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PSITTACIDAE - African and New World Parrots1 (36:167)
PSITTACINAE
PSITTACUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Psittacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 52).  
Psittacus erithacus Grey Parrot
timneh Fraser, 18442 Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone to SW Ivory Coast
erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 SE Ivory Coast to W Kenya and N Angola
princeps Alexander, 19093 Príncipe
POICEPHALUS Swainson, 1837 M - Psittacus senegalus Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 52).  4
Poicephalus gulielmi Red-fronted Parrot
fantiensis Neumann, 1908 vLiberia to Ghana
gulielmi (Jardine, 1849)5 S Cameroon to N Angola, E DR Congo and SW Uganda
massaicus G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 18846 vW and C Kenya, N Tanzania
Poicephalus flavifrons 7  (Rüppell, 1842) α Yellow-fronted Parrot
iEthiopia
Poicephalus robustus Brown-necked Parrot
fuscicollis (Kuhl, 1820)8 vGambia to EC Nigeria and N Angola
suahelicus Reichenow, 18989 vRwanda and C Tanzania to Zimbabwe, Mozambique and NE Limpopo (South Africa), SC Angola
robustus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSE South Africa (Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal)
Poicephalus meyeri10 Brown Parrot
meyeri (Cretzschmar, 1827)11 S Chad and NE Cameroon to S Sudan, NW Ethiopia and Eritrea
saturatus Sharpe, 1901 vS South Sudan, Uganda and W Kenya to E DR Congo and NW Tanzania
matschiei Neumann, 189812 SE DR Congo and W and C Tanzania to E Angola, N Zambia and N Malawi
reichenowi Neumann, 1898 W Angola
damarensis Neumann, 1898 vS Angola, N Namibia, NW Botswana
transvaalensis Neumann, 1899 vS Zambia, W Mozambique, Zimbabwe, N South Africa (NW and N Limpopo)
Poicephalus rueppellii   (G.R. Gray, 1849) Rüppell's Parrot
iSW Angola, N and C Namibia
Poicephalus cryptoxanthus Brown-headed Parrot
tanganyikae Bowen, 193013 Coastal Kenya, E Tanzania, Zanzibar and Pemba I. to N and C Mozambique
cryptoxanthus (W. Peters, 1854) vS Mozambique to adjacent SE Zimbabwe and NE South Africa
Poicephalus crassus 14  (Sharpe, 1884) Niam-Niam Parrot
vN Cameroon, SW Chad to W South Sudan and N DR Congo
Poicephalus senegalus Senegal Parrot
senegalus (Linnaeus, 1766)15 vSenegal and Guinea-Bissau to N Cameroon
versteri Finsch, 1863 Ivory Coast to SW Nigeria
Poicephalus rufiventris Red-bellied Parrot/African Orange-bellied Parrot
pallidus van Someren, 192216 vSomalia, E Ethiopia
rufiventris (Rüppell, 1842) αvC Ethiopia to NE Tanzania
ARINAE17

Tribe AMOROPSITTACINI17
TOUIT G.R. Gray, 1855 M - Psittacus huetii Temminck, 1830; type by original designation  
Touit batavicus   (Boddaert, 1783) Lilac-tailed Parrotlet
vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.); N Venezuela, the Guianas, Trinidad
Touit huetii   (Temminck, 1830) Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet
iE Ecuador, E Peru, NW Bolivia; EC Colombia, NE and S Venezuela, N Guyana; E Amazonian Brazil
Touit costaricensis 18  (Cory, 1913) Red-fronted Parrotlet
vMountains of Costa Rica to WC Panama (W Coclé)
Touit dilectissimus 19  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1871) Blue-fronted Parrotlet
vEC Panama (C Panamá) to SW Ecuador (El Oro); Sierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela
Touit purpuratus Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet
purpuratus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSE Venezuela (E Amazonas) to the Guianas and NE Amazonian Brazil (west to R. Negro)
viridiceps Chapman, 1929 E Ecuador, SE Colombia, NE Peru, W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro), S Venezuela (E Amazonas)
Touit melanonotus   (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) Brown-backed Parrotlet
vSE Brazil (SE Bahia to S São Paulo)
Touit surdus 20  (Kuhl, 1820) Golden-tailed Parrotlet
vE and SE Brazil (E Paraíba to E Alagoas; S Bahia to São Paulo)
Touit stictopterus 21,22  (P.L. Sclater, 1862) Spot-winged Parrotlet
vLocally in Andes from C Colombia (Cundinamarca) to N Peru (San Martín)
PSILOPSIAGON Ridgway, 1912 F - Trichoglossus aurifrons Wagler; type by original designation and monotypy = Psittacus aurifrons Lesson, 1831  23
Psilopsiagon aymara 24  (d'Orbigny, 1839) Gray-hooded Parakeet
iE Andes of Bolivia to W Argentina (NW Mendoza); mountains of WC Argentina (W Córdoba, NE San Luis)
Psilopsiagon aurifrons Mountain Parakeet
robertsi Carriker, 1933 NW Peru (Marañón valley in La Libertad)
aurifrons (Lesson, 1831) W slope of Andes of C and S Peru (La Libertad to Arequipa)
margaritae (Berlioz & Dorst, 1956)25 Andes of S Peru (Puno) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and NW Argentina (N Catamarca) [Berlioz, 1956 #287]
rubrirostris (Burmeister, 1860)26 δvAndes of W Argentina (S Catamarca to NW Mendoza) and C Chile (Santiago)
BOLBORHYNCHUS Bonaparte, 1857 M - Myiopsitta catharina Bonaparte, 1857; type by subsequent designation (Richmond, 1915, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28, p. 183). = Psittacula lineola Cassin, 1853  
Bolborhynchus lineola Barred Parakeet
lineola (Cassin, 1853) Locally in mountains from S Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to W Panama (Veraguas)
tigrinus (Souancé, 1856)27 vSanta Marta Mts.; locally in Coastal Range and Andes of Venezuela to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons   (Lawrence, 1880) Rufous-fronted Parakeet
iC Andes of Colombia (S Caldas to C Cauca)
Bolborhynchus orbygnesius 28,29  (Souancé, 1856) Andean Parakeet
vAndes of Peru to WC Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
NANNOPSITTACA Ridgway, 1912 F - Brotogerys panychlorus Salvin & Godman, 1883; type by original designation and monotypy  
Nannopsittaca panychlora 30  (Salvin & Godman, 1883) Tepui Parrotlet
vMountains of NE Venezuela (Sucre); tepuis of S and SE Venezuela, SW Guyana and N Brazil
Nannopsittaca dachilleae   O'Neill, Munn & Franke, 1991 Amazonian Parrotlet
iLocally from NE Peru (Loreto) to SW Brazil (Acre) and NW Bolivia (La Paz) [O'Neill, 1991 #2798]
Tribe ANDROGLOSSINI
MYIOPSITTA Bonaparte, 1854 F - Psittacus murinus J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 87). = Psittacus monachus Boddaert, 1783  
Myiopsitta monachus Monk Parakeet
luchsi (Finsch, 1868)31,32 δInter-Andean valleys of WC Bolivia (SE La Paz to NE Potosí and Chuquisaca)
cotorra (Vieillot, 1818) SE Bolivia, SW Brazil, Paraguay, NW Argentina (Formosa, Chaco)
monachus (Boddaert, 1783) SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, NE Argentina (Santa Fé to E Buenos Aires)33
calita (Jardine & Selby, 1830) vN and C Argentina (Salta to W Buenos Aires and La Pampa)
BROTOGERIS Vigors, 1825 F - Psittacus pyrrhopterus Latham, 1801; type by original designation  34
Brotogeris sanctithomae Tui Parakeet
sanctithomae (Statius Muller, 1776) δExtreme SE Colombia, E Peru, SW Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Madeira), NE Bolivia
takatsukasae Neumann, 1931 NC Brazil (lower R. Amazon east from R. Negro and R. Madeira)
Brotogeris tirica   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Plain Parakeet
iE Brazil (Alagoas to E Santa Catarina)
Brotogeris versicolurus 35  (Statius Muller, 1776) Canary-winged Parakeet
iSE Colombia, NE Peru, N Brazil (along R. Amazon to Amapá and N Pará), E French Guiana36
Brotogeris chiriri37 Yellow-chevroned Parakeet
chiriri (Vieillot, 1818) N and E Bolivia, Paraguay, NE Argentina, E, C and S Brazil
behni Neumann, 193138 Foothills of C Bolivia (SE Cochabamba) to NW Argentina (Salta)
Brotogeris pyrrhoptera   (Latham, 1801) α Gray-cheeked Parakeet
vW Ecuador (Manabí) to NW Peru (N Piura)
Brotogeris jugularis39 Orange-chinned Parakeet
jugularis (Statius Muller, 1776) vS Mexico (E Oaxaca) to N and W Colombia and NW Venezuela
exsul Todd, 191740 NE Colombia (NW Arauca), N and W Venezuela (Barinas and Falcón to Guárico)
Brotogeris cyanoptera Cobalt-winged Parakeet
