Back to families

LARIDAE - Noddies, Skimmers, Gulls and Terns (24:99)
ANOINAE
ANOUS Stephens, 1826 M - Anous niger Stephens, 1826; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 79). = Sterna stolida Linnaeus, 1758  
Anous stolidus Brown Noddy
pileatus (Scopoli, 1786)1 vRed Sea, Indian Ocean, SE Asian seas, N and W Australia, tropical Pacific Ocean (east to Iles Marquises, Easter I., and Islas de los Desventurados)
galapagensis Sharpe, 1879 vGalapagos Is.
ridgwayi Anthony, 1898 Islands off W Mexico and W Central America
stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758) vCaribbean Sea and tropical Atlantic Ocean to Tristan da Cunha Group
Anous tenuirostris2 Lesser Noddy
tenuirostris (Temminck, 1823) vSeychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion, Maldives, Chagos Arch.
melanops Gould, 1846 Houtman Abrolhos Is. and Ashmore Reef (W Australia)
Anous minutus Black Noddy
worcesteri (McGregor, 1911) South China, Sulu and Java Seas >> E Indian Ocean
minutus Boie, 1844 vCoasts of NE Australia (including Cape York Pen.) and E New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Solomons and widespread, but localised, in Melanesia and Polynesia (except Vanuatu)
marcusi (Bryan, 1903) Minami Tori-shima (Japan), Wake I. and Micronesia
melanogenys G.R. Gray, 1846 Hawaiian Is.
diamesus (Heller & Snodgrass, 1901) vEC Pacific (Ile Clipperton, Isla de Coco, Isla de Malpelo)
americanus (Mathews, 1912) vCaribbean islands
atlanticus (Mathews, 1912) vTropical S Atlantic islands
PROCELSTERNA Lafresnaye, 1842 F - Procelsterna tereticollis Lafresnaye, 1842; type by monotypy = Sterna teretirostris Lafresnaye, 1841  
Procelsterna cerulea3 Blue Noddy
saxatilis W.K. Fisher, 1903 vMinami Tori-shima (Japan); NW Hawaiian Is. to N Marshall Is.
cerulea (F.D. Bennett, 1840) vKiritimati (Line Is.)
nebouxi Mathews, 1912 Tuvalu, Phoenix Is. (Kiribati), Samoa
teretirostris (Lafresnaye, 1841) vSociety Is., Tuamotu Arch., Iles Marquises, Iles Australes, Cook Is.
murphyi Mougin & Naurois, 1981 Iles Gambier [Mougin, 1981 #2734]
Procelsterna albivitta4 Grey Noddy
albivitta Bonaparte, 1856 Lord Howe I., Norfolk I., New Zealand (islands off North Island), Kermadec Is., Tonga (Tongatapu Group) and Iles Australes
skottsbergii Lönnberg, 1921 Henderson (Pitcairn Is.), Easter I., Isla Sala y Gómez
imitatrix Mathews, 1912 Islas de los Desventurados (off Chile)
GYGINAE55
GYGIS Wagler, 1832 F - Sterna candida J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy  
Gygis alba6 Atoll Tern/White Tern
1 alba (Sparrman, 1786) vTropical S Atlantic Ocean
2 candida (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)7 vSeychelles, Mauritius and Réunion to tropical and subtropical S Pacific Ocean, east to Iles Marquises and Kiribati (except for ranges of next two subspecies)
2 leucopes Holyoak & Thibault, 1976 Pitcairn Is. [Holyoak, 1976 #1989]
3 microrhyncha H. Saunders, 18768 vPhoenix Is., Line Is. (Kiribati); Iles Marquises
RYNCHOPINAE
RYNCHOPS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Rynchops nigra Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  9
Rynchops niger10 Black Skimmer
niger Linnaeus, 175811 vCoastal USA (Massachusetts, S California) to Mexico (Nayarit, Yucatan Pen.) >> south to coastal Central America
cinerascens von Spix, 182512 Coasts of N Colombia to French Guiana and south along rivers through Amazonia >> coastal W and N South America
intercedens H. Saunders, 1895 Rivers of E Brazil (Maranhão) to E Paraguay, Uruguay and NE Argentina (Buenos Aires)
Rynchops flavirostris   Vieillot, 1816 African Skimmer
vSenegal to Sudan and SW Ethiopia, south to N Namibia, N Botswana, S Mozambique and NE South Africa
Rynchops albicollis   Swainson, 1838 Indian Skimmer
vE Pakistan, N and EC India, Bangladesh to Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia
LARINAE1313
CREAGRUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Larus furcatus Néboux, 1846; type by original designation and monotypy  
Creagrus furcatus   (Néboux, 1846) α Swallow-tailed Gull
vGalapagos Is., Isla de Malpelo >> W coast of South America
RISSA Stephens, 1826 F - Rissa brunnichii Stephens, 1826; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Larus tridactylus Linnaeus, 1758  
Rissa tridactyla Black-legged Kittiwake
pollicaris Ridgway, 188414 vCoasts of NE Siberia, Kamchatka, Commander Is., Kuril Is., Aleutian Is., Pribilof Is., W and S Alaska >> N Pacific Ocean
tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) vCoasts of NE Canada and Greenland through W and N Europe to N Taymyr Pen. >> N Atlantic Ocean
Rissa brevirostris   (Bruch, 1853) Red-legged Kittiwake
vCommander Is., Pribilof Is., Aleutian Is. (Buldir, Unalga, Koniuji, Bogoslof), Amak I. >> N Pacific Ocean
PAGOPHILA Kaup, 1829 F - Larus eburneus Phipps, 1774; type by monotypy  
Pagophila eburnea   (Phipps, 1774) Ivory Gull
vCircumpolar from N Canada to NC Siberia >> Arctic waters
XEMA Leach, 1819 F - Larus sabini Sabine, 1819; type by monotypy  
Xema sabini 15  (J. Sabine, 1819) Sabine's Gull
iArctic North America and N Eurasia >> W coast of South America; coastal S Africa
CHROICOCEPHALUS Eyton, 1836 M - Larus capistratus Temminck, 1820; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 79). = Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766  
Chroicocephalus genei   (de Breme, 1839) Slender-billed Gull
Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania, SW to C Asia, Pakistan >> coastal Africa, SW Asia, India
Chroicocephalus philadelphia   (Ord, 1815) Bonaparte's Gull
SW Alaska to SE Canada (S Québec) >> coastal USA, NW Mexico, Greater Antilles
Chroicocephalus serranus   (von Tschudi, 1844) Andean Gull
vAndean lakes from Ecuador to SC Chile and SC Argentina >> coastal Peru and Chile
Chroicocephalus maculipennis   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Brown-hooded Gull
vSC Chile and SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is. >> north to N Chile and EC Brazil
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae Silver Gull
1 forsteri (Mathews, 1912) New Caledonia and offshore islets
1 novaehollandiae (Stephens, 1826)16 Australia, Tasmania
2 scopulinus (J.R. Forster, 1844)17 vNew Zealand (including Stewart I.), Chatham Is., Snares Is., Auckland Is., Campbell I.
Chroicocephalus bulleri   (F.W. Hutton, 1871) Black-billed Gull
New Zealand (including Stewart I.), Snares Is.
Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus   (Jerdon, 1840) Brown-headed Gull
C Asia, Ladakh, Xizang, NW China >> S Asia, Yunnan, mainland SE Asia, Sumatra
Chroicocephalus ridibundus   (Linnaeus, 1766) Black-headed Gull
vNE North America, S Greenland, Iceland, Europe to E Siberia, NE China >> Africa, SW, S, E and mainland SE Asia, N Borneo, Philippines, N Wallacea
Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Gray-hooded Gull/Grey-headed Gull
cirrocephalus (Vieillot, 1818) vCoastal S Ecuador and Peru; Uruguay and E Argentina >> north to coastal E Brazil
poiocephalus (Swainson, 1837) vW, C, E and S Africa, Madagascar
Chroicocephalus hartlaubii 18  (Bruch, 1853) Hartlaub's Gull
Coastal Namibia to South Africa (Western Cape)
SAUNDERSILARUS Dwight, 1926 M - Chroicocephalus saundersi Swinhoe, 1871; type by original designation and monotypy  
Saundersilarus saundersi   (Swinhoe, 1871) Saunders's Gull
Coastal NE China >> S Japan and S Korea to N Vietnam
HYDROCOLOEUS Kaup, 1829 M - Larus minutus Pallas, 1776; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1842, Appendix to a list of the Genera of Birds, p. 15).  
Hydrocoloeus minutus   (Pallas, 1776) Little Gull
vBaltic Sea to Lena basin, Transbaikalia and N China (Nei Mongol) >> E North America, W Europe, Mediterranean, Black Sea, coastal E China
RHODOSTETHIA W. MacGillivray, 1842 F - Larus rossii Richardson, 1825; type by original designation and monotypy = Larus roseus W. MacGillivray, 1824  19
Rhodostethia rosea   (W. MacGillivray, 1824) α Ross's Gull
vN Siberia, N Canada, SW Greenland >> Arctic waters
LEUCOPHAEUS Bruch, 1853 M - Larus haematorhynchus King, 1828; type by monotypy = Larus scoresbii Traill, 1823  
Leucophaeus scoresbii 20  (Traill, 1823) Dolphin Gull
iCoastal SC Chile (Isla de Chiloé) and SC Argentina (C Chubut) to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
Leucophaeus modestus   (von Tschudi, 1843) Gray Gull
vN Chile (Atacama Desert) >> coastal SW Ecuador to SC Chile
Leucophaeus atricilla Laughing Gull
megalopterus (Bruch, 1855)21 vW Mexico (Sonora to Colima); E and S USA ; islands off Yucatan Pen. >> south to N Brazil and Peru [Bruch, 1855 #556]
atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758) West Indies, Trinidad, Netherlands Antilles, islands off Venezuela and French Guiana
Leucophaeus pipixcan   (Wagler, 1831) Franklin's Gull
SC Canada (E Alberta to SW Manitoba) to NC USA (N Utah to NE South Dakota) >> coastal Ecuador to SC Chile
Leucophaeus fuliginosus   (Gould, 1841) Lava Gull
vGalapagos Is.
