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STRIGIDAE - Other owls1 (28:198)
IERAGLAUCINAE2
NINOX Hodgson, 1837 F - Ninox nipalensis Hodgson, 1837; type by monotypy = Strix lugubris Tickell, 1833  3,4
Ninox rufa Rufous Owl
humeralis (Bonaparte, 1850)5 vWaigeo, Aru Is., lowland New Guinea
rufa (Gould, 1846) vNW and NC Australia (Kimberley Division to Arnhem Land)
meesi Mason & Schodde, 1980 NE Australia (Cape York Pen.) [Mason, 1980 #2517]
queenslandica Mathews, 19116 vNE to EC Queensland
Ninox strenua   (Gould, 1838) Powerful Owl
vEC to SE Australia
Ninox connivens Barking Boobook
rufostrigata (G.R. Gray, 1861) αvN Moluccas
assimilis Salvadori & D'Albertis, 1876 αvLowland E New Guinea (west to R. Ramu basin in north and Trans-Fly region in south), Manam I., Karkar I.
peninsularis Salvadori, 18767,8 vN Australia (Pilbara, Kimberley Division to Cape York Pen.)
connivens (Latham, 1801) αSW, SE to NE Australia (NE Queensland)
Ninox rudolfi 9  A.B. Meyer, 1882 Sumba Boobook
iSumba (Lesser Sundas)
Ninox boobook10 Southern Boobook
rotiensis R.E. Johnstone & Darnell, 199711 vRoti (Lesser Sundas) [Johnstone, 1997 #2149]
fusca (Vieillot, 1817) vTimor (Lesser Sundas)
plesseni Stresemann, 1929 Alor (Lesser Sundas)
moae Mayr, 1943 Roma, Leti and Moa (Lesser Sundas) [Mayr, 1943 #2551]
cinnamomina E. Hartert, 1906 vBabar (Lesser Sundas)
remigialis Stresemann, 1930 vKai Is. (SE Moluccas)
pusilla Mayr & Rand, 1935 vLowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region)
ocellata (Bonaparte, 1850)12,13 vSavu (Lesser Sundas), W, N and S Australia (east to South Australian gulfs, Murray-Darling basin, C Queensland and Cape York. Pen.)
halmaturina Mathews, 191214 vKangaroo I. (off South Australia)
boobook (Latham, 1801) αNE to SE and SC Australia (west to Murray-Darling basin and South Australian gulfs)
Ninox leucopsis 15  (Gould, 1838) Spotted Boobook
Tasmania, Bass Strait islands
Ninox novaeseelandiae Morepork
†? albaria E.P. Ramsay, 1888 vLord Howe I.
undulata (Latham, 1801) αvNorfolk I.
novaeseelandiae (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)16 North Island, South Island, Stewart I. and other adjacent satellite islands (New Zealand)
Ninox lurida 17,18  De Vis, 1887 α Red Boobook
vNE Australia (rainforests of NE Queensland) [De Vis, 1887 #1151]
Ninox japonica19 Northern Boobook
florensis (Wallace, 1864)20 vRussian Far East, N Korea, NE to C China >> SE Asia [Wallace, 1864 #4073]
japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)21 vJapan, S Korea >> SE Asia [Temminck, 1844-1850 #3821]
totogo Momiyama, 193122 Ryukyu Is., Taiwan and neighbouring Lanyu I., and Batan and Babuyan Is. (?) (Philippines)
Ninox scutulata Brown Boobook
lugubris (Tickell, 1833) vHimalayan foothills (east from Uttarakhand)
burmanica Hume, 1876 vNE India, E Bangladesh, S China, continental SE Asia
hirsuta (Temminck, 1824) vS India, Sri Lanka
obscura Hume, 187223 αvAndamans
isolata E.C.S. Baker, 192624 vCar Nicobar (Nicobars)
rexpimenti Abdulali, 1979 Great Nicobar (Nicobars) [Abdulali, 1979 #22]
scutulata (Raffles, 1822)25 vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra
javanensis Stresemann, 1928 vJava
borneensis (Bonaparte, 1850) vN Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo
palawanensis Ripley & Rabor, 196226 vPalawan (Philippines) [Ripley, 1962 #3313]
Ninox randi 27  Deignan, 1951 Philippine Boobook
Philippines (except Palawan; and Batan and Babuyan Is.?) [Deignan, 1951 #1215]
Ninox affinis   Beavan, 1867 Andaman Boobook
vAndamans
Ninox philippensis Luzon Boobook
philippensis Bonaparte, 185528 vLuzon, Polillo, Catanduanes, Marinduque, Masbate, Leyte, Samar, Bohol, Negros, Guimaras and Panay (Philippines)
ticaoensis duPont, 1972 vTicao (Philippines) [duPont, 1972 #1444]
centralis Mayr, 194529 vSiquijor (Philippines) [Delacour, 1945 #1287]
Ninox spilocephala   Tweeddale, 1879 Mindanao Boobook
Mindanao, Dinagat, Siargao, Basilan (Philippines)
Ninox leventisi   Rasmussen et al., 2012 Camiguin Boobook
Camiguin Sur (Philippines) [Rasmussen, 2012 #14038]
Ninox reyi 30  Oustalet, 1880 Sulu Boobook
Sulu Arch.
Ninox rumseyi   Rasmussen et al., 2012 Cebu Boobook
Cebu (Philippines) [Rasmussen, 2012 #14038]
Ninox spilonotus Romblon Boobook
spilonotus Bourns & Worcester, 189431 δSibuyan (Philippines)
fisheri Rasmussen et al., 2012 Tablas (Philippines) [Rasmussen, 2012 #14038]
Ninox mindorensis   Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 Mindoro Boobook
vMindoro (Philippines)
Ninox sumbaensis 32  Olsen, Wink, Sauer-Gürth & Trost, 2002 δ Least Boobook
vSumba (Lesser Sundas) [Olsen, 2002 #2834]
Ninox burhani   Indrawan & Somadikarta, 2004 Togian Boobook
Togian Is. (off Sulawesi) [Indrawan, 2004 #2064]
Ninox ochracea 33  (Schlegel, 1866) α Ochre-bellied Boobook
vSulawesi
Ninox ios   Rasmussen, 1999 Cinnabar Boobook
iN Sulawesi [Rasmussen, 1999 #3214]
Ninox hypogramma 34  (G.R. Gray, 1861) α Halmahera Boobook
vN Moluccas
Ninox squamipila Hantu Boobook
hantu (Wallace, 1863) Buru (S Moluccas)
squamipila (Bonaparte, 1850)35 δSeram (S Moluccas)
Ninox forbesi 36  P.L. Sclater, 1883 Tanimbar Boobook
Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Ninox natalis 37  Lister, 1889 Christmas Island Boobook
vChristmas I. (Indian Ocean)
Ninox meeki   Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1914 Manus Boobook
iAdmiralty Is. (Bismarck Arch.)
