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CHARADRIIDAE - Plovers and Lapwings1 (11:67)
PLUVIALINAE2
PLUVIALIS Brisson, 1760 F - Pluvialis Brisson; type by tautonymy = Charadrius apricarius Linnaeus, 1758  
Pluvialis squatarola3 Grey Plover/Black-bellied Plover
squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758) N Eurasia (except Wrangel I.), W and N Alaska >> W and S Europe, Africa, S, E and SE Asia, Australasia
tomkovichi Engelmoer & Roselaar, 1998 Wrangel I. (NE Siberia) >> ? [Engelmoer, 1998 #1500]
cynosurae (Thayer & Bangs, 1914)4 Arctic coast and islands of Canada >> coastal North, Central and South America
Pluvialis apricaria Eurasian Golden Plover
altifrons (C.L. Brehm, 1831) EC Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., Norway, and W and N Sweden to Taymyr Pen. >> W and S Europe, N Africa, and Middle East [Brehm, 1831 #475]
apricaria (Linnaeus, 1758)5 vBritish Isles to S Sweden and Baltic States >> W and S Europe
Pluvialis fulva 6  (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Pacific Golden Plover
vNC to NE Siberia, W Alaska >> E Africa, S and SE Asia to Australia, New Zealand and Oceania
Pluvialis dominica   (Statius Muller, 1776) American Golden Plover
vAlaska east to N Canada (Baffin I.) >> SE South America (SE Brazil and Paraguay to NE Argentina)
CHARADRIINAE
OREOPHOLUS Jardine & Selby, 1835 M - Oreopholus totanirostris Jardine & Selby, 1835; type by monotypy = Charadrius ruficollis Wagler, 1829  7
Oreopholus ruficollis Tawny-throated Dotterel
pallidus Carriker, 1935 vCoastal NW Peru (Piura to N La Libertad) [Carriker, 1935 #668]
ruficollis (Wagler, 1829) vAndes from SE Peru (Puno) to Tierra del Fuego into lowlands of Patagonia >> SW Peru; E Argentina to SE Brazil
PHEGORNIS G.R. Gray, 1847 M - Leptopus mitchellii Fraser, 1845; type by original designation  8,9
Phegornis mitchellii   (Fraser, 1845) Diademed Sandpiper Plover
iAndes from C Peru (Junín) to C Chile (Maule) and S Argentina (Chubut)
EUDROMIAS C.L. Brehm, 1830 M - Eudromias morinella Boie; type by monotypy = Charadrius morinellus Linnaeus, 1758  10
Eudromias morinellus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian Dotterel
vN Europe to NE Siberia >> Mediterranean basin to W Iran
CHARADRIUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758; type by Linnaean tautonymy  11
Charadrius obscurus12 Red-breasted Plover
aquilonius Dowding, 199413 vNorth Island (New Zealand) [Dowding, 1994 #1413]
obscurus J.F. Gmelin, 1789 vStewart I., formerly South Island (New Zealand)
Charadrius hiaticula Common Ringed Plover
psammodromus Salomonsen, 193014 δvNE Canada (Ellesmere I., Baffin I.), Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard >> SW Europe and W Africa
hiaticula Linnaeus, 175815 British Isles and W France to S Norway, S Sweden, and Baltic States >> W Europe and NW Africa
tundrae (P.R. Lowe, 1915)16 N Europe to NE Siberia >> S Europe, Africa, SW Asia, Pakistan and India, mainland SE Asia
Charadrius semipalmatus 17  Bonaparte, 1825 Semipalmated Plover
vAlaska and N Canada (Yukon to Newfoundland) >> coastal USA, Central and South America
Charadrius placidus 18  J.E. & G.R. Gray, 1863 Long-billed Plover
vRussian Far East, Japan, NE and E China, NE India (Arunachal Pradesh) >> Nepal, S China, N continental SE Asia
Charadrius dubius Little Ringed Plover
curonicus J.F. Gmelin, 1789 vN Africa, Europe to E Siberia, Japan and Korea, China, south-west and north-west S Asia >> Africa, SW, S and SE Asia, New Guinea and N Australia
