirostra americana   J.F. Gmelin, 1789 American Avocet
vSC Canada, W USA and C Mexico >> S and SE USA to S Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba
Recurvirostra novaehollandiae   Vieillot, 1816 Red-necked Avocet
iAustralia (mainly C and S)
Recurvirostra andina   R.A. Philippi, Sr. & Landbeck, 1861 Andean Avocet
vAndes of C Peru (Junín) to N Chile (Atacama) and NW Argentina (Catamarca)
HIMANTOPODINAE
HIMANTOPUS Brisson, 1760 M - Himantopus Brisson; type by tautonymy = Charadrius himantopus Linnaeus, 1758  
Himantopus himantopus1 Black-winged Stilt
1 himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758)2 Africa, S Europe to NW China, SW and S Asia, mainland SE Asia >> Africa, SW and S Asia, mainland SE Asia, Borneo, Philippines
2 leucocephalus Gould, 18373 vJava, Bali, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Lesser Sundas (east to Tanimbar Is.), lowland New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand >> north to Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Philippines
3 knudseni Stejneger, 18874 Hawaiian Is.
4 mexicanus (Statius Muller, 1776)5 vW and S USA to NE and coastal SW Peru and E Brazil (Minas Gerais); West Indies; Galapagos Is.
4 melanurus Vieillot, 18176 vSC Peru, Bolivia and S Brazil to SC Argentina (Río Negro); C Chile (Atacama to Los Lagos)
Himantopus novaezelandiae   Gould, 1841 Black Stilt
iNew Zealand (now restricted to Mackenzie Basin in C South Island)

1 Taxonomic ranking of the taxa herein is controversial; see Pierce (1996) [Pierce, 1996 #3075], whose classification is followed here.
2 Includes ceylonensis Whistler, 1944 [Whistler, 1944 #4161]; see Pierce (1996) [Pierce, 1996 #3075]. Also includes meridionalis; see Urban (1986) [Urban, 1986 #3898].
3 Treated as a separate species from H. himantopus by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
4 For possible treatment as a separate species see Pratt & Pratt (2001) [Pratt, 2001 #13455].
5 Treated as a separate species, including melanurus and knudseni, by A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] and many authors.
6 Treated as a separate species from H. himantopus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and others.
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