Ninox theomacha Jungle Boobook
hoedtii (Schlegel, 1871) Waigeo, Misool (Western Papuan Is.)
theomacha (Bonaparte, 1855) vLowland and montane New Guinea
goldii J.H. Gurney Sr., 1883 Goodenough I., Fergusson I., Normanby I. (D'Entrecasteaux Arch.)
rosseliana Tristram, 1889 vTagula, Rossel (Louisiade Arch.)
Ninox punctulata   (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830) Speckled Boobook
vSulawesi
Ninox odiosa   P.L. Sclater, 1877 Russet Boobook
vNew Britain (Bismarck Arch.)
Ninox variegata Bismarck Boobook
superior E. Hartert, 1925 vNew Hanover (Bismarck Arch.)
variegata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830)38 vNew Ireland (Bismarck Arch.)
Ninox jacquinoti Solomon Islands Boobook
eichhorni (E. Hartert, 1929) αBuka, Bougainville, Shortland Is., Choiseul (N and C Solomons)
mono Mayr, 1935 Mono (N Solomons)
jacquinoti (Bonaparte, 1850) Santa Isabel, San Jorge (C Solomons)
floridae Mayr, 1935 Florida (SE Solomons)
granti Sharpe, 1888 Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
malaitae Mayr, 1931 Malaita (SE Solomons)
roseoaxillaris (E. Hartert, 1929) vSan Cristobal (SE Solomons)
UROGLAUX Mayr, 1937 F - Athene dimorpha Salvadori, 1874; type by original designation and monotypy  
Uroglaux dimorpha   (Salvadori, 1874) Papuan Boobook
vLowland New Guinea, Yapen I.
SCELOGLAUX Kaup, 1848 F - Athene albifacies G.R. Gray, 1844; type by monotypy  
Sceloglaux albifacies Laughing Owl
†? rufifacies Buller, 190439 North Island (New Zealand)
†? albifacies (G.R. Gray, 1844) South Island, Stewart I. (New Zealand)
SURNIINAE
SURNIA Duméril, 1805 F - Strix hudsonia J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent monotypy (Froriep, 1806, C. Dumeril's Analytische Zoologie, p. 35). = Strix caparoch Statius Muller, 1776  
Surnia ulula Hawk Owl
ulula (Linnaeus, 1758) N Eurasia
tianschanica Smallbones, 1906 vTien Shan Mts. to N China (south of ulula)
caparoch (Statius Muller, 1776) W and C Alaska through Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland >> south to N USA
GLAUCIDIUM Boie, 1826 N - Strix passerina Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 6).  40
Glaucidium passerinum Eurasian Pygmy Owl
passerinum (Linnaeus, 1758) vC and N Europe and SW Siberia
orientale Taczanowski, 1891 vNW and C Siberia to Sakhalin and NE China
Glaucidium brodiei Collared Owlet
brodiei (E. Burton, 1836)41 NE Afghanistan, Himalayas, C and S China, mainland SE Asia
sylvaticum (Bonaparte, 1850)42 vSumatra [Bonaparte, 1850 #407]
borneense Sharpe, 1893 vBorneo
pardalotum (Swinhoe, 1863) vTaiwan
Glaucidium perlatum Pearl-spotted Owlet
perlatum (Vieillot, 1817) αvSenegal to W Sudan
licua (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1842) S Namibia, S Botswana, N South Africa [Lichtenstein, 1842 #2383]
diurnum Clancey, 196843 vNE and E Africa south to Namibia, N Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique [Clancey, 1968 #834]
Glaucidium tephronotum Red-chested Owlet
tephronotum Sharpe, 1875 vSierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana
pycrafti Bates, G.L., 1911 Cameroon
medje Chapin, 193244 DR Congo to Uganda and W Kenya
Glaucidium sjostedti   Reichenow, 1893 Sjöstedt's Owlet
iCameroon to Gabon and C DR Congo
Glaucidium cuculoides Asian Barred Owlet
cuculoides (Vigors, 1831) Foothills of W and C Himalayas (NE Pakistan to Sikkim)
austerum Ripley, 1948 vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to Sikkim), NE India (Nagaland), SE Xizang, N Myanmar [Ripley, 1948 #3298]
rufescens E.C.S. Baker, 1926 NE India, E Bangladesh, SW Yunnan, C and S Myanmar
whiteleyi (Blyth, 1867)45 δWC (from S Gansu) to S and E China, N Myanmar and NE Vietnam
persimile E. Hartert, 1910 vHainan
delacouri Ripley, 1948 NE Laos, NW and C Vietnam [Ripley, 1948 #3298]
deignani Ripley, 1948 SE Thailand, S Vietnam, Cambodia (?) [Ripley, 1948 #3298]
bruegeli (Parrot, 1908) S Yunnan (?), NC, C and SW continental SE Asia, N Thai-Malay Pen.
Glaucidium castanopterum 46  (Horsfield, 1821) Javan Owlet
vJava, Bali
Glaucidium radiatum Jungle Owlet
radiatum (Tickell, 1833)47 vHimalayan foothills (Himachal Pradesh to Bhutan), India (except SW), Sri Lanka
malabaricum (Blyth, 1846) vSW India
Glaucidium castanotum 48,49  (Blyth, 1851) Θ Chestnut-backed Owlet
vSri Lanka [Blyth, 1851 #9308]
Glaucidium capense African Barred Owlet
etchecopari Érard & F. Roux, 1983 Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana [Érard, 1983 #1526]
castaneum Reichenow, 189350 vNE DR Congo, SW Uganda
albertinum Prigogine, 198351 vNE DR Congo and N Rwanda [Prigogine, 1983 #3146]
scheffleri Neumann, 1911 SE Kenya, NE Tanzania
ngamiense (Roberts, 1932)52 vNE Angola, SE DR Congo, W and S Tanzania and W Mozambique to N Namibia, N Botswana and NE South Africa
capense (A. Smith, 1834) vSE South Africa (Eastern Cape to S KwaZulu-Natal)
Glaucidium gnoma53,54 Northern Pygmy Owl
1 grinnelli Ridgway, 1914 Coastal W North America (SE Alaska to California)
1 swarthi J. Grinnell, 1913 SW Canada (Vancouver I.)