jerdoni (Legge, 1880) S Asia, S China, N and E continental SE Asia
dubius Scopoli, 178619 vPhilippines, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, New Ireland)
Charadrius wilsonia Wilson's Plover
beldingi (Ridgway, 1919)20 Coastal NW Mexico (Baja California) locally to NW Peru (Piura)
wilsonia Ord, 181421 Coastal E USA (Virginia) to SE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.) and West Indies >> south to coastal Central and N South America
cinnamominus (Ridgway, 1919) vCoastal N Colombia to French Guiana; Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad, Grenada, Mustique
crassirostris von Spix, 182522 Coastal NE Brazil (Amapá to Bahia) [von Spix, 1825 #13768]
Charadrius vociferus Killdeer
vociferus Linnaeus, 1758 vSE Alaska and S Canada to C Mexico (Jalisco, Puebla) >> south to NW South America
ternominatus Bangs & Kennard, 1920 vBahamas, Greater Antilles, Virgin Is.
peruvianus (Chapman, 1920) vCoastal W Ecuador (Manabí) to NW Chile (Arica)
Charadrius melodus 23  Ord, 1824 Piping Plover
vC and E North America >> coastal E and S USA, E Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba
Charadrius thoracicus   (Richmond, 1896) Black-banded Plover/Madagascar Plover
vW and SW Madagascar
Charadrius pecuarius 24,25  Temminck, 1823 Kittlitz's Plover
vEgypt, Senegal to Sudan and South Africa; Madagascar
Charadrius sanctaehelenae   (Harting, 1873) St. Helena Plover
iSt. Helena I.
Charadrius tricollaris Three-banded Plover
tricollaris Vieillot, 181826 vEthiopia and E Africa to S DR Congo and Gabon, and south to South Africa
bifrontatus Cabanis, 1882 vMadagascar
Charadrius forbesi 27  (Shelley, 1883) Forbes's Plover
iS Senegal to W South Sudan, south to N Angola and N Zambia
Charadrius marginatus28 White-fronted Plover
hesperius Bates, G.L., 193229,30 vLiberia and Mali to Nigeria and Cameroon
mechowi (Cabanis, 1884)31,32 Gabon, DR Congo, Uganda and Ethiopia south to inland Namibia, Botswana and N and NE South Africa
marginatus Vieillot, 1818 vCoasts of SW Angola, Namibia, W South Africa
arenaceus Clancey, 197133 vCoastal S Mozambique to S South Africa [Clancey, 1971 #857]
tenellus Hartlaub, 1861 vMadagascar
Charadrius alexandrinus34 Kentish Plover
1 alexandrinus Linnaeus, 175835 vE Atlantic islands, N Africa and W Europe to Japan and NE China >> N tropical Africa, S Japan, S and mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas, N Philippines
1 nihonensis Deignan, 194136 vSakhalin, Kuril Is. >> ? [Deignan, 1941 #1171]
1 seebohmi E. Hartert & A.C. Jackson, 191537 S India, Sri Lanka
2 dealbatus (Swinhoe, 1870)38 vSE China (?) >> mainland SE Asia, Sumatra
Charadrius nivosus39 Snowy Plover
nivosus (Cassin, 1858)40 vW, C and S USA, N and C Mexico, Bahamas, Greater and Netherlands Antilles >> south to Panama
occidentalis (Cabanis, 1872) vCoastal SW Ecuador (Guayas) to C Chile (Isla de Chiloé)
Charadrius javanicus   Chasen, 1938 Javan Plover
vJava, Bali, Kangean Is., Sulawesi, W and C Lesser Sundas (east to Timor) [Chasen, 1938 #710]
Charadrius ruficapillus   Temminck, 1821 α Red-capped Plover
iAustralia (except inland sand deserts), Tasmania >> northwards, occasionally to Lesser Sundas and E Java
Charadrius peronii 41  Schlegel, 1865 Malaysian Plover
iTaiwan (?), E and S continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, W and C Lesser Sundas (east to Timor)