ICHTHYAETUS Kaup, 1829 M - Larus ichthyaetus Pallas, 1773; type by monotypy  
Ichthyaetus melanocephalus   (Temminck, 1820) Mediterranean Gull
vEurope to Black Sea and Caucasus >> W Europe, NW Africa, Mediterranean
Ichthyaetus audouinii   (Payraudeau, 1826) Audouin's Gull
Mediterranean >> south to Senegal and Gambia
Ichthyaetus relictus 22  (Lönnberg, 1931) Relict Gull
vSE Kazakhstan to NW China >> Korea to E China
Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus   (Temminck, 1825) White-eyed Gull
vRed Sea, Gulf of Aden
Ichthyaetus hemprichii   (Bruch, 1853) Sooty Gull
N Kenya to Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, S Pakistan >> south to Tanzania
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus   (Pallas, 1773) Pallas's Gull/Great Black-headed Gull
SW Russia to NW Mongolia and N China >> E Mediterranean and NE Africa to S Asia and Myanmar
LARUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Larus marinus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Selby, 1840, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types Aves, p. 48).  23
Larus pacificus Pacific Gull
georgii P.P. King, 182624 W, SW and SC Australia [King, 1826 #2218]
pacificus Latham, 1801 αvSE Australia, Tasmania
Larus belcheri   Vigors, 1829 Belcher's Gull
iCoastal N Peru (Lambayeque) to N Chile (Tarapacá) >> south to C Chile
Larus atlanticus 25  Olrog, 1958 Olrog's Gull
vCoastal NE Argentina (S Buenos Aires to Chubut) >> north to Uruguay [Olrog, 1958 #2822]
Larus crassirostris   Vieillot, 1818 Black-tailed Gull
vRussian Far East, Japan, Korea, E China
Larus heermanni   Cassin, 1852 Heermann's Gull
iNW Mexico (islands in Golfo de California, off W Baja California, Nayarit and Jalisco) >> north to coastal W USA
Larus canus26 Mew Gull
1 canus Linnaeus, 1758 vIceland and British Isles to NW Russia (White Sea) >> Europe and N Africa to Persian Gulf
1 heinei von Homeyer, 185327 NC and C Russia to W and C Siberia >> C and S Europe, SW Asia, Caspian Sea, Pakistan [von Homeyer, 1853 #12441]
2 kamtschatschensis Bonaparte, 1857 vNE Siberia >> Japan, E China
3 brachyrhynchus J. Richardson, 183128 vAlaska, W Canada (Yukon to N Saskatchewan and N British Columbia) >> coastal SE Alaska to N Baja California
Larus delawarensis   Ord, 1815 Ring-billed Gull
vS Canada, N USA >> south to S USA, Mexico, West Indies
Larus californicus California Gull
albertaensis Jehl, 198729 vSC Northwest Territories to C Montana and North Dakota >> SW Canada to W Mexico [Jehl, 1987 #2112]
californicus Lawrence, 1854 vNW USA (E Washington to C Montana south to NE California and Colorado) >> W USA to W Mexico
Larus livens 30  Dwight, 1919 Yellow-footed Gull
iNW Mexico (Golfo de California) >> extreme SE California (Salton Sea)
Larus occidentalis Western Gull
occidentalis Audubon, 1839 vCoastal W USA (Washington to C California)
wymani Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 Coastal SW USA (C California) to NW Mexico (C Baja California)
Larus dominicanus 31  M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823 Kelp Gull
vMadagascar, S Africa, New Zealand, S Australia, subantarctic islands and W and SE South America
Larus fuscus32 Lesser Black-backed Gull
graellsii A.E. Brehm, 1857 Iceland, Faroe Is., W Europe >> SW Europe, E coast USA, W Africa
intermedius Schiøler, 192233 vNetherlands, Germany, Denmark, SW Sweden and coastal Norway >> W Europe, W Africa
fuscus Linnaeus, 1758 vBaltic Sea, Finland and NW Russia (Karelia) >> NE and E Africa, SW Asia
heuglini Bree, 187634 N Russia and NW Siberia (east to Taymyr Pen.) >> E Africa, and SW, S and N continental SE Asia
barabensis H. Johansen, 196035 vC Asia >> SW and S Asia [Johansen, 1960 #2120]
Larus argentatus Herring Gull
argenteus C.L. Brehm & Schilling, 1822 vIceland, Faroe Is., W Europe >> south to N Iberia [Brehm, 1822 #471]
argentatus Pontoppidan, 176336 vDenmark to E Kola Pen. >> N and W Europe
Larus armenicus   Buturlin, 1934 Armenian Gull
vE Turkey and NW Iran to Caucasus >> N Red Sea, E Mediterranean and SE Black Sea [Buturlin, 1934 #611]
Larus michahellis37 Yellow-legged Gull
atlantis Dwight, 1922 Azores, Madeira, Canary Is.