1 californicum P.L. Sclater, 1857 vW North America (C British Columbia and SW Alberta to Nevada and SE California)
1 pinicola Nelson, 191055 WC USA (Rocky Mts. from Idaho and W Montana to Arizona and New Mexico)
2 hoskinsii Brewster, 1888 NW Mexico (S Baja California)
3 gnoma Wagler, 1832 Mountains of SW USA (SE Arizona) to SC Mexico (Puebla and Oaxaca)
4 cobanense Sharpe, 187556 vHighlands of S Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala and Honduras
Glaucidium costaricanum 57  L. Kelso, 1937 Costa Rican Pygmy Owl
vMountains of C Costa Rica to WC Panama (Veraguas)
Glaucidium nubicola   Robbins & Stiles, 1999 Cloud-forest Pygmy Owl
iLocally along W Andes of NW Colombia (Risaralda) to SW Ecuador (El Oro) [Robbins, 1999 #3354]
Glaucidium jardinii   (Bonaparte, 1855) Andean Pygmy Owl
iSierra de Perijá; Andes of Venezuela and Colombia to NW Peru (Cajamarca)
Glaucidium bolivianum 58  C. König, 1991 Yungas Pygmy Owl
vE slope of Andes from NW Peru (S Amazonas) to NW Argentina (Tucumán) [König, 1991 #2269]
Glaucidium palmarum 59  Nelson, 1901 Colima Pygmy Owl
W Mexico (C Sonora to Morelos and S Oaxaca)
Glaucidium sanchezi 60  Lowery & R.J. Newman, 1949 Tamaulipas Pygmy Owl
iNE Mexico (S Tamaulipas, SE San Luis Potosí and N Hidalgo) [Lowery, 1949 #2446]
Glaucidium griseiceps 61  Sharpe, 1875 Central American Pygmy Owl
Locally from S Mexico (SE Veracruz and N Oaxaca) to NW and NC Colombia; NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
Glaucidium parkeri   Robbins & S.N.G. Howell, 1995 Subtropical Pygmy Owl
iLocally on E slope of Andes from N Ecuador (Sucumbíos) to WC Bolivia (W Santa Cruz) [Robbins, 1995 #3351]
Glaucidium hardyi 62  Vielliard, 1989 Amazonian Pygmy Owl
iE Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonian Brazil (north of R. Amazon only east of R. Branco), E Peru, N and E Bolivia [Vielliard, 1989 #4019]
Glaucidium minutissimum 63,64  (zu Wied, 1830) Least Pygmy Owl
vSE Brazil (SE Bahia to Paraná and NE Santa Catarina), E Paraguay
Glaucidium mooreorum 65  J.M.C. Silva, Coelho & Gonzaga, 2003 Pernambuco Pygmy Owl
iNE Brazil (SE Pernambuco) [Silva, 2003 #664]
Glaucidium brasilianum66 Ferruginous Pygmy Owl
1 cactorum van Rossem, 1937 SW USA (S Arizona), W Mexico (Sonora to N Nayarit)
1 intermedium A.R. Phillips, 196667 vW Mexico (S Nayarit to S Oaxaca) [Phillips, 1966 #3064]
1 ridgwayi Sharpe, 187568 S USA (SE Texas), E and S Mexico (Tamaulipas, Chiapas) to Panama and NW Colombia
2 medianum Todd, 1916 vN Colombia
2 margaritae W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 195169 Isla de Margarita (off N Venezuela) [Phelps, 1951 #3033]
2 phaloenoides (Daudin, 1800)70 δN and E Venezuela, Trinidad and the Guianas
2 duidae Chapman, 1929 S Venezuela (Cerro Duida)
2 olivaceum Chapman, 1939 vS Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar) [Chapman, 1939 #692]
2 ucayalae Chapman, 1929 E Ecuador and SE Colombia to W Brazil and N Bolivia
2 brasilianum (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vE and S Brazil, E Paraguay, NE Argentina and N Uruguay
2 stranecki König & Wink, 1995 EC Argentina (Córdoba, La Pampa) to S Uruguay [König, 1995 #2270]
3 tucumanum Chapman, 192271,72 vE Bolivia, W Paraguay, NW Argentina (Salta and Tucumán to N Córdoba)
Glaucidium peruanum 73  C. König, 1991 Peruvian Pygmy Owl
vW Ecuador (Manabí) to N Chile (Tarapacá) [König, 1991 #2269]
Glaucidium nana 74,75  (P.P. King, 1827) Θ Austral Pygmy Owl
iC Chile (Valparaíso) and WC Argentina (SW Mendoza) to Tierra del Fuego
Glaucidium siju Cuban Pygmy Owl
siju (d'Orbigny, 1839) Cuba (except Pico Turquino)
turquinense Garrido, 2002 vSE Cuba (Pico Turquino) [Garrido, 2002 #1681]
vittatum Ridgway, 1914 vIsla de la Juventud
XENOGLAUX O'Neill & G.R. Graves, 1977 F - Xenoglaux loweryi O'Neill & G.R. Graves, 1977; type by original designation and monotypy  
Xenoglaux loweryi   O'Neill & G.R. Graves, 1977 Long-whiskered Owlet
iE slope of Andes of N Peru (C Amazonas, NW San Martín) [O'Neill, 1977 #2795]
MICRATHENE Coues, 1866 F - Athene whitneyi J.G. Cooper, 1861; type by original designation  
Micrathene whitneyi Elf Owl
whitneyi (J.G. Cooper, 1861) SW USA (SE California and S Nevada to SW Texas) to N Mexico (N Sinaloa, NE Chihuahua, N Coahuila) >> W and SC Mexico
idonea (Ridgway, 1914) vSC USA (S Texas) to NE Mexico (N Nuevo León, N Tamaulipas); SC Mexico (S Puebla, NW Oaxaca)
sanfordi (Ridgway, 1914) NW Mexico (S Baja California)
†? graysoni Ridgway, 1886 Isla Socorro (off W Mexico)
ATHENE Boie, 1822 F - Strix noctua Scopoli, 1769; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1841, A List of the Genera of Birds, ed. 2, p. 7).  