Charadrius pallidus42 Chestnut-banded Plover
venustus G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884 vS Kenya, N Tanzania
pallidus Strickland, 1853 αvSW Angola to C Mozambique and South Africa [Strickland, 1853 #3772]
Charadrius collaris   Vieillot, 1818 Collared Plover
vC Mexico to NW Peru and C Argentina; C Chile
Charadrius alticola 43  (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1902) Puna Plover
iAndes from C Peru (Junín) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and NW Argentina (Catamarca)
Charadrius falklandicus 44  Latham, 1790 Two-banded Plover
vS Chile and S Argentina; Falkland Is. >> C Chile to Uruguay and SE Brazil
Charadrius bicinctus Double-banded Plover
bicinctus Jardine & Selby, 1827 vNorth Island, South Island, Chatham Is. (New Zealand) >> EC to S and SE Australia, Tasmania, islands in Tasman Sea
exilis Falla, 1978 vAuckland Is. [Falla, 1978 #1535]
Charadrius mongolus45 Lesser Sand Plover
pamirensis (Richmond, 1896) vPamir Mts., W Tien Shan Mts., W Himalayas (N Pakistan) to W Kunlun Shan >> E and S Africa to S Asia [Richmond, 1896 #3266]
atrifrons Wagler, 1829 S Tibetan Plateau, W and C Himalayas (Kashmir to Sikkim) >> S Asia, W mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas
schaeferi Meyer de Schauensee, 1937 E Tibetan Plateau, S Mongolia, NW China >> S China, mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas [Meyer de Schauensee, 1937 #2660]
mongolus Pallas, 1776 vE Siberia >> (S China?), Philippines, Wallacea, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand
stegmanni Portenko, 193946 NE Siberia, Kamchatka and Commander Is. >> Taiwan, New Guinea, E Australia, islands in W and SW Pacific Ocean [Portenko, 1939 #3105]
Charadrius leschenaultii47 Greater Sand Plover
columbinus Wagler, 1829 vTurkey and Syria to SW Iran >> SE Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf [Wagler, 1829 #4068]
scythicus Carlos, Roselaar & J.-F. Voisin, 201248 vE Caucasus to C Asia (Syrdar'ya basin and WC Kazakhstan) >> NE and E Africa to W India [Carlos, 2012 #13712]
leschenaultii Lesson, 1826 C Asia to Mongolia, NW China >> (E Africa, Madagascar, SW Asia?), S Asia, Taiwan, SE Asia, New Guinea, Solomons, Australia, New Zealand
Charadrius asiaticus 49,50  Pallas, 1773 Caspian Plover
vCaspian Sea to E Kazakhstan and NW China >> E and S Africa
Charadrius veredus 51  Gould, 1848 Oriental Plover
iC Siberia to Mongolia, Transbaikalia, extreme N China >> Australia
Charadrius montanus   J.K. Townsend, 1837 Mountain Plover
vW USA (Montana to E New Mexico and W Texas) >> SW and S USA to N Mexico
Charadrius modestus 52  M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 Rufous-chested Dotterel
vS Chile and S Argentina; Falkland Is. >> C Chile to Uruguay and SE Brazil
THINORNIS G.R. Gray, 1845 M - Charadrius novaeseelandiae J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy  53
Thinornis cucullatus 54,55  (Vieillot, 1818) Hooded Dotterel
vS Australia, Tasmania
Thinornis novaeseelandiae   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Shore Dotterel
iChatham Is., formerly South Island and North Island (?) (New Zealand)
ELSEYORNIS Mathews, 1914 M - Charadrius melanops Vieillot, 1818; type by original designation  56
Elseyornis melanops   (Vieillot, 1818) Black-fronted Dotterel
iAustralia, Tasmania, New Zealand (North Island, South Island)
VANELLINAE57
VANELLUS Brisson, 1760 M - Vanellus Brisson; type by tautonymy = Tringa vanellus Linnaeus, 1758  