cyanoptera (von Pelzeln, 1870)41 vE and SE Colombia, S Venezuela, E Ecuador, E Peru, W Amazonian Brazil, NW Bolivia [von Pelzeln, 1870 #4054]
gustavi von Berlepsch, 188942 N Peru (upper Huallaga valley)
beniensis Gyldenstolpe, 1941 vNE Bolivia (Beni to W Santa Cruz) [Gyldenstolpe, 1941 #1843]
Brotogeris chrysoptera43 Golden-winged Parakeet
chrysoptera (Linnaeus, 1766) vNE Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (Roraima and Amapá)
tenuifrons Friedmann, 1945 NW Brazil (upper R. Negro) [Friedmann, 1945 #1607]
solimoensis Gyldenstolpe, 194144 vNC Brazil (middle R. Amazon from Codajás to Manaus) [Gyldenstolpe, 1941 #1842]
tuipara (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) NC Brazil (south of R. Amazon from R. Tapajós to NW Maranhão)
chrysosema P.L. Sclater, 1864 vSW Amazonian Brazil (SE Amazonas to N Mato Grosso)
PIONOPSITTA Bonaparte, 1854 F - Psittacus pileatus Scopoli, 1769; type by monotypy  
Pionopsitta pileata   (Scopoli, 1769) Pileated Parrot
vSE Brazil (SE Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
TRICLARIA Wagler, 1832 F - Psittacus cyanogaster Vieillot, 1818; type by monotypy = Psittacus malachitaceus von Spix, 1824  
Triclaria malachitacea   (von Spix, 1824) Blue-bellied Parrot
vSE Brazil (Espírito Santo to N Rio Grande do Sul)
PYRILIA Bonaparte, 1856 F - Pyrilia typica Bonaparte, 1856; type, by original designation and tautonomy = Psittacula pyrilia Bonaparte, 185345,46
Pyrilia haematotis Brown-hooded Parrot
haematotis (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1860) vSE Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to WC Panama (Coclé, W Colón)
coccinicollaris (Lawrence, 1862)47 vEC Panama (Panamá) to NW Colombia (N Chocó, SW Córdoba)
Pyrilia pyrilia   (Bonaparte, 1853) Saffron-headed Parrot
E Panama (E Darién), NW and NC Colombia, NW Venezuela
Pyrilia pulchra 48  (von Berlepsch, 1897) Rose-faced Parrot
vLowlands and foothills of NW Colombia (C Chocó) to SW Ecuador (El Oro)
Pyrilia barrabandi Orange-cheeked Parrot
barrabandi (Kuhl, 1820) S and SE Colombia, S Venezuela, W Amazonian Brazil (north of R. Amazon, east to R. Negro)
aurantiigena (Gyldenstolpe, 1951) E Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia, W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Madeira and NW Mato Grosso) [Gyldenstolpe, 1951 #1846]
Pyrilia caica   (Latham, 1790) Caica Parrot
E Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon from Roraima to Amapá)
Pyrilia aurantiocephala   (Gaban-Lima, M.A. Raposo & Höfling, 2002) Bald Parrot
C Amazonian Brazil (lower R. Madeira and upper R. Tapajós to R. Cristalino) [Gaban-Lima, 2002 #1641]
Pyrilia vulturina 49  (Kuhl, 1820) Vulturine Parrot
vE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, lower R. Tapajós to NW Maranhão)
HAPALOPSITTACA Ridgway, 1912 F - Psittacus amazoninus Des Murs, 1845; type by original designation and monotypy  
Hapalopsittaca amazonina Rusty-faced Parrot
velezi G.R. Graves & Uribe Restrepo, 1989 W and C Andes of Colombia (Antioquia; Caldas to Tolima) [Graves, 1989 #1782]
amazonina (Des Murs, 1845) vE Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander to Cundinamarca) and W Venezuela (Páramo de Táma)
theresae (Hellmayr, 1915) Andes of NW Venezuela (NE Táchira to C Trujillo)
Hapalopsittaca fuertesi 50  (Chapman, 1912) Indigo-winged Parrot
iW slope of C Andes of Colombia (Quindío, Risaralda)
Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops   (Salvin, 1876) Red-faced Parrot
iAndes of S Ecuador (S Cañar) to N Peru (N Cajamarca)
Hapalopsittaca melanotis Black-winged Parrot
peruviana (Carriker, 1932) vE slope of Andes in C and S Peru (Huánuco to Junín; N Cuzco)
melanotis (Lafresnaye, 1847) vE slope of Andes in WC Bolivia (La Paz to W Santa Cruz)
PIONUS Wagler, 1832 M - Psittacus menstruus Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 52).  51
Pionus fuscus   (Statius Muller, 1776) Dusky Parrot
vNE Colombia (W slopes of Sierra de Perijá); E Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (R. Negro to N Maranhão)
Pionus sordidus Red-billed Parrot
saturatus Todd, 1915 vSanta Marta Mts. (N Colombia)
ponsi Aveledo & Ginés, 1950 Sierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border) [Aveledo, 1950 #113]
sordidus (Linnaeus, 1758) vMountains of N Venezuela (Falcón and Lara to Miranda)
antelius Todd, 1947 vMountains of NE Venezuela (NE Anzoátegui, S Sucre, N Monagas) [Todd, 1947 #3844]
corallinus Bonaparte, 1854 vE Andes of Colombia to C Peru (Pasco) and Bolivia (E La Paz to N Tarija)
mindoensis Chapman, 1925 vW slope of Andes of Ecuador
Pionus maximiliani52 Scaly-headed Parrot
maximiliani (Kuhl, 1820) NE and EC Brazil (Ceará and Piauí to NE Goiás and Bahia)
siy Souancé, 1856 E Bolivia and SW Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul) to N Argentina (C Salta, N Santa Fé, NW Corrientes)
lacerus F. Heine, Jr., 1884 vNW Argentina (S Salta, Tucumán, E Catamarca)
melanoblepharus Miranda-Ribeiro, 192053 vSE Brazil (Minas Gerais to N Rio Grande do Sul) to SE Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones)
Pionus tumultuosus Speckle-faced Parrot
seniloides (Massena & Souancé, 1854)54,55 δAndes of W Venezuela to N Peru (La Libertad)
tumultuosus (von Tschudi, 1844) vE slope of Andes of C Peru (Huánuco) to WC Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Pionus menstruus Blue-headed Parrot
rubrigularis Cabanis, 188156 vS Costa Rica to N and W Colombia, NW Venezuela and W Ecuador [Cabanis, 1881 #639]
menstruus (Linnaeus, 1766) vE and S Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonia
reichenowi F. Heine, Jr., 188457 E Brazil (Alagoas to E Rio de Janeiro)
Pionus senilis 58  (von Spix, 1824) White-crowned Parrot
vE Mexico (S Tamaulipas) to W Panama (Chiriquí, Bocas del Toro)
Pionus chalcopterus 59  (Fraser, 1841) Bronze-winged Parrot
vSierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela (Táchira) to NW Peru (Piura)
GRAYDIDASCALUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Psittacus brachyurus Kuhl & Temminck, 1820; type by original designation and monotypy =  
Graydidascalus brachyurus 60  (Temminck & Kuhl, 1820) Short-tailed Parrot
vSE Colombia, NE Ecuador and NE Peru through Amazon basin to N Brazil (E Amapá) and NE French Guiana
ALIPIOPSITTA Caparroz & Pacheco, 2006 F - Psittacus xanthops von Spix, 1824; type by monotypy  61
Alipiopsitta xanthops   (von Spix, 1824) Yellow-faced Parrot
EC Brazil (S Piauí to SC Mato Grosso and NW São Paulo); NE Bolivia (NE Beni, NE Santa Cruz)
AMAZONA Lesson, 1830 F - Psittacus farinosus Boddaert, 1783; type by subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1891, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 20, p. 268).  62
Amazona festiva Festive Parrot
bodini (Finsch, 1873) R. Orinoco drainage in E Colombia, C and NE Venezuela, NW Guyana
festiva (Linnaeus, 1758) vR. Amazon and major tributaries from E Ecuador, SE Colombia and NE Peru to N Brazil (E Amapá, N Pará)
Amazona vinacea   (Kuhl, 1820) Vinaceous-breasted Parrot
vE Brazil (S Bahia to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Amazona tucumana 63  (Cabanis, 1885) Tucuman Parrot
vAndes of S Bolivia (SW Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca) to NW Argentina (Catamarca)
Amazona pretrei 64  (Temminck, 1830) Red-spectacled Parrot
iSE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, SE Santa Catarina)
Amazona agilis   (Linnaeus, 1758) Black-billed Parrot
vJamaica
Amazona albifrons White-fronted Parrot
saltuensis Nelson, 1899 vNW Mexico (S Sonora, Sinaloa, W Durango)
albifrons (Sparrman, 1788) SW Mexico (Nayarit) to SW Guatemala
nana W. deW. Miller, 1905 E Mexico (S Veracruz and Yucatan Pen.) to NW Costa Rica
Amazona collaria 65  (Linnaeus, 1758) Yellow-billed Parrot
vJamaica
Amazona leucocephala Cuban Parrot
bahamensis (H. Bryant, 1867)66 vGreat Abaco and Great Inagua (Bahamas)
leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1758) vCuba and Isla de la Juventud
caymanensis (Cory, 1886) vGrand Cayman (Cayman Is.)
hesterna Bangs, 1916 vLittle Cayman and Cayman Brac (Cayman Is.)