michahellis J.F. Naumann, 184038,39,40 δW and S Europe, NW Africa, Mediterranean
Larus cachinnans 41,42  Pallas, 1811 Caspian Gull
Black Sea to Caspian Sea and Kazakhstan >> south to SW Asia
Larus smithsonianus43 American Herring Gull
vegae Palmén, 188744,45 NE Siberia >> Japan, Korea, E and SE China
mongolicus Sushkin, 192546 vE Kazakhstan, SE Altai, Baikal, Mongolia >> Korea and NE to SE China
smithsonianus Coues, 1862 vC Alaska to Newfoundland and Great Lakes >> south to Central America
Larus thayeri 47  W.S. Brooks, 1915 Thayer's Gull
Arctic Canada, NW Greenland >> coastal W North America
Larus glaucoides48 Iceland Gull
glaucoides B. Meyer, 1822 SW and E Greenland >> south to N Europe [Meyer, 1822 #2657]
kumlieni Brewster, 1883 NE Canada (S Baffin I., Coats I., E Southampton I.) >> SE Canada, NE USA
Larus schistisagus 49  Stejneger, 1884 Slaty-backed Gull
vCoasts of NE Siberia to Russian Far East and N Japan (Hokkaido) >> south to Taiwan
Larus glaucescens 50  J.F. Naumann, 1840 Glaucous-winged Gull
iCommander Is. and St. Matthew I. to coastal S Alaska and NW USA >> Bering Sea to N Japan and Baja California
Larus hyperboreus51 Glaucous Gull
hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 vN Europe and NW Siberia
pallidissimus Portenko, 1939 vTaymyr Pen. to Bering Sea >> south to S Alaska and Japan [Portenko, 1939 #3104]
barrovianus Ridgway, 188652 vCoastal W and N Alaska to NW Canada (Mackenzie delta) >> Aleutian Is. to N California [Ridgway, 1886 #3277]
leuceretes Schleep, 181953 N Canada, Greenland, Iceland >> Newfoundland to North Carolina; Great Lakes [Schleep, 1819 #3494]
Larus marinus   Linnaeus, 1758 Great Black-backed Gull
vE North America, S Greenland, Iceland, W and N Europe to White Sea >> south to West Indies and SW Europe
STERNINAE5454
ONYCHOPRION Wagler, 1832 M - Sterna serrata Forster; type by monotypy = Sterna serrata Wagler, 1830  
Onychoprion aleuticus   (S.F. Baird, 1869) Aleutian Tern
vSakhalin, Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea to W and S Alaska >> South China Sea and SE Asian seas to Greater Sundas, Philippines, Sulawesi
Onychoprion fuscatus Sooty Tern
fuscatus (Linnaeus, 1766) vGulf of Mexico, West Indies, Gulf of Guinea, S Atlantic Ocean
nubilosus (Sparrman, 1788)55 vRed Sea, Indian Ocean and SE Asian seas to Wallacea, Ryukyu Is.
serratus (Wagler, 1830)56 vW and N Australia, New Guinea through S Pacific Ocean to Kermadec Is., Lord Howe I., Norfolk I. and Easter I.
oahuensis (Bloxam, 1827)57 αvOgasawara Is., Hawaiian Is. and tropical N Pacific Ocean south to Kiritimati (Line Is.)
crissalis (Lawrence, 1872) vIslands off W Mexico and Central America south to Galapagos Is.
luctuosus (R.A. Philippi, Sr. & Landbeck, 1866)58 vIslas de los Desventurados (off Chile) [Philippi, 1866 #3056]
Onychoprion anaethetus59 Bridled Tern
melanopterus (Swainson, 1837)60 vCaribbean Sea and W Africa
antarcticus (Lesson, 1831)61 vRed Sea, Persian Gulf, and W Indian Ocean
anaethetus (Scopoli, 1786)62 E Indian Ocean and SE Asian seas to New Guinea and Australia, and W Pacific Ocean north to S Japan and east to American Samoa
nelsoni (Ridgway, 1919)63 W coast of Mexico and Central America
Onychoprion lunatus   (Peale, 1848) Grey-backed Tern/Spectacled Tern
vNorthern Mariana Is. to Hawaiian Is., Tuamotu Arch. and Iles Australes >> N Moluccas to tropical E Pacific
STERNULA Boie, 1822 F - Sterna minuta Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy = Sterna albifrons Pallas, 1764  
Sternula albifrons64 Little Tern
albifrons (Pallas, 1764)65 N Africa, Europe to C and SW Asia, Pakistan, India, Seychelles, Comoros >> Africa, W Indian Ocean
guineae (Bannerman, 1931) Mauritania to Gabon
sinensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)66 vSri Lanka, Japan, Korea, E and S China, SE Asia to N and W Australia >> SE Asia, Philippines to Australia and New Zealand
placens Gould, 187167 E Australia, E Tasmania >> N Australia, Indonesia (?), SW Pacific Ocean (?)
Sternula saundersi 68  (Hume, 1877) Saunders's Tern
S Somalia to Red Sea and S Persian Gulf, Pakistan, NW India, Maldives, Sri Lanka >> Arabian Sea to E Africa
Sternula antillarum69,70 Least Tern
browni (Mearns, 1916)71,72 Coastal C California to S Mexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas) >> NW Mexico to Guatemala (?)
athalassos (T.D. Burleigh & Lowery, 1942)73 C USA (locally along Colorado, Red, Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio and Mississipi river systems) >> Gulf of Mexico [Burleigh, 1942 #575]
antillarum Lesson, 1847 Coastal E USA (Maine) to Honduras; Bermuda to N Venezuela >> south to N Brazil
Sternula superciliaris   (Vieillot, 1819) Yellow-billed Tern
vSouth America (east of the Andes) south to Uruguay and NE Argentina (N Buenos Aires)
Sternula lorata   (R.A. Philippi, Sr. & Landbeck, 1861) Peruvian Tern
vCoastal N Peru (Piura) to N Chile (Antofagasta)
Sternula nereis Fairy Tern
exsul Mathews, 1912 New Caledonia, Coral Sea
nereis Gould, 184374 Coastal WC, SW, SC and SE Australia, Tasmania
davisae Mathews & Iredale, 1913 N North Island (New Zealand)
Sternula balaenarum   Strickland, 1853 α Damara Tern
Coast of SW Angola, Namibia, W and S South Africa >> WC African coast
PHAETUSA Wagler, 1832 F - Sterna magnirostris M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823; type by monotypy = Sterna simplex J.F. Gmelin, 1789  
Phaetusa simplex 75  (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Large-billed Tern
South America (east of the Andes) south to NC Argentina (Córdoba)
GELOCHELIDON C.L. Brehm, 1830 F - Gelochelidon meridionalis C.L. Brehm, 1830; type by monotypy = Sterna nilotica J.F. Gmelin, 1789  
Gelochelidon nilotica Gull-billed Tern
nilotica (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vW and N Africa, S Europe to W India >> Africa, SW and S Asia, W mainland SE Asia
affinis (Horsfield, 1821)76 vE and SE China >> Bangladesh to Sri Lanka, S China, SE Asia, N New Guinea (?), Australia (?)