Athene cunicularia76 Burrowing Owl
hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825) vSW Canada (SC British Columbia to S Saskatchewan) to C Mexico >> south to Honduras
rostrata (C.H. Townsend, 1890) vIsla Clarión (off W Mexico)
floridana (Ridgway, 1874) vSE USA (Florida), Bahamas
troglodytes (Wetmore & Swales, 1931) Hispaniola, Ile de la Gonâve, Isla Beata
guantanamensis (Garrido, 2001)77 vSE Cuba [Garrido, 2001 #1680]
†? amaura (Lawrence, 1878) vAntigua, Nevis (N Lesser Antilles)
†? guadeloupensis (Ridgway, 1874) vGuadeloupe
arubensis (Cory, 1915) vAruba
brachyptera (Richmond, 1896) vIsla de Margarita (off N Venezuela)
minor (Cory, 1918)78 vC and SE Venezuela, S Guyana, N Brazil (N Roraima)
carrikeri (Stone, 1922)79 E Colombia (Arauca and Meta) to WC Venezuela (Carabobo and Apure)
tolimae (Stone, 1899) WC Colombia (upper Magdalena valley in Tolima and Huila)
pichinchae (von Boetticher, 1929) Andes of W Ecuador (S Carchi to C Loja)
punensis (Chapman, 1914) vCoastal SW Ecuador (C Manabí) to NW Peru (N Piura)
nanodes (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1892)80 Coastal NW Peru (C Piura) to N Chile (Arica)
juninensis (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1902) vAndes of Peru to NW Argentina
grallaria (Temminck, 1822) vE Brazil (Maranhão and Rio Grande do Norte to SE Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná), Paraguay and NE Argentina (Misiones)
boliviana (L. Kelso, 1939)81 vSE Bolivia (Santa Cruz) [Kelso, 1939 #2188]
cunicularia (G.I. Molina, 1782) vC Chile (Tarapacá to Los Ríos)
partridgei Olrog, 197682 Argentina (Salta, Formosa and Corrientes to Santa Cruz) [Olrog, 1976 #2831]
Athene brama83 Spotted Owlet
indica (Franklin, 1831)84 vS Iran to N and C India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh
ultra Ripley, 1948 NE India (Arunachal Pradesh, E Assam) [Ripley, 1948 #3297]
brama (Temminck, 1821) S India
pulchra Hume, 1873 vC and S Myanmar
mayri Deignan, 1941 S continental SE Asia (except extreme SW) [Deignan, 1941 #1172]
Athene noctua85 Little Owl
vidalii A.E. Brehm, 185786 W and C Europe east to Baltic States and Belarus
noctua (Scopoli, 1769)87 Corsica, Sardinia and Italy to Slovakia, NW Romania and Croatia88
indigena C.L. Brehm, 185589 Albania to S Russia, south to Greece, Turkey, N Levant and Transcaucasia
lilith E. Hartert, 191390 Cyprus, Sinai, N Arabian Pen., Jordan and C Syria to SE Turkey and Iraq
bactriana Blyth, 1847 vLower R. Ural, Transcaspia and Iran to E Kazakhstan, W Pakistan
orientalis Severtsov, 1873 vPamir and Tien Shan Mts. to Qinghai (W China)
ludlowi E.C.S. Baker, 1926 S and E Tibetan Plateau (Ladakh, Nepal, W Sichuan)
impasta Bangs & J.L. Peters, 1928 vNE Qinghai, SW Gansu
plumipes Swinhoe, 187091 S Altai Mts. and Mongolia to S Transbaikalia and NC and NE China
glaux (Savigny, 1809) Coastal N Africa, Nile valley, SW Israel
saharae (O. Kleinschmidt, 1909)92 Sahara east to Red Sea (except Nile valley) and C Arabian Pen.
spilogastra (von Heuglin, 1863)93,94 αNE Sudan, Eritrea, NE Ethiopia
somaliensis Reichenow, 1905 vE Ethiopia, Somalia
Athene superciliaris 95  (Vieillot, 1817) White-browed Owl
vSW and S Madagascar (rarely NE)
HETEROGLAUX Hume, 1873 F - Heteroglaux blewitti Hume, 1873; type by monotypy  96
Heteroglaux blewitti   Hume, 1873 Forest Owlet
iC and EC India
AEGOLIUS Kaup, 1829 M - Strix tengmalmi J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by monotypy = Strix funerea Linnaeus, 1758  
Aegolius funereus Tengmalm's Owl/Boreal Owl
funereus (Linnaeus, 1758) vN, C and SE Europe to Lena basin and Lake Baikal, south to Tarbagatay Mts. (Kazakhstan) and N Mongolia
magnus (Buturlin, 1907)97 vNE Siberia east to Anadyr and Kamchatka
sibiricus (Buturlin, 1907) vLake Baikal to W shore of Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin and NE China
pallens (Schalow, 1908) Russian and Chinese Tien Shan Mts.
caucasicus (Buturlin, 1907) vN Caucasus
beickianus Stresemann, 192898,99 vHimalayas (N Pakistan to Bhutan), NE India, NC China (NE Qinghai)
richardsoni (Bonaparte, 1838) Alaska and Canada, south in Rocky Mts. to N New Mexico
Aegolius acadicus Northern Saw-whet Owl
acadicus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)100 vCanada, W and NE USA, mountains of Mexico (south to C Oaxaca)
brooksi (J.H. Fleming, 1916) W Canada (Queen Charlotte Is.)
Aegolius ridgwayi 101  (Alfaro, 1905) Unspotted Saw-whet Owl
Mountains of S Mexico (Chiapas), S Guatemala, W El Salvador and Costa Rica to W Panama (W Chiriquí)
Aegolius harrisii102 Buff-fronted Owl
harrisii (Cassin, 1849) Locally in Andes of W Venezuela (Mérida) to C Peru (N Junín); also (this form?) tepuis of S Venezuela and Guyana
iheringi (Sharpe, 1899) E Brazil (Ceará to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones) and N Uruguay
dabbenei Olrog, 1979 Andes of NW Argentina (Jujuy to Catamarca) [Olrog, 1979 #2832]
†? Aegolius gradyi   Olson, 2012 Bermuda Saw-whet Owl
Bermuda
STRIGINAE
OTUS Pennant, 1769 M - Otus bakkamoena Pennant, 1769; type by monotypy  103,104
Otus sagittatus   (Cassin, 1849) α White-fronted Scops Owl
vSW continental SE Asia and Thai-Malay Pen.
Otus rufescens105 Reddish Scops Owl
malayensis Hachisuka, 1934 vC and S Thai-Malay Pen.
rufescens (Horsfield, 1821) Greater Sundas
Otus thilohoffmanni 106  Warakagoda & Rasmussen, 2004 Serendib Scops Owl
SW Sri Lanka [Warakagoda, 2004 #4084]
Otus icterorhynchus Sandy Scops Owl
icterorhynchus (Shelley, 1873) vLiberia to Ghana
holerythrus (Sharpe, 1901) vCameroon to N DR Congo
Otus ireneae   Ripley, 1966 Sokoke Scops Owl
iSE Kenya and NE Tanzania [Ripley, 1966 #3318]
Otus balli   (Hume, 1873) Andaman Scops Owl
iAndamans
Otus alfredi   (E. Hartert, 1897) Flores Scops Owl
iFlores (Lesser Sundas)
Otus spilocephalus Mountain Scops Owl
huttoni (Hume, 1870) Foothills of W and C Himalayas (Pakistan to C Nepal)
spilocephalus (Blyth, 1846)107 Foothills of E Himalayas (west to E Nepal), Bangladesh, NE India, and W and N Myanmar
latouchi (Rickett, 1900) SE China, NE continental SE Asia
hambroecki (Swinhoe, 1870) Taiwan
siamensis Robinson & Kloss, 1922 vMountains of continental SE Asia (except NW and NE) and N Thai-Malay Pen.