Amazona ventralis   (Statius Muller, 1776) Hispaniolan Parrot
vHispaniola and satellite islands67
Amazona vittata Puerto Rican Parrot
vittata (Boddaert, 1783) vE Puerto Rico
†? gracilipes Ridgway, 1915 Isla de Culebra (off E Puerto Rico)
Amazona finschi 68  (P.L. Sclater, 1864) Lilac-crowned Parrot
iW Mexico (SE Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Oaxaca)
Amazona autumnalis69 Red-lored Parrot
autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) vCaribbean slope from E Mexico (S Tamaulipas) to NE Nicaragua
salvini (Salvadori, 1891) E Nicaragua to SW Colombia and NW Venezuela (W Zulia)
lilacina Lesson, 1844 vW Ecuador
diadema (von Spix, 1824) NC Brazil (lower R. Negro and middle R. Amazon from Codajás to Albano)
Amazona viridigenalis   (Cassin, 1853) Red-crowned Parrot
vNE Mexico (E Nuevo León and S Tamaulipas to N Veracruz)70
Amazona xantholora   (G.R. Gray, 1859) Yellow-lored Parrot
iSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen., Isla de Cozumel), N Belize
Amazona dufresniana 71  (Shaw, 1812) Blue-cheeked Parrot
vSE Venezuela, the Guianas
Amazona rhodocorytha 72  (Salvadori, 1890) Red-browed Parrot
vCoastal E Brazil (Alagoas; Bahia to E Minas Gerais and E São Paulo)
Amazona arausiaca 73  (Statius Muller, 1776) Red-necked Parrot
vDominica (Lesser Antilles)
Amazona versicolor   (Statius Muller, 1776) St. Lucia Parrot
iSt. Lucia (Lesser Antilles)
Amazona oratrix74 Yellow-headed Parrot
tresmariae Nelson, 190075 Islas Marías (off W Mexico)
oratrix Ridgway, 1887 Pacific slope of SW Mexico (Jalisco to SW Oaxaca)
magna Monroe & T.R. Howell, 196676 vE Mexico (E Nuevo León and Tamaulipas to Tabasco and N Chiapas) [Monroe, 1966 #2705]
belizensis Monroe & T.R. Howell, 196677 vBelize, NE Guatemala and extreme NW Honduras [Monroe, 1966 #2705]
Amazona auropalliata Yellow-naped Parrot
auropalliata (Lesson, 1842) vPacific slope of S Mexico (SE Oaxaca) to NW Costa Rica
caribaea Lousada, 198978 vIsla de Roatán, Isla de Barbareta and Isla de Guanaja (off N Honduras) [Lousada, 1989 #2437]
parvipes Monroe & T.R. Howell, 1966 E Honduras, NE Nicaragua [Monroe, 1966 #2705]
Amazona ochrocephala79 Yellow-crowned Parrot
panamensis (Cabanis, 1874) vPanama, N and C Colombia
ochrocephala (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vE Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon)80
xantholaema von Berlepsch, 1913 vN Brazil (Ilha de Marajó)
nattereri (Finsch, 1865)81 E Ecuador, SE Colombia, E Peru, N and E Bolivia, S Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon)
Amazona barbadensis 82  (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Yellow-shouldered Parrot
vN Venezuela, Isla de Margarita, Isla Blanquilla, Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire)
Amazona aestiva Turquoise-fronted Parrot
aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758) vEC Brazil (S Piauí and W Pernambuco to SE Mato Grosso and W Paraná)
xanthopteryx (von Berlepsch, 1896) N and E Bolivia and SW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso) to NC Argentina (Córdoba)
Amazona mercenarius Scaly-naped Parrot
canipalliata (Cabanis, 1874) vSanta Marta Mts.; Sierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela to Ecuador
mercenarius (von Tschudi, 1844)83 δE slope of Andes of Peru and Bolivia
Amazona farinosa Mealy Parrot
guatemalae (P.L. Sclater, 1860) SE Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to NW Honduras (Sula valley)
virenticeps (Salvadori, 1891) NW Honduras (Sula valley) to W Panama (W Bocas del Toro, W Chiriquí)
farinosa (Boddaert, 1783)84 vC Panama (Veraguas) to W Ecuador, NW Venezuela and Amazonia; E Brazil (Bahia to N São Paulo)
Amazona kawalli   Grantsau & Camargo, 1989 Kawall's Parrot
iC Amazonian Brazil (R. Juruá to R. Tapajós and NC Mato Grosso) [Grantsau, 1989 #1765]
Amazona imperialis   Richmond, 1899 Imperial Parrot
vDominica (Lesser Antilles)
Amazona brasiliensis 85  (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-tailed Parrot
vCoastal SE Brazil (São Paulo to NE Santa Catarina)
Amazona amazonica 86  (Linnaeus, 1766) Orange-winged Parrot
vN and E Colombia east to Trinidad, the Guianas and N Brazil, south to E Bolivia and SE Brazil
Amazona guildingii   (Vigors, 1837) St. Vincent Parrot
iSt. Vincent (Lesser Antilles)
Tribe FORPINI
FORPUS Boie, 1858 M - Psittacus passerinus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Hellmayr, 1929, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 446).  87
Forpus modestus Dusky-billed Parrotlet
modestus (Cabanis, 1849)88 αvE Colombia, S Venezuela, W Guyana; E French Guiana, E Amazonian Brazil (R. Xingu to R. Araguaia)
sclateri (G.R. Gray, 1859) SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, NE Bolivia and SW Amazonian Brazil
Forpus cyanopygius Mexican Parrotlet
insularis (Ridgway, 1888)89 vIslas Marías (off W Mexico)
cyanopygius (Souancé, 1856)90 vW Mexico (SE Sonora to Colima)
Forpus passerinus91 Green-rumped Parrotlet
spengeli (Hartlaub, 1885)92 N Colombia (Atlántico and Sucre to S Cesar)
cyanophanes (Todd, 1915) NE Colombia (Guajira, N Cesar)
viridissimus (Lafresnaye, 1848) vNE Colombia (Norte de Santander), N Venezuela (south to N Bolívar), Trinidad, Tobago
passerinus (Linnaeus, 1758) vCoast of the Guianas93
cyanochlorus (Schlegel, 1864) vN Brazil (upper R. Branco in Roraima)
deliciosus (Ridgway, 1888) vN Brazil (coastal Amapá, Ilha de Marajó, along R. Amazon west to R. Madeira)
Forpus xanthopterygius94,95 Blue-winged Parrotlet
1 crassirostris (Taczanowski, 1883)96 vE Ecuador, extreme SE Colombia, NE Peru and W Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Madeira)
2 flavescens (Salvadori, 1891) SE Peru to EC Bolivia
2 flavissimus Hellmayr, 1929 vNE Brazil (Maranhão to Rio Grande do Norte and N Bahia)
2 xanthopterygius (von Spix, 1824)97 vE Brazil (Tocantins and N Bahia to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay, NE Argentina [von Spix, 1824 #7983]
Forpus conspicillatus98 Spectacled Parrotlet
conspicillatus (Lafresnaye, 1848) vE Panama, NC and C Colombia (N Antioquia to S Cesar, Magdalena valley)
metae Borrero & Hernández-Camacho, 1961 E Colombia (Meta) to W Venezuela (SW Apure) [Borrero, 1961 #445]
caucae (Chapman, 1915) W Colombia (middle and upper Cauca valley to SW Nariño)
Forpus coelestis 99  (Lesson, 1847) Pacific Parrotlet
vW Ecuador (W Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (La Libertad, Cajamarca)
Forpus xanthops   (Salvin, 1895) Yellow-faced Parrotlet
iNC Peru (upper Marañón valley)
Tribe ARINI100
PIONITES F. Heine, Jr., 1890 M - Psittacus melanocephalus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1891, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 20, p. 358).  