macrotarsa (Gould, 1837) vAustralia >> north to N Australia and SC New Guinea
aranea (A. Wilson, 1814) vCoastal E USA to NE Mexico; Bahamas, Cuba >> coastal Central and South America to Peru and Brazil
vanrossemi Bancroft, 1929 SW USA (S California) to W Mexico (Colima) >> south to Panama
gronvoldi Mathews, 191277 δLocally along coastal French Guiana to NE Argentina (Buenos Aires)
HYDROPROGNE Kaup, 1829 F - Sterna caspia Pallas, 1770; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1846, The Genera of Birds, 3 (1849), p. [658]).  
Hydroprogne caspia 78,79  (Pallas, 1770) Caspian Tern
vNorth America, Africa, Madagascar, Europe to C, SW and S Asia, S China, Australia, New Zealand >> mainland SE Asia
LAROSTERNA Blyth, 1852 F - Sterna inca Lesson & Garnot, 1827; type by monotypy  
Larosterna inca 80  (Lesson & Garnot, 1827) Inca Tern
iCoastal N Peru (Islas Lobos de Tierra) to C Chile (Valparaíso)
CHLIDONIAS Rafinesque, 1822 M - Sterna melanops Rafinesque, 1822; type by monotypy = Sterna surinamensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789  
Chlidonias albostriatus 81,82  (G.R. Gray, 1845) δ Black-fronted Tern
vNew Zealand (South Island, infrequent on North Island and Stewart I.)
Chlidonias hybrida83,84 Whiskered Tern
hybrida (Pallas, 1811)85 N Africa, C and S Europe to SW Asia and N India, and Baikal to Russian Far East, N and E China >> Africa, S and mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas, Philippines, Sulawesi
delalandii (Mathews, 1912)86,87 δS and E Africa, Madagascar
javanicus (Horsfield, 1821)88 vAustralia >> N Australia, lowland New Guinea, SE Asia (north to Greater Sundas and Philippines)
Chlidonias leucopterus   (Temminck, 1815) White-winged Tern
vEC Europe to Russian Far East, NE China >> Africa, S and SE Asia, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand
Chlidonias niger Black Tern
niger (Linnaeus, 1758) vEurope to C Asia >> Africa
surinamensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vC and S Canada, N USA >> coasts of Central America to C Peru and French Guiana
STERNA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, 1758; type by Linnaean tautonymy  
Sterna aurantia   J.E. Gray, 1831 River Tern
vRivers of northern S Asia, SW China, and N and E continental SE Asia
Sterna dougallii Roseate Tern
dougallii Montagu, 1813 NE North America; Caribbean; NW Europe, Azores, E and S Africa >> mid-Atlantic Ocean, W Africa
arideensis Mathews, 191289 vSeychelles; Madagascar (?)
korustes (Hume, 1874) Sri Lanka, W and SE India, Andamans, Mergui Arch. (off SE Myanmar)
bangsi Mathews, 1912 Ryukyu Is., SE China, SE Asian seas, New Guinea, N Australia and SW Pacific islands to Tuamotu Arch.
gracilis Gould, 1845 vMid W coast of Australia >> NW Australia, Wallacea
Sterna striata 90  J.F. Gmelin, 1789 White-fronted Tern
vTasmania, islands in Bass Strait, New Zealand (including Stewart I.), Chatham Is., Auckland Is.
Sterna sumatrana Black-naped Tern
mathewsi Stresemann, 1914 Islands in W Indian Ocean (east to Maldives)
sumatrana Raffles, 1822 vAndaman Sea, SE China, SE Asia, New Guinea, N Australia and W Pacific Ocean
Sterna hirundinacea   Lesson, 1831 South American Tern
vCoasts of C Peru (Ica) and SE Brazil (Espírito Santo) to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
Sterna hirundo Common Tern
hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 C and E Canada, N and E USA; Europe, N and W Africa, W Asia >> south of Tropic of Capricorn
tibetana H. Saunders, 1876 vSC Asia, Tibetan plateau, NW China >> E Africa, S Asia, mainland SE Asia
minussensis Sushkin, 192591 vUpper Yenisey valley east to Baikal and Mongolia >> N Indian Ocean
longipennis von Nordmann, 1835 vE Siberia, NE China >> E India, Sri Lanka, SE Asia, New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand
Sterna repressa   E. Hartert, 1916 White-cheeked Tern
vKenya to Red Sea and W India >> Pakistan, Maldives
Sterna paradisaea   Pontoppidan, 1763 Arctic Tern
vArctic regions south to NE USA and W Europe >> Antarctica
Sterna vittata Antarctic Tern
tristanensis Murphy, 193892 vTristan da Cunha Group, Gough I. [Murphy, 1938 #2745]
sanctipauli Gould, 186593 Ile Amsterdam, Ile St. Paul [Gould, 1865 #13701]
georgiae Reichenow, 1904 South Georgia I., South Orkney Is., South Sandwich Is.
gaini Murphy, 1938 South Shetland Is., Antarctic Pen. [Murphy, 1938 #2745]
vittata J.F. Gmelin, 1789 vBouvetøya, Prince Edward Is., Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, Heard I.
bethunei Buller, 189694 Stewart I. (New Zealand), Snares Is., Bounty Is., Antipodes Is., Auckland Is., Campbell I., Macquarie I.