vulpes (Ogilvie-Grant, 1906) Mountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
vandewateri (Robinson & Kloss, 1916)108 Mountains of Sumatra
luciae (Sharpe, 1888) Mountains of Borneo
Otus angelinae 109  (Finsch, 1912) Javan Scops Owl
iMountains of W Java
Otus mirus   Ripley & Rabor, 1968 Mindanao Scops Owl
vMindanao (Philippines) [Ripley, 1968 #3321]
Otus longicornis   (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) Luzon Scops Owl
vLuzon (Philippines)
Otus mindorensis   (J. Whitehead, 1899) Mindoro Scops Owl
vMindoro (Philippines)
Otus hartlaubi   (Giebel, 1872) São Tomé Scops Owl
iSão Tomé
Otus rutilus110 Madagascar Scops Owl
rutilus (Pucheran, 1849) vMadagascar (mainly E)
madagascariensis (A. Grandidier, 1867)111 vS, W and central plateau of Madagascar [Grandidier, 1867 #1751]
Otus mayottensis 112  Benson, 1960 Mayotte Scops Owl
vMayotte (Comoros) [Benson, 1960 #261]
Otus pauliani   Benson, 1960 Grand Comoro Scops Owl
iGrande Comore (Comoros) [Benson, 1960 #261]
Otus capnodes   (J.H. Gurney Sr., 1889) Anjouan Scops Owl
iAnjouan (Comoros)
Otus moheliensis 113  Lafontaine & Moulaert, 1998 Moheli Scops Owl
vMohéli (Comoros) [Lafontaine, 1998 #2307]
Otus pembaensis   Pakenham, 1937 Pemba Scops Owl
vPemba I. (off NE Tanzania)
Otus scops Eurasian Scops Owl
pulchellus (Pallas, 1771) vKazakhstan to Altai Mts. and Tien Shan Mts. >> NE Africa and SW Asia
scops (Linnaeus, 1758)114 France and Italy to Caucasus area >> W and C Africa
mallorcae von Jordans, 1923115,116 αIberia, Balearic Is., NW Africa >> W Africa [von Jordans, 1923 #10927]
cycladum (von Tschusi, 1904) S Greece, Cyclades Is., Crete, SW Turkey, Levant
cyprius (von Madarász, 1901) vCyprus
turanicus (von Loudon, 1905) vIraq and SW Turkmenistan to Afghanistan and Pakistan >> NE Africa and SW Asia
Otus brucei Pallid Scops Owl
exiguus Mukherjee, 1958117 vIsrael to S Iraq, United Arab Emirates and N Oman, W Pakistan [Mukerjee, 1958 #2741]
obsoletus (Cabanis, 1875)118 vS Turkey and Syria to S Uzbekistan and N Afghanistan [Cabanis, 1875 #638]
brucei (Hume, 1872)119 αAral Sea and E Uzbekistan to Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan >> Pakistan and N India
semenowi (Sarudny & Härms, 1902) Tarim Basin (NW China) >> N Pakistan and NW India [Sarudny, 1902 #4292]
Otus senegalensis African Scops Owl
pamelae Bates, G.L., 1937120 SW Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman
socotranus (Ogilvie-Grant & H.O. Forbes, 1899) vSocotra
senegalensis (Swainson, 1837)121,122 vSenegal to Somalia, south to C Namibia and E and S South Africa
feae (Salvadori, 1903) Annobón
Otus sunia123 Oriental Scops Owl
japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1844 αvHokkaido and N and C Honshu (Japan) >> S Japan
stictonotus (Sharpe, 1875) vRussian Far East, Japan, Korea, NE and NC China >> S China, mainland SE Asia to N Thai-Malay Pen.
malayanus (A. Hay, 1845) αvS China >> S Myanmar (Tenasserim), Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra
sunia (Hodgson, 1836)124 Himalayas (east from NE Pakistan), NE India
distans Friedmann & Deignan, 1939125 N and E continental SE Asia [Friedmann, 1939 #1600]
rufipennis (Sharpe, 1875) vS India
leggei Ticehurst, 1923 Sri Lanka
modestus (Walden, 1874) vAndamans
nicobaricus (Hume, 1876)126 vNicobars [Hume, 1876 #2037]
Otus elegans127 Elegant Scops Owl
interpositus N. Kuroda, Sr., 1923 vDaito Is. (Japan)
elegans (Cassin, 1852) Ryukyu Is. (Japan)
botelensis N. Kuroda, Sr., 1928 vLanyu I. (off S Taiwan)
calayensis McGregor, 1904128 vBatan Is. and Babuyan Is. (Philippines)
Otus magicus Moluccan Scops Owl
morotensis (Sharpe, 1875)129 vMorotai, Ternate (N Moluccas)
leucospilus (G.R. Gray, 1861) αvHalmahera, Kasiruta, Bacan (N Moluccas)
obira Jany, 1955 Obi (N Moluccas) [Jany, 1955 #2108]
magicus (S. Müller, 1841)130 vBuru, Ambon, Seram (S Moluccas)
mendeni Neumann, 1939 Banggai Is. [Neumann, 1939 #2762]
sulaensis (E. Hartert, 1898)131 vSula Is.
kalidupae (E. Hartert, 1903) Kaledupa (Tukangbesi Is.)
albiventris (Sharpe, 1875) vLombok to Lomblen (Lesser Sundas)
tempestatis (E. Hartert, 1904)132 Wetar (Lesser Sundas)
Otus beccarii   (Salvadori, 1875) Biak Scops Owl
iBiak I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
Otus manadensis133 Sulawesi Scops Owl
siaoensis (Schlegel, 1873)134 vSiau (Sangir Is.)
manadensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830) vSulawesi
Otus collari   F.R. Lambert & Rasmussen, 1998 Sangir Scops Owl
iSangir (Sangir Is.) [Lambert, 1998 #2314]
Otus mantananensis Mantanani Scops Owl
mantananensis (Sharpe, 1892) vMantanani Besar I. (off NW Borneo)
cuyensis McGregor, 1904 vCuyo (Philippines)
romblonis McGregor, 1905 Romblon, Sibuyan, Tablas and nearby islands (Philippines)
sibutuensis (Sharpe, 1893)135 vSibutu, Tumindao (Sulu Arch.)