Pionites melanocephalus101 Black-headed Parrot
melanocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) vE Colombia, S and E Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
pallidus (von Berlepsch, 1889) vSE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru (west of R. Ucayali, south to Pasco)
Pionites leucogaster White-bellied Parrot
xanthomerius (P.L. Sclater, 1858) vE Peru (east of R. Ucayali), N Bolivia and W Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Juruá)
xanthurus Todd, 1925102 vW Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Juruá to R. Madeira) [Todd, 1925 #3839]
leucogaster (Kuhl, 1820) E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Madeira to NW Maranhão)
DEROPTYUS Wagler, 1832 M - Psittacus accipitrinus Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  
Deroptyus accipitrinus Red-fan Parrot
accipitrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) vE and SE Colombia to the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon); SE Ecuador, N Peru (?) (R. Pastaza)
fuscifrons Hellmayr, 1905103 S and E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east of R. Madeira); NE Peru (?) (R. Yavari)
PYRRHURA Bonaparte, 1856 F - Psittacus vittatus Shaw, 1811; type by subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1891, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 20, p. 211). = Psittacus frontalis Vieillot, 1818  104
Pyrrhura cruentata   (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) Ochre-marked Parakeet
vE Brazil (SE Bahia to E Rio de Janeiro)
Pyrrhura devillei   (Massena & Souancé, 1854) Blaze-winged Parakeet
iNE Paraguay, SW Brazil (W Mato Grosso do Sul)
Pyrrhura frontalis105 Maroon-bellied Parakeet
frontalis (Vieillot, 1818)106 vSE Brazil (S Bahia to N São Paulo)
chiripepe (Vieillot, 1818) C and S Paraguay to NE Argentina (Corrientes) and SE Brazil (SE Mato Grosso do Sul and S São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul)
Pyrrhura lepida107,108 Pearly Parakeet
lepida (Wagler, 1832) vN Brazil (NE Pará, NW Maranhão)
anerythra Neumann, 1927 vNE Brazil (E Pará from R. Xingu to R. Tocantins)
coerulescens Neumann, 1927 NE Brazil (NE and C Maranhão)
Pyrrhura perlata 109  (von Spix, 1824) Crimson-bellied Parakeet
vC Brazil (south of R. Amazon) to NE Bolivia
Pyrrhura molinae110 Green-cheeked Parakeet
flavoptera Maijer, Herzog, Kessler, Friggens & Fjeldså, 1998 Highlands of WC Bolivia (SE La Paz, NW Cochabamba) [Maijer, 1998 #2473]
molinae (Massena & Souancé, 1854) Highlands of Bolivia (La Paz to Chuquisaca)
phoenicura (Schlegel, 1864) vNE Bolivia (NE Santa Cruz), SW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso)
hypoxantha Salvadori, 1899111 vExtreme E Bolivia (E Santa Cruz), SW Brazil (W Mato Grosso do Sul), NE Paraguay
restricta Todd, 1947 vLowlands of EC Bolivia (C Santa Cruz) [Todd, 1947 #3844]
australis Todd, 1915 vHighlands of S Bolivia (Tarija) to NW Argentina (Tucumán)
Pyrrhura pfrimeri 112  Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 Pfrimer's Parakeet
iEC Brazil (NE Goiás, SE Tocantins)
Pyrrhura griseipectus 113  Salvadori, 1900 Gray-breasted Parakeet
NE Brazil (Ceará, Pernambuco, Alagoas)
Pyrrhura leucotis Maroon-faced Parakeet
emma Salvadori, 1891114 Mountains of N Venezuela (Yaracuy to Sucre)
leucotis (Kuhl, 1820)115 vE Brazil (S Bahia to Rio de Janeiro)
Pyrrhura picta116 Painted Parakeet
eisenmanni Delgado, 1985117 WC Panama (SW Azuero Pen.) [Delgado, 1985 #1297]
†? subandina Todd, 1917 vNW Colombia (Sinú valley)
caeruleiceps Todd, 1947118 NW Colombia (W slope of E Andes in S Cesar); Sierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border) [Todd, 1947 #3844]
picta (Statius Muller, 1776)119 vS and E Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Branco)
Pyrrhura amazonum120 Santarem Parakeet
amazonum Hellmayr, 1906121 E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Tapajós to T. Tocantins, north of R. Amazon only in S Pará)
snethlageae Joseph & J.M. Bates, 2002122 C Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Madeira to R. Tapajós) [Joseph, 2002 #2157]
lucida Arndt, 2008 vSC Amazonian Brazil (R. Teles Pires and R. Peixote de Azuvedo areas in N Mato Grosso) [Arndt, 2008 #10979]
Pyrrhura lucianii 123  (Deville, 1851) Bonaparte's Parakeet
iWC Amazonian Brazil (middle R. Amazon and R. Purus)
Pyrrhura roseifrons124 Rose-fronted Parakeet
peruviana Hocking, Blake & Joseph, 2002125 vSE Ecuador (Morona-Santiago), NE Peru (N Amazonas, W Loreto) [Joseph, 2002 #2157]
parvifrons Arndt, 2008126 Locally in N Peru (NE San Martín and adjacent W Loreto; NE Loreto) [Arndt, 2008 #10979]
roseifrons (G.R. Gray, 1859)127 W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon in W Amazonas) and E Peru to NW Bolivia (La Paz) [Gray, 1859 #1797]
dilutissima Arndt, 2008 vS Peru (Apurímac valley) [Arndt, 2008 #10979]
Pyrrhura viridicata   Todd, 1913 Santa Marta Parakeet
vSanta Marta Mts. (N Colombia)
Pyrrhura egregia Fiery-shouldered Parakeet
egregia (P.L. Sclater, 1881) vSE Venezuela (Mt. Roraima), SW Guyana
obscura J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1946 vSE Venezuela (SE Bolívar), N Brazil (N Roraima) [Zimmer, 1946 #4301]
Pyrrhura melanura128 Maroon-tailed Parakeet
pacifica Chapman, 1915129 vFoothills of SW Colombia (Nariño) to NW Ecuador (W Cotopaxi)
chapmani J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1941130,131 αE slope of C Andes in WC Colombia (S Tolima to Huila) [Bond, 1941 #423]
melanura (von Spix, 1824) vS Venezuela, SE Colombia, NW Brazil (east to R. Negro), E Ecuador, NE Peru
souancei (J. Verreaux, 1858) Foothills of SC Colombia (SW Meta) to NC Ecuador (Napo)
berlepschi Salvadori, 1891132 Locally on E slope of Andes from SE Ecuador (Morona-Santiago) to N Peru (San Martín)
Pyrrhura orcesi   Ridgely & Robbins, 1988 El Oro Parakeet
iPacific slope of Andes in SW Ecuador (Azuay, El Oro) [Ridgely, 1988 #3269]
Pyrrhura albipectus 133  Chapman, 1914 White-necked Parakeet
iE slope of Andes from S Ecuador (Morona-Santiago) to N Peru (N Cajamarca)
Pyrrhura rupicola Black-capped Parakeet
rupicola (von Tschudi, 1844) EC Peru (S Loreto, Ucayali)
sandiae J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1944134 SE Peru (Junin, Madre de Dios) to SW Brazil (Acre) and N Bolivia (N Beni) [Bond, 1944 #426]
Pyrrhura calliptera   (Massena & Souancé, 1854) Brown-breasted Parakeet
vE Andes of NC Colombia (Santander to Cundinamarca)
Pyrrhura hoematotis Red-eared Parakeet
immarginata J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1944 vAndes of NW Venezuela (S Lara) [Zimmer, 1944 #4299]
hoematotis Souancé, 1857 vCoastal Range of Venezuela (Aragua to Miranda)
Pyrrhura rhodocephala   (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1871) Rose-headed Parakeet
vAndes of W Venezuela
Pyrrhura hoffmanni Sulphur-winged Parakeet
hoffmanni (Cabanis, 1861) Mountains of S Costa Rica