Vanellus vanellus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Lapwing
iW Europe to Russian Far East, N China >> N Africa, Japan, Korea, SW and north S Asia, S China, N continental SE Asia
Vanellus crassirostris58 Long-toed Lapwing
crassirostris (Hartlaub, 1855)59 vN Nigeria, South Sudan to E DR Congo, Kenya and N Tanzania
leucopterus Reichenow, 1889 vS DR Congo to Malawi, N Botswana, C and S Mozambique and N KwaZulu-Natal
Vanellus armatus 60  (Burchell, 1822) Blacksmith Lapwing/Blacksmith Plover
vAngola, Tanzania and S Kenya to South Africa
Vanellus spinosus   (Linnaeus, 1758) Spur-winged Lapwing
vSE Europe, Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa south to Ghana, Central African Republic and Kenya
Vanellus duvaucelii   (Lesson, 1826) River Lapwing
iNorth S Asia, S China, mainland SE Asia to N Thai-Malay Pen.
Vanellus tectus61 Black-headed Lapwing
tectus (Boddaert, 1783) vSenegal and S Mauritania to Ethiopia, south to Central African Republic, Uganda and NW Kenya
latifrons (Reichenow, 1881) S Somalia to E Kenya
Vanellus malabaricus 62,63  (Boddaert, 1783) δ Yellow-wattled Lapwing
vPakistan, India and Sri Lanka >> Nepal, Bangladesh
Vanellus albiceps 64  Gould, 1834 White-headed Lapwing
iSenegal to W South Sudan and N Angola; S Tanzania, Zambia to NE South Africa and S Mozambique
Vanellus lugubris 65  (Lesson, 1826) Senegal Lapwing
vS Mali and Sierra Leone to SW Nigeria, Gabon and DR Congo to E Africa, Mozambique and NE South Africa
Vanellus melanopterus Black-winged Lapwing
melanopterus (Cretzschmar, 1829) vEthiopia and Eritrea
minor (von Zedlitz, 1908) vC Kenya and N Tanzania; E and SE South Africa
Vanellus coronatus Crowned Lapwing/Crowned Plover
demissus (Friedmann, 1928) vN Somalia
coronatus (Boddaert, 1783) vEthiopia and E Africa to E Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa
xerophilus Clancey, 196066 vSW Angola, Namibia, Botswana, W Zimbabwe, N Northern Cape [Clancey, 1960 #802]
Vanellus senegallus67 African Wattled Lapwing
senegallus (Linnaeus, 1766)68 vSenegal to Eritrea, south to NE DR Congo and N Uganda
lateralis A. Smith, 183969 vS and E DR Congo to S Uganda and W Kenya, south to N Namibia, N Botswana, NE and E South Africa
Vanellus melanocephalus 70  (Rüppell, 1845) Spot-breasted Lapwing
vHighlands of Ethiopia
Vanellus superciliosus 71  (Reichenow, 1886) Brown-chested Lapwing
vGhana to NE DR Congo >> Uganda, NW Tanzania, SE DR Congo, N Zambia
Vanellus cinereus 72  (Blyth, 1842) Grey-headed Lapwing
vRussian Far East, Japan, NE and E China >> S Japan, Nepal, S China, Taiwan, mainland SE Asia
Vanellus indicus73 Red-wattled Lapwing
aigneri (Laubmann, 1913) Turkey to NE Arabian Pen. and W Pakistan
indicus (Boddaert, 1783) vC Pakistan, Nepal, India, Bangladesh
lankae (Koelz, 1939)74 Sri Lanka [Koelz, 1939 #2244]
atronuchalis (Jerdon, 1864)75 vNE India (Assam), W Yunnan, mainland SE Asia, N Sumatra
Vanellus macropterus 76  (Wagler, 1827) Javan Wattled Lapwing
vJava [Wagler, 1827 #4067]
Vanellus tricolor 77  (Vieillot, 1818) Black-breasted Lapwing/Banded Lapwing
iAustralia (south of 20 degrees S), Tasmania
Vanellus miles78 Masked Lapwing
miles (Boddaert, 1783)79 Lowland New Guinea, Aru Is., N Australia (north of 20 degrees S) >> E Lesser Sundas (west to Leti), S and SE Moluccas, islands in Banda Sea, N New Guinea
novaehollandiae Stephens, 181980 Australia (south of 20 degrees S), Tasmania, New Zealand (including Stewart I.), Chatham Is.