Otus insularis 136  (Tristram, 1880) Seychelles Scops Owl
vMahé (Seychelles)
Otus alius   Rasmussen, 1998 Nicobar Scops Owl
vGreat Nicobar (Nicobars) [Rasmussen, 1998 #3213]
Otus umbra Simeulue Scops Owl
umbra (Richmond, 1903) Simeulue I. (off W Sumatra)
enganensis Riley, 1927137 vEnggano I. (off W Sumatra)
Otus mentawi 138  Chasen & Kloss, 1926 Mentawai Scops Owl
iMentawai Is. (off W Sumatra)
Otus brookii Rajah Scops Owl
solokensis (E. Hartert, 1893) vMountains of Sumatra
brookii (Sharpe, 1892) Mountains of Borneo and Java
Otus bakkamoena139 Collared Scops Owl
2 deserticolor Ticehurst, 1922 S Iran, S Pakistan
1 plumipes (Hume, 1870) Foothills of W Himalayas (NE Pakistan to Uttarakhand)
1 lettia (Hodgson, 1836)140,141 Foothills of E Himalayas (west to Nepal), Bangladesh, NE India, continental SE Asia (except NE)
2 gangeticus Ticehurst, 1922142 vNE Pakistan, NW India (east to Nepal foothills)
2 marathae Ticehurst, 1922 C India
2 bakkamoena Pennant, 1769 S India, Sri Lanka
1 erythrocampe (Swinhoe, 1874) C and S China, NW Vietnam [Swinhoe, 1874 #3799]
1 glabripes (Swinhoe, 1870) Taiwan
1 umbratilis (Swinhoe, 1870) vHainan
1 condorensis Kloss, 1930143 vCon Son I. (off S Vietnam)
3 ussuriensis (Buturlin, 1910)144 vE and NE China to SE Siberia and Korea
3 semitorques Temminck & Schlegel, 1844 αSakhalin, Kuril Is., Japan, Cheju-do
3 pryeri (J.H. Gurney Sr., 1889) Hachijo-jima (Izu Is.) and Ryukyu Is. (Japan)
4 lempiji (Horsfield, 1821)145 Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas (except NE Borneo)
4 lemurum Deignan, 1957146 NE Borneo [Deignan, 1957 #1239]
4 kangeanus Mayr, 1938 vKangean Is. (Java Sea)
Otus megalotis 147  (Walden, 1875) Luzon Lowland Scops Owl
vLuzon, Catanduanes, Marinduque (Philippines) [Walden, 1875 #4071]
Otus nigrorum 148  Rand, 1950 Visayan Lowland Scops Owl
Negros, Panay (Philippines) [Rand, 1950 #3188]
Otus everetti 149  (Tweeddale, 1879) Mindanao Lowland Scops Owl
Bohol, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao, Basilan (Philippines)
Otus fuliginosus 150  (Sharpe, 1888) Palawan Scops Owl
vPalawan (Philippines)
Otus silvicola   (Wallace, 1864) Wallace's Scops Owl
iSumbawa, Flores (Lesser Sundas)
Otus gurneyi 151  (Tweeddale, 1879) Giant Scops Owl
Mindanao, Dinagat, Siargao (Philippines)
MASCARENOTUS Mourer-Chauviré, Bour, Moutou & Ribes, 1994 N -
†? Mascarenotus sauzieri   (E. Newton & Gadow, 1893) Mauritius Owl
Mauritius
†? Mascarenotus murivorus   (A. Milne‐Edwards, 1873) Rodrigues Owl
Rodrigues
PYRROGLAUX Yamashina, 1938 F - Noctua podargina Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872; type by original designation and monotypy  152
Pyrroglaux podargina   (Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872) Palau Owl
vPalau
PTILOPSIS Kaup, 1848 F - Strix leucotis Temminck, 1820; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 9).  153
Ptilopsis leucotis 154  (Temminck, 1820) Northern White-faced Owl
vSenegal to Ethiopia and NW Kenya
Ptilopsis granti 155,156  (Kollibay, 1910) Southern White-faced Owl
iS DR Congo, W and S Kenya and Tanzania south to C and E South Africa
ASIO Brisson, 1760 M - Asio Brisson; type by tautonymy = Strix otus Linnaeus, 1758  
Asio stygius Stygian Owl
lambi R.T. Moore, 1937157 Mountains of W Mexico (NE Sinaloa and SW Chihuahua to Jalisco)
robustus L. Kelso, 1934 vS Mexico (Guerrero, Veracruz) to Nicaragua; Santa Marta Mts.; Sierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela (Trujillo) to NW Peru (E Piura, NW Cajamarca)
siguapa (d'Orbigny, 1839) Cuba, Isla de la Juventud
noctipetens Riley, 1916158 Hispaniola, Ile de la Gonâve
stygius (Wagler, 1832) vLocally from S Venezuela and the Guianas to E Bolivia, E Paraguay, NE Argentina and SE Brazil
barberoi W. Bertoni, 1930 W Paraguay and N Argentina (Jujuy to Tucumán and Santiago del Estero)
Asio otus159 Northern Long-eared Owl
otus (Linnaeus, 1758) Azores, NW Africa, Eurasia (east to extreme NW and NE China, south to Mediterranean and SW Asia) >> Himalayas (east to Bhutan)
canariensis von Madarász, 1901 vCanary Is.
tuftsi W.E. Godfrey, 1948 αW Canada (S Yukon to SW Manitoba) south to SC USA (W Texas); N Mexico (NW Baja California, Nuevo León) [Godfrey, 1948 #1717]
wilsonianus (Lesson, 1830) vSC and SE Canada (Manitoba to Nova Scotia) south to S USA (N Oklahoma and Virginia)
Asio abyssinicus African Long-eared Owl
abyssinicus (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) vHighlands of Eritrea to C Ethiopia
graueri Sassi, 1912 Mountains of E DR Congo, W Uganda and C Kenya (Mt. Kenya)
Asio madagascariensis   (A. Smith, 1834) Madagascar Long-eared Owl
vMadagascar
Asio clamator160 Striped Owl
forbesi (Lowery & Dalquest, 1951) S Mexico (S Veracruz, Chiapas) to EC Panamá [Lowery, 1951 #2447]
clamator (Vieillot, 1808) αColombia to the Guianas, N Brazil, NW Peru and N Bolivia
oberi (E.H. Kelso, 1936) Tobago
midas (Schlegel, 1863) αE Brazil (Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul) and S Bolivia to C Argentina (Buenos Aires)
Asio flammeus Short-eared Owl
flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) vHolarctic >> Europe, N Africa, SW, S and E Asia, mainland SE Asia (rarely to S), Philippines
sandwichensis (Bloxam, 1827)161 αvHawaiian Is.
ponapensis Mayr, 1933 vPohnpei (Caroline Is.)
cubensis Garrido, 2007 vCuba [Garrido, 2007 #10604]
domingensis (Statius Muller, 1776)162 vHispaniola
portoricensis Ridgway, 1882 vPuerto Rico
pallidicaudus Friedmann, 1949 N and C Venezuela (Apure to Carabobo and Anzoátegui) [Friedmann, 1949 #1609]
bogotensis Chapman, 1915 vLocally in Andes of Colombia, Ecuador (south to Azuay) and C Peru (Junín)
galapagoensis (Gould, 1837)163 vGalapagos Is.
suinda (Vieillot, 1817) SW Peru (Arequipa), S Bolivia and EC Brazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais) to Tierra del Fuego
sanfordi Bangs, 1919164 Falkland Is.