gaudens Bangs, 1906 Mountains of W Panama
ENICOGNATHUS G.R. Gray, 1840 M - Psittacara leptorhyncha P.P. King, 1831; type by monotypy  
Enicognathus ferrugineus135 Austral Parakeet
minor (Chapman, 1919)136 vS Chile (O'Higgins to Aísen) and SW Argentina (Neuquén to NW Santa Cruz)
ferrugineus (Statius Muller, 1776) vS Chile (Magallanes) and S Argentina (SW Santa Cruz) to Tierra del Fuego
Enicognathus leptorhynchus 137  (P.P. King, 1831) Slender-billed Parakeet
vC Chile (Santiago to Los Lagos)
CYANOLISEUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Psittacus patagonus Vieillot, 1818; type by monotypy  
Cyanoliseus patagonus138 Burrowing Parakeet
andinus Dabbene & Lillo, 1913 vNW Argentina (Salta to San Juan)
conlara Nores & Yzurieta, 1983 WC Argentina (San Luis and Córdoba) [Nores, 1983 #2779]
patagonus (Vieillot, 1818) vC and E Argentina (Mendoza and S Buenos Aires to NE Santa Cruz)
bloxami Olson, 1995139 Locally in C Chile (Atacama to Maule) [Olson, 1995 #2856]
ANODORHYNCHUS von Spix, 1824 M - Anodorhynchus maximiliani von Spix, 1824; type by monotypy = Psittacus hyacinthinus Latham, 1790  
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus   (Latham, 1790) Hyacinth Macaw
vLocally from NC to SC Brazil, SE Bolivia and NE Paraguay
Anodorhynchus leari   Bonaparte, 1856 Indigo Macaw
iNE Brazil (NE Bahia)
Anodorhynchus glaucus 140  (Vieillot, 1816) Glaucous Macaw
vSE Brazil, S Paraguay, NW Uruguay, NE Argentina
RHYNCHOPSITTA Bonaparte, 1854 F - Macrocercus pachyrhynchus Swainson, 1827; type by monotypy  
Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha 141  (Swainson, 1827) Thick-billed Parrot
vW Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental)
Rhynchopsitta terrisi 142  R.T. Moore, 1947 Maroon-fronted Parrot
iNE Mexico (S Sierra Madre Oriental) [Moore, 1947 #2717]
EUPSITTULA Bonaparte, 1853 F - Type by monotypy Psittacus petzii Leiblein, 1832 = Psittacus canicularis Linnaeus, 1758  143
Eupsittula nana144 Olive-throated Parakeet
vicinalis Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1919 vNE Mexico (C Tamaulipas to N Veracruz)
astec (Souancé, 1857)145 Caribbean slope from E Mexico (C Veracruz) to W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
nana (Vigors, 1830) Jamaica
Eupsittula canicularis Orange-fronted Parakeet
clarae (R.T. Moore, 1937)146 Pacific slope of WC Mexico (Sinaloa and W Durango to C Michoacán) [Moore, 1937 #2712]
eburnirostrum (Lesson, 1842) Pacific slope of SW Mexico (E Michoacán to Oaxaca)
canicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) vPacific slope from S Mexico (Chiapas) to NW Costa Rica 147
Eupsittula aurea 148  (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Peach-fronted Parakeet
vS Surinam; E Brazil, SE Peru, N and E Bolivia, Paraguay and N Argentina
Eupsittula pertinax149 Brown-throated Parakeet
ocularis (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1865) αvPacific slope of W and C Panama (Chiriquí to W Panamá)
aeruginosa (Linnaeus, 1758) vN Colombia, NW Venezuela (W Zulia)
†? griseipecta (Meyer de Schauensee, 1950) NW Colombia (Sinú valley) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1950 #2670]
lehmanni (Dugand, 1943) E Colombia, W Venezuela (W Amazonas) [Dugand, 1943 #1434]
arubensis (E. Hartert, 1892) vAruba
pertinax (Linnaeus, 1758) Curaçao
xanthogenia (Bonaparte, 1850) vBonaire
tortugensis (Cory, 1909) vIsla La Tortuga (off N Venezuela)
margaritensis Cory, 1918 vIsla de Margarita (off N Venezuela)
venezuelae (J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1951) N and C Venezuela [Zimmer, 1951 #4316]
surinama (J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1951) vNE Venezuela (SE Monagas, Delta Amacuro), N Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana [Zimmer, 1951 #4316]
chrysophrys (Swainson, 1838) SE Venezuela (SE Bolívar), SW Guyana, N Brazil (N Roraima)
chrysogenys (Massena & Souancé, 1854)150 NW Brazil (middle R. Negro) [Massena, 1854 #2522]
paraensis (Sick, 1959)151 vNC Brazil (R. Tapajós and R. Cururu) [Sick, 1959 #3640]
Eupsittula cactorum Cactus Parakeet
caixana (von Spix, 1824) vNE Brazil (E Maranhão to W Rio Grande do Norte, W Pernambuco and NW Bahia)
cactorum (Kuhl, 1820) E Brazil (south of R. São Francisco in Bahia and N Minas Gerais)
CONUROPSIS Salvadori, 1891 F - Psittacus carolinensis Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation and monotypy  152
Conuropsis carolinensis Carolina Parakeet
†? carolinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE USA
†? ludoviciana (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSC USA
ARATINGA von Spix, 1824 F - Psittacus luteus Boddaert, 1783; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 87). = Psittacus solstitialis Linnaeus, 1758  
Aratinga weddellii   (Deville, 1851) Dusky-headed Parakeet
SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, NE Bolivia and SW Amazonian Brazil
Aratinga nenday 153  (Vieillot, 1823) Nanday Parakeet
SE Bolivia and SW Brazil to C Paraguay and N Argentina154
Aratinga solstitialis 155  (Linnaeus, 1758) Sun Parakeet
vN Brazil (NE Roraima), S Guyana
Aratinga maculata 156,157  (Statius Muller, 1776) Sulphur-breasted Parakeet
vN Brazil (north of R. Amazon, R. Maicuru to R. Paru) [Statius Muller, 1776 #3696]
Aratinga jandaya   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Jandaya Parakeet
iNE Brazil (E Pará to NE Goiás and Alagoas)
Aratinga auricapillus 158  (Kuhl, 1820) Golden-capped Parakeet
E to SE Brazil (N Bahia to Paraná)
CYANOPSITTA Bonaparte, 1854 F - Sittace spixii Wagler, 1832; type by subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1891, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 20, p. 150).  
†? Cyanopsitta spixii 159  (Wagler, 1832) Spix's Macaw
iE Brazil (N Bahia)
ORTHOPSITTACA Ridgway, 1912 F - Psittacus manilatus Boddaert, 1783; type by original designation and monotypy  160
Orthopsittaca manilatus 161  (Boddaert, 1783) δ Red-bellied Macaw
iEC Colombia, E Venezuela, the Guianas and Trinidad to N Bolivia and SC Brazil (Mato Grosso, Goiás)
PRIMOLIUS Bonaparte, 1857 M - Ara auricollis Cassin, 1853; type by subsequent designation (Salvadori, 1891, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 20, p. 151).  162
Primolius couloni   (P.L. Sclater, 1876) Blue-headed Macaw
iE Peru (S Loreto) and SW Brazil (Acre) to NW Bolivia (La Paz)
Primolius auricollis   (Cassin, 1853) Yellow-collared Macaw
vE Bolivia and SW Brazil to NW Argentina and NE Paraguay; C Brazil (Ilha do Bananal area)
Primolius maracana 163  (Vieillot, 1816) Blue-winged Macaw
iE, C and S Brazil (E Pará and Mato Grosso to Pernambuco and Santa Catarina), E Paraguay, NE Argentina
ARA Lacépède, 1799 M - Psittacus macao Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Ridgway, 1916, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, pt. 7, p. 119).  