Vanellus gregarius 81  (Pallas, 1771) Sociable Lapwing/Sociable Plover
vC Asia east through Kazakhstan >> NE Africa, Levant, Arabian Pen., Pakistan, NW India
Vanellus leucurus   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) White-tailed Lapwing
vSW Asia to Iran and Kazakhstan >> NE Africa to NW India
Vanellus chilensis82 Southern Lapwing
cayennensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vCosta Rica to the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon west to R. Branco), south to NE Peru (Loreto)
lampronotus (Wagler, 1827) vC and E Brazil (west to R. Tapajós and Mato Grosso), N and E Bolivia to E Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Uruguay
chilensis (G.I. Molina, 1782)83 vC Chile (Atacama south) and C Argentina (Mendoza south) to Tierra del Fuego
Vanellus resplendens 84  (von Tschudi, 1843) Andean Lapwing
iAndes of SW Colombia (Cauca) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and NW Argentina (Catamarca)
Vanellus cayanus 85  (Latham, 1790) Pied Lapwing
vThe Guianas and Amazonia to E Paraguay and SE Brazil (Paraná)
ERYTHROGONYS Gould, 1838 M - Erythrogonys cinctus Gould, 1838; type by monotypy  86
Erythrogonys cinctus   Gould, 1838 Red-kneed Dotterel
vAustralia (except inland sand deserts)
PELTOHYAS Sharpe, 1896 M - Eudromias australis Gould, 1841; type by monotypy  87
Peltohyas australis   (Gould, 1841) Inland Dotterel
vInland Australia (south of 20 degrees S)
ANARHYNCHUS Quoy & Gaimard, 1830 M - Anarhynchus frontalis Quoy & Gaimard, 1830; type by monotypy  
Anarhynchus frontalis   Quoy & Gaimard, 1830 Wrybill
vCanterbury and Otago regions of South Island (New Zealnd) >> North Island (New Zealand)

1 Sequence of genera provisionally follows Baker et al. (2007) [Baker, 2007 #9757].
2 Sister to all other Charadriidae; see Baker et al. (2012) [Baker, 2012 #14034].
3 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Squatarola but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
4 For recognition see Engelmoer & Roselaar (1998) [Engelmoer, 1998 #1500].
5 Roselaar in Cramp et al. (1983) [Cramp, 1983 #1085] implicitly included oreophilos but favoured recognition of altifrons.
6 For treatment as a separate species from P. dominica see Connors (1983) [Connors, 1983 #6020] and Connors et al. (1993) [Connors, 1993 #14285].
7 Baker et al. (2012) [Baker, 2012 #14072] found that this was sister to Vanellinae + Charadriinae. Often placed in Eudromias, but see Piersma (1996) [Piersma, 1996 #4425], Baker et al. (2007) [Baker, 2007 #9757], and Livezey (2010) [Livezey, 2010 #12464].
8 For placement in Charadriidae see Zusi & Jehl (1970) [Zusi, 1970 #4341], Paton et al. (2003) [Paton, 2003 #2958], and Baker et al. (2007) [Baker, 2007 #9757].