Sterna virgata Kerguelen Tern
mercuri J.-F. Voisin, 197195 Prince Edward Is., Iles Crozet [Voisin, 1971 #4038]
virgata Cabanis, 1875 vIles Kerguelen
Sterna forsteri 96  Nuttall, 1834 Forster's Tern
iSC Canada, W, N and coastal E and SE USA, NE Mexico (Tamaulipas) >> S USA to Central America
Sterna trudeaui   Audubon, 1838 Snowy-crowned Tern
iSE Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) to E Argentina (Buenos Aires); SC Chile (Valparaíso to Los Lagos)
Sterna acuticauda 97  J.E. Gray, 1831 α Black-bellied Tern
iS Asia (except Sri Lanka), SW Yunnan, N and E continental SE Asia [Gray, 1831 #13771]
THALASSEUS Boie, 1822 M - Sterna cantiaca J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 79). = Sterna sandvicensis Latham, 1787  
Thalasseus bengalensis98 Lesser Crested Tern
emigratus (Neumann, 1934) vLibya >> NW coast of Africa [Neumann, 1934 #2761]
bengalensis (Lesson, 1831)99 vRed Sea, coasts and islands of NW Indian Ocean >> Sri Lanka, E and S Africa and Madagascar
torresii Gould, 1843 New Guinea, N Australia >> SE Asian coastline and archipelagos east to the Philippines
Thalasseus bernsteini 100  (Schlegel, 1864) δ Chinese Crested Tern
Yellow Sea >> South China Sea coasts, Philippines, N Wallacea [Schlegel, 1863 #3498]
Thalasseus elegans 101  (Gambel, 1849) Elegant Tern
SW USA (S California) and Golfo de California (Isla Rasa, Isla Montague) >> coastal W Mexico to SC Chile
Thalasseus sandvicensis102 Sandwich Tern
sandvicensis (Latham, 1787) vEurope to W Asia (Caspian Sea) >> Africa, S Europe, and SW Asia to W India, Sri Lanka
acuflavidus (S. Cabot, 1847)103 αvCoastal E USA; Yucatan Pen.; Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Virgin Is. >> south to Peru and NE Brazil
eurygnathus (H. Saunders, 1876)104 vPuerto Rico, Virgin Is.; islands off Venezuela and French Guiana; coastal E Brazil to SC Argentina
Thalasseus maximus105 Royal Tern
maximus (Boddaert, 1783)106 vCoastal SW USA to NW Mexico; coastal E USA; Yucatan Pen.; islands off N Venezuela and French Guiana; coastal SE Brazil to SC Argentina
albididorsalis (E. Hartert, 1921)107 vCoastal Mauritania to Guinea >> coastal Morocco, W Africa, Angola
Thalasseus bergii Greater Crested Tern/Swift Tern
bergii (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823)108 Namibia, South Africa and Mozambique
thalassinus (Stresemann, 1914) vTanzania and Madagascar to Seychelles and Chagos Arch. >> S Somalia
velox (Cretzschmar, 1827) NW Somalia, Red Sea, SW and S Asia, tropical Indian Ocean islands (east from Maldives), Myanmar >> E Africa, W mainland SE Asia, Sumatra
cristatus (Stephens, 1826)109 vRyukyu Is., SE China, South China Sea and Java Sea islands, Philippines, Wallacea, New Guinea, Australia, tropical W and C Pacific Ocean

1 Includes plumbeigularis; see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
2 Forms a superspecies with A. minutus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
3 Forms a superspecies with P. albivitta; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
4 For treatment as a separate species from P. caerulea see Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716].
5 For suggested basal placement of this genus, i.e. prior to the Anoinae, see Jackson et al. (2012) [Jackson, 2012 #14125].
6 Subspecies classification follows Holyoak & Thibault (1976) [Holyoak, 1976 #1989].
7 Includes monte, royana, kittlitzi, and rothschildi; see Holyoak & Thibault (1976) [Holyoak, 1976 #1989] and Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716]. May merit treatment, including leucopes, as a separate species; see Olson (2005) [Olson, 2005 #9995].
8 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Pratt et al. (1987) [Pratt, 1987 #3119] and Olson (2005) [Olson, 2005 #9995].
9 Dual original spelling; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
10 Forms a superspecies with R. flavirostris and R. albicollis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
11 Includes oblita Griscom, 1935 [Griscom, 1935 #1826]; see Wetmore (1965) [Wetmore, 1965 #4149].
12 Includes intermedia; see Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326].
13 Classification based on Pons et al. (2005) [Pons, 2005 #4426] except as noted.
14 For renewed recognition see Sangster et al. (2004) [Sangster, 2004 #3475] and Malling Olsen & Larsson (2004) [Malling Olsen, 2004 #13761].
15 Includes palaearctica Stegmann, 1934 [Stegmann, 1934 #3702], tschuktschorum Portenko, 1939 [Portenko, 1939 #3104], and woznesenskii Portenko, 1939 [Portenko, 1939 #3104]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
16 Includes gunni; see Johnstone (1982) [Johnstone, 1982 #13848].
17 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574] and Given et al. (2005) [Given, 2005 #1710].