Ara ararauna 164  (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue-and-yellow Macaw
iE Panama east to N Brazil (Pará), south to E Bolivia and S Brazil (W São Paulo)
Ara glaucogularis 165  Dabbene, 1921 Blue-throated Macaw
vNE Bolivia (Beni)
Ara militaris166 Military Macaw
mexicanus Ridgway, 1915167 vW and NE Mexico (C Sonora to Guerrero; E Nuevo León to E San Luis Potosí)
militaris (Linnaeus, 1766) vSanta Marta Mts.; Sierra de Perijá; Coastal Range of Venezuela; Andes of SW Venezuela to Peru
bolivianus Reichenow, 1908 vE slope of Andes of C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz) to NW Argentina (Salta)
Ara ambiguus Great Green Macaw
ambiguus (Bechstein, 1811) vE Honduras to NW Colombia (C Chocó, NW Córdoba)
guayaquilensis Chapman, 1925168 vLocally in W Ecuador (Esmeraldas; Guayas)
Ara macao Scarlet Macaw
cyanopterus Wiedenfeld, 1995 vLocally on Caribbean slope from SE Mexico (E Chiapas) to E Nicaragua [Wiedenfeld, 1995 #4215]
macao (Linnaeus, 1758) Costa Rica and W Panama; NC Colombia; C and S Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonia
Ara chloropterus   G.R. Gray, 1859 Red-and-green Macaw
vE Panama east to NC Brazil (S Piauí), south to E Paraguay and S Brazil (W São Paulo)
†? Ara tricolor 169  (Bechstein, 1811) Cuban Macaw
iCuba
Ara rubrogenys   Lafresnaye, 1847 Red-fronted Macaw
iAndean valleys in SC Bolivia (S Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz, N Chuquisaca, NE Potosí)
Ara severus 170  (Linnaeus, 1758) Chestnut-fronted Macaw
vE Panama east to the Guianas, south to SW Ecuador, N Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil
LEPTOSITTACA von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 F - Leptosittaca branickii von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894; type by monotypy  171
Leptosittaca branickii   von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 Golden-plumed Parakeet
iLocally in Andes of C Colombia (Caldas) to S Peru (Cuzco)
OGNORHYNCHUS Bonaparte, 1857 M - Conurus icterotis Massena & Souancé, 1854; type by monotypy  
Ognorhynchus icterotis   (Massena & Souancé, 1854) Yellow-eared Parrot
vLocally in Andes of Colombia and N Ecuador
GUARUBA Lesson, 1830 F - Psittacus guarouba J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by monotypy  172,173
Guaruba guarouba   (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Golden Parakeet
iNC Brazil (south of R. Amazon in Pará and NW Maranhão)
DIOPSITTACA Ridgway, 1912 F - Psittacus nobilis Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation  174
Diopsittaca nobilis Red-shouldered Macaw
nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758) vE Venezuela, the Guianas and N Brazil (N Roraima, Amapá)
cumanensis (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vN and E Brazil (Maranhão to Pernambuco, south to Goiás and Bahia)
longipennis Neumann, 1931 vSE Peru, NE Bolivia and S Brazil (Mato Grosso to Espírito Santo and São Paulo)
PSITTACARA Vigors, 1825 M - Psittacus guianensis Linnaeus = Psittacus gujanensis J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by original designation = Psittacus leucophthalmus Statius Muller, 1776   175
Psittacara acuticaudatus Blue-crowned Parakeet
koenigi (Arndt, 1990)176,177 αNE Colombia, N Venezuela [Arndt, 1990 #12457]
neoxenus (Cory, 1909) vIsla de Margarita (off N Venezuela)
haemorrhous (von Spix, 1824) vNE Brazil (S Piauí, N Bahia, Pernambuco, Alagoas)
neumanni (Blake & Traylor, 1947) E Andean slopes of Bolivia (Cochabamba, W Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca) [Blake, 1947 #316]
acuticaudatus (Vieillot, 1818) vE Bolivia and SW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso) to EC Argentina (E La Pampa, W Buenos Aires)
Psittacara holochlorus178 Green Parakeet
brewsteri (Nelson, 1928) Mountains of NW Mexico (SE Sonora, SW Chihuahua, NE Sinaloa)
holochlorus (P.L. Sclater, 1859) vE and S Mexico (E Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to SE Veracruz, NE Oaxaca, S Chiapas)179
brevipes (Lawrence, 1871)180 Isla Socorro (off W Mexico)
rubritorquis (P.L. Sclater, 1887) vHighlands of E Guatemala to NW Nicaragua
Psittacara strenuus 181  (Ridgway, 1915) Pacific Parakeet
vPacific slope of S Mexico (SE Oaxaca) to NW Nicaragua
Psittacara wagleri Scarlet-fronted Parakeet
1 wagleri (G.R. Gray, 1845) Santa Marta Mts.; Sierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela and Colombia
1 transilis (J.L. Peters, 1927) vMountains of N Venezuela (Falcón to Sucre and N Monagas)
2 frontatus (Cabanis, 1846)182 vW slopes of Andes of SW Ecuador (Loja) to SW Peru (Arequipa)
2 minor (Carriker, 1933) vInter-Andean valleys of N and SC Peru (Marañón valley; Pampas valley)
Psittacara mitratus Mitred Parakeet
chlorogenys (Arndt, 2006) Locally on E slope of Andes of N and C Peru (W Amazonas to Junín) [Arndt, 2006 #101]
mitratus (von Tschudi, 1844)183,184 vE slope of Andes of S Peru (Ayacucho) to NW Argentina (Salta)
tucumanus (Arndt, 2006) vAndes of N Argentina (Catamarca and Tucumán to Córdoba) [Arndt, 2006 #101]
Psittacara erythrogenys   Lesson, 1844 Red-masked Parakeet
W Ecuador (W Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (Lambayeque)
Psittacara finschi 185  (Salvin, 1871) Crimson-fronted Parakeet
SE Nicaragua to WC Panama (Veraguas)
Psittacara leucophthalmus186 White-eyed Parakeet
nicefori (Meyer de Schauensee, 1946)187 C Colombia (Guaicaramo on Meta-Cundinamarca border) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 #2667]
callogenys (Salvadori, 1891) SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru and W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon)
leucophthalmus (Statius Muller, 1776)188 vE Venezuela and the Guianas through Brazil to E Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina and N Uruguay
Psittacara euops 189  (Wagler, 1832) Cuban Parakeet
Cuba
Psittacara chloropterus Hispaniolan Parakeet
chloropterus Souancé, 1856 vHispaniola
†? maugei Souancé, 1856 Isla Mona (off W Puerto Rico)

1 Sequence of genera derived from Joseph et al. (2012) [Joseph, 2012 #13790], Kirchmann et al. (2012) [Kirchmann, 2012 #14120] and Schirtzinger et al. (2012) [Schirtzinger, 2012 #14124].
2 For suggested separation of timneh (to include subspecies princeps) as a species see Melo & O'Ryan (2007) [Melo, 2007 #9973].
3 For recognition see Melo & O'Ryan (2007) [Melo, 2007 #9973]; but see also Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
4 Sequence of species follows Massa et al. (2000) [Massa, 2000 #9969].
5 Implicitly includes aubryanus; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
6 Includes permistus; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
7 Includes aurantiiceps; see Benson et al. (1988) [Benson, 1988 #14123].
8 For proposed treatment as a separate species (including subspecies suahelicus) see Perrin (2005) [Perrin, 2005 #10016].
9 Includes angolensis; see Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1962) [Mackworth-Praed, 1962 #4712] and Neumann (1908) [Neumann, 1908 #15864] who acted as First Reviser in selecting suahelicus over angolensis.
10 Considered to form a superspecies with P. rueppellii, P. cryptoxanthus and P. crassus by Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
11 Includes adolfifriderici; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
12 Includes neavei; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
13 For recognition see Forshaw & Cooper (1989) [Forshaw, 1989 #1588]; implicitly includes zanzibaricus; see Fry & Harwin (1988) [Fry, 1988 #1626].
14 For treatment as a separate species from P. cryptoxanthus see Chapin (1939) [Chapin, 1939 #13706].
15 Includes mesotypus; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
16 For recognition see Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1957) [Mackworth-Praed, 1957 #2465].
17 This name and Forpini published by Brereton (1963) [Brereton, 1963 #14056], but spelling emended under Art. 32.5.3 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059]. In the context of use here, acting as First Revisers, we select this name over Forpini should the genus Forpus be subsequently included.
18 For treatment as a separate species from T. dilectissimus see Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151].
19 Forms a superspecies with T. costaricensis; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
20 Includes chryseurus Swainson, 1823 [Swainson, 1822-23 #3789]; which has priority over ruficauda Berla, 1954 [Berla, 1954 #282]; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
21 T. emmae was described from the female of this species (Dugand 1945) [Dugand, 1945 #13886].
22 Implicitly includes papilio Stresemann, 1938 [Stresemann, 1938 #13851]; see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587].
23 For current circumscription see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
24 Treated in a monotypic genus Amoropsittaca by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008], but see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676] who placed that and Psilopsiagon in Bolborhynchus.
25 Replaces the name orbygnesia as used by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008] which was misapplied to this population; for use see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
26 Correct original spelling. Spelling rubrirostrus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
27 Includes maculata; see Bond & Meyer de Schauensee (1941) [Bond, 1941 #423].
28 Formerly known as B. andicolus, as in Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008], but see Berlioz & Dorst (1956) [Berlioz, 1956 #287].
29 Forms a superspecies with B. ferrugineifrons; see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
30 Forms a superspecies with N. dachilleae; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
31 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011] and Russello et al. (2008) [Russello, 2008 #11261].
32 Correct original spelling. Spelling luschi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
33 Introduced to Spain, Canary Is., Japan (SW Honshu), locally in E USA, Cayman Is. (Grand Cayman), Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and Chile.
34 Composition and species sequence derived from Ribas et al. (2009) [Ribas, 2009 #11806].
35 Forms a superspecies with B. chiriri; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
36 Introduced to SE USA (S Florida), Puerto Rico and W Peru (Lima).
37 For treatment as a separate species from B. versicolurus see Pinto & Camargo (1957) [Pinto, 1957 #3086].
38 For continued recognition see Darrieu (1981) [Darrieu, 1981 #13875].
39 Although previously considered most closely related to B. cyanoptera, Ribas et al. (2009) [Ribas, 2009 #11806] found that its sister species is B. pyrrhoptera.
40 Includes apurensis; see Phelps & Phelps (1958) [Phelps, 1958 #3044].
41 Although brought into use by Salvadori (1891) [Salvadori, 1891 #3463] validity of the name derives from Art. 11.6.1 of the Code and must be credited to the author who first used the name in synonymy (see Sittace cyanoptera p. 260 in von Pelzeln).
42 Formerly treated as a separate species, but see Traylor (1958) [Traylor, 1958 #10370].
43 Forms a superspecies with B. cyanoptera; see Haffer (1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870].
44 Treated as a synonym of nominate chrysoptera by Juniper & Parr (1998) [Juniper, 1998 #14057].
45 For treatment as separate from Pionopsitta see Ribas et al. (2005) [Ribas, 2005 #10046], who used Gypopsitta; however, the name Pyrilia has priority (Banks et al. 2008) [Banks, 2008 #10765].