9 For corrected date see Dickinson & Jones (2012) [Dickinson, 2012 #14067].
10 Often included in Charadrius, but see Baker et al. (2007) [Baker, 2007 #9757].
11 Charadrius may be paraphyletic with respect to Vanellus; see Joseph et al. (1999) [Joseph, 1999 #13753].
12 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Pluviorhynchus but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901]. For alternative treatment of species, as monotypic, see Marchant & Higgins (1993) [Marchant, 1993 #2487].
13 For recognition see Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
14 For recognition see Engelmoer & Roselaar (1998) [Engelmoer, 1998 #1500].
15 Includes harrisoni Clancey, 1949 [Clancey, 1949 #777]; see Harrison et al. (1951) [Harrison, 1951 #10900].
16 Includes kolymensis Buturlin, 1934 [Buturlin, 1934 #612]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
17 For treatment as an allospecies of C. hiaticula see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566].
18 Includes japonicus Mishima, 1956 [Mishima, 1956 #2690]; see Orn. Soc. Japan (1974) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 1974 #2874].
19 Includes papuanus Mayr, 1938 [Mayr, 1938 #2544]; see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2626].
20 Included in nominate subspecies by Monroe (1968) [Monroe, 1968 #2706].
21 Includes rufinucha; see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6474].
22 A prior name for brasiliensis Grantsau & Lima, 2008 [Grantsau, 2008 #10793]; see Carlos et al. (2012) [Carlos, 2012 #13712].
23 The name circumcinctus Ridgway, 1874, long considered unrecognizable, including by Ridgway (1919) [Ridgway, 1919 #14096] himself, is often associated with the interior breeding population, is genetically distinct (Miller et al. 2010) [Miller, 2010 #12038] and requires re-evaluation.
24 Includes allenbyi and tephricolor Clancey, 1971 [Clancey, 1971 #858]; see Cramp et al. (1983) [Cramp, 1983 #1085].
25 Considered to form a superspecies with C. thoracicus and C. sactaehelenae by Wiersma (1996) [Wiersma, 1996 #4216].
26 Includes pelodromus Clancey, 1981 [Clancey, 1981 #911]; see Turpie & Tree in Hockey (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
27 For treatment as a separate species from C. tricollaris; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
28 Treated as a subspecies of C.alexandrinus by Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007], but see Vaurie (1964) [Vaurie, 1964 #8364].
29 For recognition see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191] and Hayman (1986) [Hayman, 1986 #4662], but see also Urban (1986) [Urban, 1986 #3898].
30 Includes nigirius; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
31 Includes pons; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
32 For recognition see Turpie & Tree in Hockey et al., 2005 [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
33 For recognition see Urban (1986) [Urban, 1986 #3898].
34 Forms a superspecies with C. marginatus, C. nivosus, C. javanicus and C. ruficapillus; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566], Snow (1978) [Snow, 1978 #13852] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
35 Includes spatzi; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
36 For recognition see Kennerley et al. (2008) [Kennerley, 2008 #10857].
37 Includes leggei Whistler & Kinnear, 1937 [Whistler, 1937 #4158]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
38 For lectotypification see Kennerley et al. (2008) [Kennerley, 2008 #10857].
39 For treatment as a separate species from C. alexandrinus, see Küpper et al. (2009) [Küpper, 2009 #11975], but see also Rheindt et al. (2011) [Rheindt, 2011 #13769].
40 Includes tenuirostris; see Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326], Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303] and Wiersma (1996) [Wiersma, 1996 #4216]; but see also Funk et al. (2007) [Funk, 2007 #10603] for genetic distinctiveness.
41 Implicitly includes chaseni Junge, 1939 [Junge, 1939 #2165]; see van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920].