18 For separation from L. novaehollandiae see Johnstone (1982) [Johnstone, 1982 #13848].
19 Included in Hydrocoloeus by Helbig et al. (2005) [Helbig, 2005 #9890]; they are sister genera (Pons et al. 2005) [Pons, 2005 #4426].
20 Formerly, e.g. in Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007] placed in the genus Gabianus.
21 For recognition see Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574].
22 For recognition see Voous (1973) [Voous, 1973 #4061]; for earlier discussion see Vaurie (1962) [Vaurie, 1962 #8361].
23 Species limits often controversial; classification follows Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574] except as noted. Includes Gabianus.
24 For recognition see Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
25 For treatment as a separate species from L. belcheri, see Devillers (1977) [Devillers, 1977 #1315].
26 May consist of two or three species; see Moskoff & Bevier (2002) [Moskoff, 2002 #13081].
27 For recognition see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], but see also Moskoff & Bevier (2002) [Moskoff, 2002 #13081]. Includes stegmanni Brodkorb, 1936 [Brodkorb, 1936 #490]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
28 Treated as a separate species by Malling Olsen & Larsson (2004) [Malling Olsen, 2004 #13761].
29 For recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
30 For treatment as a separate species from L. occidentalis see LeValley (1975) [LeValley, 1975 #13754] and Hand (1981) [Hand, 1981 #13755].
31 Treated as monotypic in the absence of comprehensive revision, following Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574]. Includes austrinus and vetula Bruch, 1853 [Bruch, 1853 #555] as well as melisande and judithae both from Jiguet (2002) [Jiguet, 2002 #2118], who did not place south Pacific rim populations.
32 Treatment of the species fuscus through marinus derived from Sangster et al. (2007) [Sangster, 2007 #9571] with New World species interposed and position of undiscussed thayeri derived from Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007].
33 Recognised by Cramp et al. (1983) [Cramp, 1983 #1085].
34 Formerly treated as part of L. argentatus but placed in L. fuscus by Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574], who included antelius and taimyrensis as synonyms. Retained therein by Sangster et al. (2007) [Sangster, 2007 #9571], but see also Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
35 Formerly treated as a synonym of L. cachinnans; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], but treated as a valid subspecies by Cramp et al. (1983) [Cramp, 1983 #1085] and Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574] and as a species by Liebers et al. (2001) [Liebers, 2001 #2384]. Treated as a subspecies of L. fuscus by Sangster et al. (2007) [Sangster, 2007 #9571].
36 Includes omissus; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967] and Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574].
37 For treatment as a separate species from L. argentatus see Marion et al. (1985) [Marion, 1985 #4408], Yésou (2002) [Yésou, 2002 #4286] and Sangster et al. (2005) [Sangster, 2005 #10055].
38 Treated as a species separate from L. argentatus by Sangster et al. (2005) [Sangster, 2005 #10055].
39 Implicitly includes lusitanius Joiris, 1978 [Joiris, 1978 #2151]; see Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574].
40 Correct original spelling. Spelling michahelles in Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3007] an ISS.
41 For treatment as a separate species from L. argentatus see Marion et al. (1985) [Marion, 1985 #4408] and Sangster et al. (2007) [Sangster, 2007 #9571].
42 Includes ponticus Stegmann, 1934 [Stegmann, 1934 #3701]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
43 Treated as a separate species from L. argentatus, see Crochet et al. (2002) [Crochet, 2002 #1094], Liebers et al. (2004) [Liebers, 2004 #2388], Olson & Banks (2007) [Olson, 2007 #10630] and Sangster et al. (2007) [Sangster, 2007 #9571].
44 Includes birulai; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
45 Treatment as a separate species suggested by Liebers et al. (2004) [Liebers, 2004 #2388] and Malling Olsen & Larsson (2004) [Malling Olsen, 2004 #13761], but see Sangster et al. (2007) [Sangster, 2007 #9571].
46 For recognition see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967]. Variously treated since and placed in L. smithsonianus by Sangster et al. (2007) [Sangster, 2007 #9571].
47 Formerly treated as a subspecies of L. argentatus. Affinities uncertain. Often treated as a subspecies of L. glaucoides, and treatment as species is controversial; see Gaston & Decker (1985) [Gaston, 1985 #13759], Snell (1989, 2002) [Snell, 1989 #13760] [Snell, 2002 #13150], and references therein.
48 Species name formerly leucopterus but see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6475].
49 Implictly includes ochotensis Portenko, 1963 [Portenko, 1963 #3109]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
50 Forms a stable hybrid zone with L. occidentalis; see Bell (1996) [Bell, 1996 #14095] and Sonsthagen et al. (2012) [Sonsthagen, 2012 #14074].
51 For treatment as polytypic see Banks (1986) [Banks, 1986 #13756] but see also Gilchrist (2001) [Gilchrist, 2001 #12998].
52 For recognition see A.O.U. (1957) [A.O.U., 1957 #7].
53 Recognised by Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574], but may not be diagnosable (Malling Olsen & Larsson 2004) [Malling Olsen, 2004 #13761].