46 The species in this genus together form a superspecies (Haffer 1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870].
47 Claimed to be sympatric with and thus a separate species from P. haematotis by Ribas et al. (2005) [Ribas, 2005 #10046], but see Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151].
48 For treatment as a separate species from P. haematotis see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
49 Formerly placed in monotypic Gypopsitta, but see Haffer (1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870] and Ribas et al. (2005) [Ribas, 2005 #10046].
50 For treatment both this and H. pyrrhops as separate species from H. amazonina see Graves & Restrepo (1989) [Graves, 1989 #1782].
51 Species sequence derived from Ribas et al. (2007) [Ribas, 2007 #10638].
52 Subspecies classification and ranges follow Darrieu (1983) [Darrieu, 1983 #13879].
53 For recognition see Smith (1960) [Smith, 1960 #12753], Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587] and Darrieu (1983) [Darrieu, 1983 #13879].
54 Treated as a separate species by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274] and Forshaw (2006) [Forshaw, 2006 #9577], but see O'Neill & Parker (1977) [O'Neill, 1977 #2796].
55 Original spelling selinoides. Justified emendation in Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008] is followed.
56 Not mentioned by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008]; for recognition see Meyer de Schauensee (1949) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1949 #2669].
57 For recognition see O'Brien (1968) [O'Brien, 1968 #7242]. Includes cyanescens Pinto, 1960 [Pinto, 1960 #3087] and chlorocyanescens Pinto, 1962 [Pinto, 1962 #3090], proposed as a new name for cyanescens; see Pinto (1978) [Pinto, 1978 #3092].
58 Includes decoloratus; see Brodkorb (1943) [Brodkorb, 1943 #12754] and Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151].
59 Includes cyanescens Meyer de Schauensee, 1944 [Meyer de Schauensee, 1944 #2665]; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011]. Although treated as a phylogenetic species by Ribas et al. (2007) [Ribas, 2007 #10638], they considered the taxon was not consistently diagnosable by plumage.
60 Implicitly includes insulsus Griscom & Greenway, 1937 [Griscom, 1937 #1827]; see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587].
61 A replacement name for Salvatoria Mirando-Ribeiro, 1920. For removal from Amazona see Duarte & Caparroz (1995) [Duarte, 1995 #10207], Russello & Amato (2004) [Russello, 2004 #3431] and Kirchman et al. (2012) [Kirchman, 2012 #14120].
62 Species composition and sequence derived from Russello & Amato (2004) [Russello, 2004 #3431].
63 For treatment as a separate species from A. pretrei see Rivera (2010) [Rivera, 2010 #13897].
64 Forms a superspecies with A. tucumana; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
65 Forms a superspecies with A. leucocephala and A. ventralis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
66 Includes abacoensis Reynolds & Hayes, 2009 [Reynolds, 2009 #13896], and inaguaensis Reynolds & Hayes, 2009 [Reynolds, 2009 #13896]; see Appendix 2.2.
67 Introduced to Puerto Rico and Virgin Is. (St. Croix, St. Thomas).
68 Includes woodi R.T. Moore, 1937 [Moore, 1937 #2711]; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011], but see also Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
69 Forms a superspecies with A. finschi; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
70 Introduced to USA (S California, SE Texas, C and S Florida) and Puerto Rico.
71 This and A. rhodocorytha were formerly considered conspecific, e.g. by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008]; and later treated as part of a superspecies with A. brasiliensis by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. See also Russello & Amato (2004) [Russello, 2004 #3431].
72 Formerly treated as a subspecies of A. dufresniana; but see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
73 Forms a superspecies with A. versicolor; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
74 For treatment of this and A. auropalliata as separate species from A. ochrocephala see Monroe & Howell (1966) [Monroe, 1966 #2705], but see also Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011] and Eberhard & Bermingham (2004) [Eberhard, 2004 #1470].
75 For continued recognition see Stager (1957) [Stager, 1957 #13901], but see also Grant (1965) [Grant, 1965 #13993].
76 Not recognised by Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
77 Includes hondurensis Lousada & Howell, 1997 [Lousada, 1997 #2438]; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011] who thought it might prove separable.
78 Validity questioned by Parkes (1990) [Parkes, 1990 #2943], but reaffirmed by Lousada & Howell (1997) [Lousada, 1997 #2438] and references therein.
79 Species limits in A. ochrocephala and relatives are uncertain; as currently defined, this species is probably paraphyletic with respect to A. aestiva and A. barbadensis; see Eberhard & Bermingham (2004) [Eberhard, 2004 #1470] and Russello & Amato (2004) [Russello, 2004 #3431].
80 Introduced to Puerto Rico.
81 Although in the 1864 volume of the Journal für Ornithologie parts 4, 5 and 6 of that year did not appear before 1865.
82 Includes rothschildi; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
83 Correct original spelling. Must be judged invariable, see David & Gosselin (2011) [David, 2011 #13197].
84 Includes inornata and chapmani Traylor, 1948 [Traylor, 1948 #3858]; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
85 Formerly considered to form a superspecies with A. dufresnaiana and A. rhodocorytha; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
86 Includes tobagensis; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011]. Implicitly also includes micra Griscom & Greenway, 1937 [Griscom, 1937 #1827]; see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587].
87 Species sequence follows Smith et al. (2013) [Smith, 2013 #14298].
88 The name eidos Peters, 1937 [Peters, 1937 #3008] is not needed; see Pacheco & Whitney (2006) [Pacheco, 2006 #9423]; Art. 57.8.1 (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] applies. Thus the species name reverts from sclateri to modestus.
89 For continued recognition see Grant (1965) [Grant, 1965 #13993].
90 Includes pallida; considered doubtfully distinct by Friedmann et al. (1950) [Friedmann, 1950 #10178] and not diagnosable by Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
91 Forms a superspecies with F. xanthopterygius; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
92 Dual original spellings. First Reviser: Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008]; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
93 Introduced to Jamaica and Barbados.
94 For treatment as a separate species from F. passerinus see Gyldenstolpe (1945) [Gyldenstolpe, 1945 #1844].
95 Treated as F. crassirostris by Pinto (1945) [Pinto, 1945 #14118] and Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011], following Hellmayr (1906) [Hellmayr, 1906 #14299], who placed the name xanthopterygius in synonymy. Whitney & Pacheco (1999) [Whitney, 1999 #4201] designated a lectotype thus restoring xanthopterygius to use.
96 May merit treatment as a separate species (Smith et al. 2013) [Smith, 2013 #14298]. Includes olallae Gyldenstolpe, 1945 [Gyldenstolpe, 1945 #1844]; see Darrieu (1983) [Darrieu, 1983 #13877].
97 Includes vivida; see Darrieu (1983) [Darrieu, 1983 #13877].
98 Includes F. flavicollis Bertagnolio & Racheli, 2010 [Bertagnolio, 2010 #12662]; see Notton (2011) [Notton, 2011 #13247].
99 Forms a superspecies with F. xanthops; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. They were considered conspecific by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008], but most classifications have followed Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676] in treating them as separate species.
100 Composition and sequence of genera derived from Wright et al. (2008) [Wright, 2008 #10942], Kirchman et al. (2012) [Kirchman, 2012 #14120], and Schirtzinger et al. (2012) [Schirtzinger, 2012 #14124].
101 Forms a superspecies with P. leucogaster; see Haffer (1974) [Haffer, 1974 #1870].
102 For recognition see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587].
103 May merit treatment as a separate species (Collar 1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
104 Species limits in this genus are exceptionally problematic (and require further BSC review), e.g. see Joseph (2000, 2002) [Joseph, 2000 #2155] [Joseph, 2002 #2157] and Arndt (2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979].
105 Considered to form a superspecies with P. devillei by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
106 Includes kriegi; see Darrieu (1983) [Darrieu, 1983 #13878] and Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
107 For treatment as a separate species from P. perlata and consequent status of the pair as allospecies, see Haffer (1987) [Haffer, 1987 #13890].
108 This name used by Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011] although Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008] considered it preoccupied in Pyrrhura; this nomenclatural issue perhaps not safely resolved.
109 Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008] listed this with unknown range, attaching taxa since split, and listed P. rhodogaster as a separate species. The name perlata, employed for juvenile birds, has priority and takes precedence over rhodogaster based on the adult; see Arndt (1983) [Arndt, 1983 #13869].
110 Diagnosability of some subspecies questionable (Collar 1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
111 Includes sordida Todd, 1947 [Todd, 1947 #3844] due to correction of the origin of the xanthistic specimens - see Forshaw & Cooper (1989) [Forshaw, 1989 #1588] - to which the prior name hypoxantha was given.
112 For treatment as a separate species from P. leucotis see Olmos et al. (1997) [Olmos, 1997 #2820].
113 For treatment as a separate species from P. leucotis see Olmos et al. (1997, 2005) [Olmos, 1997 #2820] [Olmos, 2005 #9994].