42 Name misapplied by Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007], where treated as a synonym of C. alexandrinus; in fact a prior name for C. venustus as used by Peters. We follow White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
43 Treated as subspecies of C. falklandicus by Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
44 Forms a superspecies with C. alticola; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
45 Subspecies classification follows Cramp et al. (1983) [Cramp, 1983 #1085].
46 A new name for litoralis Stegmann, 1937 [Stegmann, 1937 #3703].
47 For treatment as polytypic see Cramp et al. (1983) [Cramp, 1983 #1085] and Hirschfeld et al. (2000) [Hirschfeld, 2000 #1977].
48 A new name for crassirostris Severtsov, 1873.
49 Formerly placed in genus Eupoda but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
50 May form a superspecies with C. veredus and C. montanus; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566].
51 This and C. montanus formerly placed in genus Eupoda, but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
52 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Zonibyx but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901] and Joseph et al. (1999) [Joseph, 1999 #13753].
53 Included in Charadrius by Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
54 McAllan & Christidis (1998) [McAllan, 1998 #13678] provided a neotype for Charadrius rubricollis Gmelin. Olson (1998) [Olson, 1998 #9448] noted that their action was invalid and designated as a lectotype a specimen depicted in a drawing by Ellis, which is a phalarope, thus transferring this name into the synonymy of Phalaropus lobatus and stating that the name cucullatus must be used.
55 For transfer from Charadrius see Christian et al. (1992) [Christian, 1992 #752].
56 Included in Charadrius by Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
57 Composition follows Baker et al. (2007) [Baker, 2007 #9757] but tentatively, given how many genera have yet to be included in DNA-based studies.
58 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Hemiparra but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
59 Includes hybrida; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
60 This, V. spinosus, and V. duvaucelii formerly placed in genus Hoplopterus but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
61 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Sarciophorus but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
62 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Lobipluvia but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
63 Correct original spelling. Spelling malarbaricus in the later reprint an ISS. Our 2013 print edition erred as to which Boddaert work was the original.
64 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Xiphidiopterus but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
65 This, V. melanopterus, and V. coronatus formerly placed in genus Stephanibyx, but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
66 For recognition see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
67 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Afribyx but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
68 Includes major; see Urban (1986) [Urban, 1986 #3898].
69 Apparently includes solitaneus Clancey, 1979 [Clancey, 1979 #893]; see Keith (1986) [Keith, 1986 #2181].
70 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Tylibyx but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
71 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Anomalophrys but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
72 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Microsarcops but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
73 Formerly placed in genus Lobivanellus but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
74 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
75 The name atrogularis Blyth, 1862, appears to be a senior synonym unused since 1899, and is thus a nomen oblitum.
76 Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007] listed this as Rogibyx tricolor, but within a broad genus Vanellus this name is preoccupied by Charadrius tricolor Vieillot, 1818, which Peters treated in Zonifer.
77 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Zonifer but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
78 Formerly placed in genus Lobibyx but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
79 Includes personatus; see Condon (1975) [Condon, 1975 #1033].
80 For placement in this species see Condon (1975) [Condon, 1975 #1033] and Marchant & Higgins (1993) [Marchant, 1993 #2487].
81 This and V. leucurus formerly placed in genus Chettusia but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
82 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Belonopterus but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
83 Includes fretensis Brodkorb, 1934 [Brodkorb, 1934 #489].
84 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Ptiloscelys but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
85 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Hoploxypterus but see Bock (1958) [Bock, 1958 #5901].
86 For recognition as distinct from Charadrius, see Condon (1975) [Condon, 1975 #1033], Christian et al. (1992) [Christian, 1992 #752], and Baker et al. (2007) [Baker, 2007 #9757].
87 Placed in Glareolidae by Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007]. Subsequently considered close to Charadrius, e.g. by Christian et al. (1992) [Christian, 1992 #752]. Placement still uncertain: Baker et al. (2007) [Baker, 2007 #9757] found that it grouped with the Vanellinae, but Baker et al. (2012) [Baker, 2012 #14072] found that it grouped with the Charadriinae.
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