54 Classification based on Bridge et al. (2005) [Bridge, 2005 #482].
55 Includes somalensis [sic]; see Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716]; they recognised infuscatus from the same terra typica as nubilosus, so we follow Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
56 Includes kermadeci; see Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
57 For recognition see Ridgway (1919) [Ridgway, 1919 #14096].
58 For recognition see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6475].
59 Subspecies classification follows Cramp (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
60 Includes recognita; see Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
61 Includes fuligula; see Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
62 Includes rogersi and novaehollandiae; see Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
63 Perhaps not diagnosable from melanoptera; see Malling Olsen & Larsson (1995) [Malling Olsen, 1995 #2833].
64 Forms a superspecies with S. saundersi, S. antillarum, S. superciliaris, S. lorata and S. nereis; see Moynihan (1959) [Moynihan, 1959 #7221] and Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
65 Includes innominata; see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
66 Includes pusilla; see Junge (1948) [Junge, 1948 #2166].
67 For recognition see Burger & Gochfeld (1996) [Burger, 1996 #574] but see also Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
68 For separation from S. sinensis see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
69 For treatment as a separate species from S. albifrons, see Massey (1976) [Massey, 1976 #13762] and Bridge et al. (2005) [Bridge, 2005 #482].
70 Validity of all subspecies has been questioned and remains controversial; see Patten & Erickson (1996) [Patten, 1996 #2959].
71 Considered doubtfully diagnosable by Burleigh & Lowery (1942) [Burleigh, 1942 #575], Massey (1976) [Massey, 1976 #13762] and Thompson et al. (1997) [Thompson, 1997 #13166].
72 Includes mexicanus van Rossem & Hachisuka, 1937 [van Rossem, 1937 #3927] and staebleri Brodkorb, 1940 [Brodkorb, 1940 #493] see Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716].
73 For recognition see Johnson et al. (1998) [Johnson, 1998 #2132] but see also Whittier et al. (2006) [Whittier, 2006 #10114].
74 Includes horni; see Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
75 Includes chloropoda; see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6475], but see also Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716].
76 Includes addenda; see Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739] but see also Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
77 Original spelling grönvoldi. Not based on a German word. Here used as Code requires.
78 Includes strenua; see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
79 For suppression of Sterna tschegrava, the specific name used by Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007], see Opinion 904 (I.C.Z.N., 1970) [I.C.Z.N., 1970 #9645].
80 Name taken from plate appearing before text requires recognition of joint authorship see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
81 Often placed in Sterna but see Bridge et al. (2005) [Bridge, 2005 #482].
82 Correct original spelling. Spelling albistriata in Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3007] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
83 For note on spelling, see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1124].
84 Subspecies recognition and attributed ranges follow Mees (1977) [Mees, 1977 #2623] except that hybrida reaches Sulawesi (White & Bruce, 1986) [White, 1986 #4194] and Luzon in good numbers (Dickinson et al., 1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
85 Includes indicus, leggei and swinhoei; see Mees (1977) [Mees, 1977 #2623].
86 For recognition see Mees (1977) [Mees, 1977 #2623], who included sclateri.
87 Correct original spelling. Spelling delalandei in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
88 Includes fluviatilis; see Mees (1977) [Mees, 1977 #2623].
89 Included in bangsi by Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], but see Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716].
90 Monotypic treatment follows Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961]; for recognition of incerta and aucklandorum see Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716].
91 Included in nominate subspecies by Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
92 For recognition as distinct from sanctipauli see Tree in Hockey (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
93 Prior name for this population contra Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
94 Includes macquariensis Falla, 1936 [Falla, 1936 #1534]; see Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961].
95 For recognition see Higgins & Davies (1996) [Higgins, 1996 #1961] but see also Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716].
96 McNicholl et al. (2001) [McNicholl, 2001 #13068] implicitly include litoricola Oberholser, 1938 [Oberholser, 1938 #10179].
97 This name has been used almost universally since Deignan (1945) [Deignan, 1945 #1180] and replaced S. melanogaster, which was used by Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007]. For a dissenting view see Mees (1989) [Mees, 1989 #2634].
98 Mlíkovsky (2011) [Mlíkovsky, 2011 #13190] argued that the older name media Horsfield, 1821, was not truly preoccupied by media Vieillot, 1820, and should be restored.
99 Includes par based on Red Sea birds; see Gochfeld & Burger (1996) [Gochfeld, 1996 #1716].
100 For replacement of name zimmermanni, used by Peters (1934) [Peters, 1934 #3007], see Mees (1975) [Mees, 1975 #7081].
101 The name ichla Mathews, 1937 [Mathews, 1937 #2531], a nomen novum for elegans, is not needed; his source did not list Sterna elegans but Terna elegans, which is a nomen nudum anyway.
102 Forms a superspecies with T. bengalensis, T. elegans, and T. bernsteini; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566].
103 May merit treatment, with eurygnathus, as a separate species (Efe et al. 2009) [Efe, 2009 #11808], but see also Jackson et al. (2012) [Jackson, 2012 #14125].
104 Formerly treated as a separate species but see Norton (1984) [Norton, 1984 #13865], Hayes (2004) [Hayes, 2004 #1921], Efe et al. (2009) [Efe, 2009 #11808], and references therein. Populations of southern South America may merit recognition as a separate taxon (Escalante 1973) [Escalante, 1973 #13861].
105 Considered to form a superspecies with T. bergii by Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566].
106 Austral breeding population may represent undescribed taxon; see Buckley & Buckley (2002) [Buckley, 2002 #12928].
107 Diagnosability questioned by Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086], but see Buckley & Buckley (2002) [Buckley, 2002 #12928].
108 Includes enigma Clancey, 1979 [Clancey, 1979 #894]; see Crawford et al. in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
109 Includes gwendolenae; see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2626].
Top