Asio capensis Marsh Owl
tingitanus (Loche, 1867) vNW Africa
capensis (A. Smith, 1834) vSenegal to Cameroon; Ethiopia and South Sudan to E Africa, S DR Congo, Angola, N Botswana and E and S South Africa
hova Stresemann, 1922 Madagascar
PSEUDOSCOPS Kaup, 1848 M - Ephialtes grammicus Gosse, 1847; type by monotypy  
Pseudoscops grammicus   (Gosse, 1847) Jamaican Owl
vJamaica
NESASIO J.L. Peters, 1937 M - Pseudoptynx solomonensis E. Hartert, 1901; type by original designation  
Nesasio solomonensis   (E. Hartert, 1901) Fearful Owl
vBougainville, Choiseul, Santa Isabel (N and C Solomons)
PSILOSCOPS Coues, 1899 M - Scops flammeola Kaup, 1852; type by original designation  165
Psiloscops flammeolus 166  (Kaup, 1852) α Flammulated Owl
vMountains of SW Canada (SC British Columbia), W USA and W, NE and C Mexico >> south to El Salvador
MEGASCOPS Kaup, 1848 M - Strix asio Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 9).  167,168
Megascops kennicottii169 Western Screech Owl
1 kennicottii (Elliot, 1867)170,171 δSE Alaska, W British Columbia, W Washington and W Oregon
1 macfarlanei Brewster, 1891172 S British Columbia to E Oregon, Idaho and W Montana
1 bendirei (Brewster, 1882)173 W California and NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
1 aikeni Brewster, 1891174 E California to SE Colorado south to N Mexico (NW Chihuahua)
1 cardonensis (Huey, 1926) vNW Mexico (N Baja California)
1 yumanensis (A.H. & L. Miller, 1951) vSE California and SW Arizona to NW Mexico (NE Baja California, NW Sonora) [Miller, 1951 #2685]
1 suttoni (R.T. Moore, 1941)175 Extreme S USA (SW Texas) and N and C Mexico (E Chihuahua and W Coahuila to Hidalgo) [Moore, 1941 #2715]
2 xantusi Brewster, 1902 NW Mexico (S Baja California)
2 vinaceus Brewster, 1888176 vNW Mexico (C and S Sonora, SW Chihuahua, N Sinaloa)
Megascops seductus 177  (R.T. Moore, 1941) Balsas Screech Owl
vSW Mexico (S Jalisco and Colima to Morelos and C Guerrero) [Moore, 1941 #2715]
Megascops cooperi178 Pacific Screech Owl
lambi (R.T. Moore & J.T. Marshall, Jr., 1959)179 S Mexico (SC Oaxaca) [Moore, 1959 #2724]
cooperi (Ridgway, 1878)180 Pacific slope of S Mexico (extreme SE Oaxaca) to NW Costa Rica (Guanacaste)
Megascops asio181 Eastern Screech Owl
maxwelliae (Ridgway, 1877)182 SC Canada (SE Saskatchewan, S Manitoba), NC USA (C Montana to W Minnesota and W Kansas)
asio (Linnaeus, 1758)183 SE Canada (S Ontario, SW Québec), E USA (E Minnesota to New Hampshire, Missouri and N South Carolina)
hasbroucki (Ridgway, 1914) SC USA (S Kansas to C Texas)
floridanus (Ridgway, 1874) αvSE USA (Louisiana and SE Arkansas to S Georgia and Florida)
mccallii (Cassin, 1854)184 S USA (S Texas), NE Mexico (Coahuila to Tamaulipas)
Megascops trichopsis185 Whiskered Screech Owl
aspersus Brewster, 1888 vMountains of SW USA (SE Arizona) and N Mexico (E Sonora, W Chihuahua; S Nuevo León to E San Luis Potosí)
trichopsis (Wagler, 1832)186 Highlands of C and S Mexico (Durango and Querétaro to Jalisco and Oaxaca)
mesamericanus (van Rossem, 1932)187 vMountains of SE Mexico (Chiapas) to NW Nicaragua
Megascops choliba188 Tropical Screech Owl
luctisonus (Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1921) vCosta Rica to NW Colombia; Arch. de las Perlas
margaritae (Cory, 1915) Isla de Margarita (off N Venezuela)
duidae (Chapman, 1929) S Venezuela (Cerro Duida, Serranía de la Neblina)
cruciger (von Spix, 1824)189,190,191 δC and E Colombia to E Peru, Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas and N Brazil
surutus (L. Kelso, 1941)192 δvC Bolivia [Kelso, 1941 #2190]
decussatus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823)193 vC and E Brazil
choliba (Vieillot, 1817)194 S Brazil (S Mato Grosso and S Minas Gerais to São Paulo) and E Paraguay
wetmorei (Brodkorb, 1937)195 S Bolivia, W Paraguay and N Argentina (south to Mendoza and N Buenos Aires)
uruguaii (Hekstra, 1982)196 δNE Argentina (Misiones), SE Brazil (Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]
Megascops roboratus Peruvian Screech Owl
pacificus (Hekstra, 1982)197 vSW Ecuador (S Manabí and SW Los Ríos) to NW Peru (Lambayeque) [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]
roboratus (Bangs & Noble, 1918) vExtreme S Ecuador (S Zamora-Chinchipe) and NW Peru (Marañón valley in E Cajamarca, W Amazonas)
Megascops koepckeae198,199 Koepcke's Screech Owl
koepckeae (Hekstra, 1982) δLocally along W slope of Andes of NW Peru (Lambayeque to Lima); also on E slope in Utcubamba valley of Amazonas [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]
hockingi Fjeldså et al., 2012 Andes of C Peru (intermontane valleys from S Junín to Apurímac and W Cuzco) [Fjeldså, 2012 #14161]
Megascops clarkii   (L. & E.H. Kelso, 1935) Bare-shanked Screech Owl
Mountains of Costa Rica to extreme NW Colombia
Megascops barbarus   (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868) Bearded Screech Owl
vHighlands of S Mexico (Chiapas) and Guatemala
Megascops colombianus 200  (Traylor, 1952) Colombian Screech Owl
vW slope of Andes from WC Colombia (Valle) to NW Ecuador (Pichincha) [Traylor, 1952 #3860]
Megascops ingens Rufescent Screech Owl
venezuelanus (W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1954) vSierra de Perijá; Andes and Coastal Range (Aragua) of Venezuela [Phelps, 1954 #3038]
ingens (Salvin, 1897)201 E slope of Andes from SW Colombia (Nariño) to WC Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Megascops petersoni 202  (Fitzpatrick & O'Neill, 1986) Cinnamon Screech Owl
C Andes of NC Colombia (Antioquia); E slope of Andes from Ecuador (Napo) to NW Peru (Cajamarca, Amazonas) [Fitzpatrick, 1986 #1558]
Megascops marshalli 203  (Weske & Terborgh, 1981) Cloud-forest Screech Owl
Locally on E slope of Andes from SC Peru (Pasco) to WC Bolivia (Cochabamba) [Weske, 1981 #4126]
Megascops watsonii Tawny-bellied Screech Owl
watsonii (Cassin, 1849)204 αE Colombia, E Ecuador and NE Peru to the Guianas and N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, east to Belém)