114 Treated as a separate species by Joseph (2000) [Joseph, 2000 #2155] and Olmos et al. (2005) [Olmos, 2005 #9994]. Includes auricularis Zimmer & Phelps, 1949 [Zimmer, 1949 #4306]; see Joseph (2000) [Joseph, 2000 #2155].
115 This name may have to yield precedence to P. anaca J.F. Gmelin, 1788; see Teixeira (1991) [Teixeira, 1991 #10431].
116 Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] considered this to form a superspecies with P. leucotis, their limits to that complex were imprecise, but in current terms probably would encompass P. pfrimeri, P. griseipectus. P. amazonum, P. lucianii and P. roseifrons.
117 This and subandina each treated as separate species by Arndt (2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979].
118 May merit treatment as a separate species see Joseph (2000) [Joseph, 2000 #2155], Arndt (2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979]. Includes pantchenkoi Phelps, 1977 [Phelps, 1977 #3049]; see Joseph (2000) [Joseph, 2000 #2155].
119 Includes orinocoensis Todd, 1947 [Todd, 1947 #3844], and cuchivera Phelps & Phelps, 1949 [Phelps, 1949 #3029]; see Phelps & Phelps (1958) [Phelps, 1958 #3044].
120 For recognition as a species distinct from P. picta see Joseph (2002) [Joseph, 2002 #2157], Ribas et al. (2006) [Ribas, 2006 #10047] and Arndt (2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979].
121 Includes microtera Todd, 1947 [Todd, 1947 #3844]; see Joseph (2002) [Joseph, 2002 #2157]. But see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011] and Arndt (2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979].
122 Described as a species. For reduction to subspecies see Ribas et al. (2006) [Ribas, 2006 #10047].
123 For treatment as a separate species from P. picta see Joseph (2002) [Joseph, 2002 #2157].
124 For recognition as a species distinct from P. picta see Joseph (2002) [Joseph, 2002 #2157], Ribas et al. (2006) [Ribas, 2006 #10047] and Arndt (2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979].
125 For treatment as a subspecies of P. roseifrons see Ribas et al. (2006) [Ribas, 2006 #10047], but see also Arndt (2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979].
126 May merit treatment as a separate species (Arndt 2008) [Arndt, 2008 #10979].
127 For recognition see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587].
128 Considered to form a superspecies with P. orcesi by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
129 May merit treatment as a separate species (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
130 May merit treatment as a separate species (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570].
131 Date corrected, source: table of contents of volume 91.
132 Formerly treated as a separate species, but see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587].
133 Possibly conspecific with P. melanura; see Robbins et al. (1987) [Robbins, 1987 #13898].
134 Perhaps undiagnosable (Collar 1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
135 Treated in a monotypic genus Microsittace by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008], but see Peters & Blake (1948) [Peters, 1948 #14119].
136 For recognition see Darrieu (1982) [Darrieu, 1982 #13876], but see also Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
137 Includes byroni, formerly treated as a separate species or a subspecies of Cyanoliseus patagonus; see Olson (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2856] and Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
138 Cyanoliseus whitleyi, treated as a species by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008], is considered to be an aviary hybrid between C. patagonus and a large Aratinga (Forshaw & Cooper 1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587] or Primolius maracana (Silva 1989) [Silva, 1989 #13900].
139 Previously listed as byroni, but see Olson (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2856].
140 Considered to form a superspecies with A. leari by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
141 Forms a superspecies with R. terrisi; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
142 Perhaps best treated as conspecific with R. pachyrhyncha; see Hardy & Dickerman (1955) [Hardy, 1955 #14265].
143 For separation from Aratinga see Kirchman et al. (2012) [Kirchman, 2012 #14120] and Schirtzinger et al. (2012) [Schirtzinger, 2012 #14124].
144 For broad species circumscription see Marien & Koopma (1955) [Marien, 1955 #14131].
145 Includes melloni Twomey, 1950 [Twomey, 1950 #3887]; see Parkes (1976) [Parkes, 1976 #2932].
146 For continued recognition see Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
147 Introduced to Puerto Rico.
148 Includes major; treated as monotypic with clinal variation following Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
149 Forms a superspecies with E. cactorum; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]. Perhaps best treated as conspecific (Forshaw & Cooper 1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587], Collar 1997 [Collar, 1997 #1011].
150 Omitted by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008]; for recognition see Zimmer & Phelps (1951) [Zimmer, 1951 #4316].
151 Described as a subspecies of E. cactorum; for placement in E. pertinax see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587].
152 For continued placement in a monotypic genus and sister relationship to Aratinga see Kirchman et al. (2012) [Kirchman, 2012 #14120].
153 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Nandayus but see Ribas & Miyaki (2004) [Ribas, 2004 #3262]. Includes campicola Brodkorb, 1938 [Brodkorb, 1938 #13872]; see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676].
154 Introduced to Uruguay and E Argentina (Buenos Aires).
155 Forms a superspecies with A. auricapillus, A. jandaya, and implicitly A. maculata; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
156 For use of this name rather than pintoi Silveira, de Lima & Höfling, 2005 [Silveira, 2005 #3648] see Nemésio & Rasmussen (2009) [Nemésio, 2009 #11741].
157 For treatment of this and A. jandaya as separate species from A. solstitialis see Silveira et al. (2005) [Silveira, 2005 #3648].
158 Includes aurifrons; see Silveira et al. (2005) [Silveira, 2005 #3648].
159 Formerly placed in Ara but see Tavares et al. (2006) [Tavares, 2006 #10089].
160 Formerly placed in Ara but see Sick (1990) [Sick, 1990 #14280] and Tavares et al. (2004) [Tavares, 2004 #3805].
161 Correct original spelling. Invariable. Gender agreement in Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3007] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] inappropriate.
162 For priority over Propyrrhura Mirando-Ribiero, 1920, see Penhallurick (2001) [Penhallurick, 2001 #2996].
163 Considered to form a superspecies with P. couloni and P. auricollis by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
164 Includes some aberrant birds named caninde; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
165 Formerly in synonymy of A. caninde, e.g. in Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008], but see Ingels et al. (1981) [Ingels, 1981 #12310].
166 Forms a superspecies with A. ambiguus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and perhaps best treated as conspecific (Fjeldså et al. 1987) [Fjeldså, 1987 #13383].
167 Includes sheffleri van Rossem & Hachisuka, 1939 [van Rossem, 1939 #3933]; see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303].
168 For recognition see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
169 Includes cubensis Wetherbee, 1985 [Wetherbee, 1985 #4128]; see Walters (1995) [Walters, 1995 #4076] and Olson (2005) [Olson, 2005 #4416].
170 Includes castaneifrons; see Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151] and Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
171 For continued recognition as a monotypic genus see Wright et al. (2008) [Wright, 2008 #10942].
172 Long treated in Aratinga but see Sick (1990) [Sick, 1990 #14280] and Tavares et al. (2004, 2006) [Tavares, 2004 #3805] [Tavares, 2006 #10089].
173 Dual original spellings. First Reviser: Lesson see Forshaw (2006) [Forshaw, 2006 #9577] and David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
174 Formerly placed in Ara but see Sick (1990) [Sick, 1990 #14280] and Tavares et al. (2004) [Tavares, 2004 #3805].
175 For separation from Aratinga see Silveira et al. (2005) [Silveira, 2005 #3648], Tavares et al. (2006) [Tavares, 2006 #10089] and Wright et al. (2008) [Wright, 2008 #10942].
176 The name nigrirostris Arndt, 1990 [Arndt, 1990 #12457] requires clarification by its author due to his conflicting subsequent treatments.
177 Sometimes cited from a later work: Arndt's 'Lexicon' published in German and English editions in 1995 or 1996.
178 Although split by some authors, including Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011], the A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9] refrained from doing so.
179 Introduced to S USA (SE Texas).
180 This and rubritorquis each treated as separate species by Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863], Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011], and Forshaw (2006) [Forshaw, 2006 #9577].
181 Treated as a monotypic species by Peters (1937) [Peters, 1937 #3008]; but see Forshaw & Cooper (1978) [Forshaw, 1978 #1587] and Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011] who treated this as a subspecies of P. holochlorus.
182 May merit treatment, including subspecies minor, as a separate species (Ridgely & Greenfield, 2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
183 Includes alticola, treated as separate (Arndt 2006) [Arndt, 2006 #101] or possibly separate (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] species, but see Appendix 2.2.
184 Introduced to S Uruguay and E Argentina.
185 Treated as conspecific with P. leucophthalmus by Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678].
186 Forms a superspecies with P. finschi; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
187 Treated as a synonym of callogenys by Juniper & Parr (1998) [Juniper, 1998 #14057].
188 Includes propinquus P.L. Sclater, 1862 [Sclater, 1862 #3550]; see Collar (1997) [Collar, 1997 #1011].
189 May form a superspecies with P. chloropterus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
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