usta (P.L. Sclater, 1858)205,206 αE Peru, C Brazil (south of R. Amazon to N Mato Grosso) and NE Bolivia
Megascops guatemalae Vermiculated Screech Owl
1 hastatus Ridgway, 1887207 vW Mexico (S Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Oaxaca)
1 cassini (Ridgway, 1878)208 NE Mexico (S Tamaulipas, SE San Luis Potosí and N Veracruz)
1 fuscus (R.T. Moore & J.L. Peters, 1939) vNE Mexico (C Veracruz)
1 thompsoni (Cole, L.J., 1906)209 SE Mexico (Yucatan Pen., Isla de Cozumel)
1 guatemalae (Sharpe, 1875)210 SE Mexico (S Veracruz and NE Oaxaca) to Honduras
1 dacrysistactus (R.T. Moore & J,L, Peters, 1939)211 vNW Nicaragua
2 vermiculatus Ridgway, 1887212,213,214 vCosta Rica to W Colombia and SW Ecuador (El Oro); Sierra de Perijá, Andean slopes and Coastal Range of Venezuela
3 roraimae (Salvin, 1897)215 Tepuis and mountains of S and SE Venezuela, N Brazil, SW and S Guyana and Surinam
4 napensis (Chapman, 1928)216,217 vE slope of Andes from Ecuador to WC Bolivia (N Cochabamba)
Megascops hoyi 218  (C. König & Straneck, 1989) Montane Forest Screech Owl
E slope of Andes from WC Bolivia (SE Cochabamba, SW Santa Cruz) to NW Argentina (Catamarca) [König, 1989 #2268]
Megascops atricapilla 219,220,221  (Temminck, 1822) δ Black-capped Screech Owl
SE Brazil (S Goiás and SE Bahia to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay and NE Argentina (N Misiones)
Megascops sanctaecatarinae 222,223  (Salvin, 1897) Long-tufted Screech Owl
SE Brazil (S Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul), NE Argentina (Misiones) and N Uruguay
Megascops nudipes Puerto Rican Screech Owl
nudipes (Daudin, 1800)224 Puerto Rico
†? newtoni (Lawrence, 1861)225 αVirgin Is. (St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, Guana, Virgin Gorda, St. Croix)
Megascops albogularis226 White-throated Screech Owl
obscurus (W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1953)227 vSierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border) [Phelps, 1953 #3036]
meridensis (Chapman, 1923) vAndes of W Venezuela
macabrus (Bonaparte, 1850) δvW and C Andes of Colombia, W slope of Andes from Ecuador to NW Peru (Cajamarca) [Bonaparte, 1850 #407]
albogularis (Cassin, 1849) αvE Andes of Colombia and Ecuador
remotus (J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1941) vE slope of Andes from Peru to WC Bolivia (Cochabamba) [Bond, 1941 #424]
MARGAROBYAS Olson & W. Suárez, 2008 M - Gymnoglaux lawrencii P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868; type by original designation and monotypy  228
Margarobyas lawrencii 229  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868) Bare-legged Owl
Cuba, Isla de la Juventud
PULSATRIX Kaup, 1848 F - Strix torquata Daudin, 1800; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Strix perspicillata Latham, 1790  230
Pulsatrix perspicillata Spectacled Owl
1 saturata Ridgway, 1914 vS Mexico (Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to SW Panama (Chiriquí)
1 chapmani Griscom, 1932231 Costa Rica (Caribbean slope) and Panama (except Chiriquí) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
1 perspicillata (Latham, 1790) vN Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia to W Paraguay and NE Argentina (E Chaco)
1 trinitatis Bangs & T.E. Penard, 1918232 Trinidad
1 boliviana L. Kelso, 1933 vS Bolivia (Tarija) to N Argentina (Salta)
2 pulsatrix (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820)233 E and SE Brazil (Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul)
Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana   (M. & W. Bertoni, 1901) Tawny-browed Owl
vSE Brazil (SE Bahia to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Pulsatrix melanota234 Band-bellied Owl
melanota (von Tschudi, 1844) vE slope of Andes from SW Colombia (Cauca) to Peru
philoscia Todd, 1947235 vE slope of Andes of Bolivia (La Paz to Cochabamba) [Todd, 1947 #3845]
STRIX Linnaeus, 1758 F - Strix stridula Linnaeus, 1758; type by Linnaean tautonymy = Strix aluco Linnaeus, 1758  
Strix seloputo Spotted Wood Owl
seloputo Horsfield, 1821 Continental SE Asia (except N), Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Java
baweana Oberholser, 1917 vBawean I. (Java Sea)
wiepkeni (W. Blasius, 1888) Palawan Group (Philippines)
Strix ocellata Mottled Wood Owl
grisescens Koelz, 1950 NW and NC India, SW Myanmar [Koelz, 1950 #2245]
grandis Koelz, 1950 vW India (Kathiawar Pen. in Gujarat) [Koelz, 1950 #2245]
ocellata (Lesson, 1839) vC and S India
Strix leptogrammica236 Brown Wood Owl
ticehursti Delacour, 1930 SE China, S and E Myanmar
caligata (Swinhoe, 1863)237 vTaiwan, Hainan
laotiana Delacour, 1926 vN Thailand to E continental SE Asia
newarensis (Hodgson, 1836)238 vHimalayan foothills (east from Kashmir), NE India, Bangladesh, W Yunnan, N and C Myanmar
indranee Sykes, 1832239 C and SW India
ochrogenys (Hume, 1873) Sri Lanka
maingayi (Hume, 1878) Thai-Malay Pen.
myrtha (Bonaparte, 1850) Sumatra
nyctiphasma Oberholser, 1924 Banyak Is. (off W Sumatra)
niasensis (Salvadori, 1887)240 vNias I. (off W Sumatra)
chaseni Hoogerwerf & de Boer, 1947241 Belitung I. (off SE Sumatra) [Hoogerwerf, 1947 #1999]
bartelsi (Finsch, 1906)242 Java
vaga Mayr, 1938 vN Borneo
leptogrammica Temminck, 1832 αvBorneo (except for range of vaga)
Strix aluco Tawny Owl
aluco Linnaeus, 1758243 N, C and SE Europe east to W foot of Ural Mts. and south to N Caucasus foothills
sylvatica Shaw, 1809244 vBritish Isles, W France and Iberia; W and C Turkey and Levant
mauritanica (Witherby, 1905) vNW Africa
siberiae Dementiev, 1933 Ural Mts. and W Siberia
willkonskii (Menzbier, 1896)245 Caucasus area, NE Turkey, N Iran, SW Turkmenistan
sanctinicolai (Sarudny, 1905) Iraq, W and SW Iran
harmsi (Sarudny, 1911)246 W foothills of Tien Shan and Pamir Mts.
biddulphi (Scully, 1881) N and NE Afghansitan, N Pakistan, Kashmir
nivicolum (Blyth, 1845)247,248 Himalayan foothills (east from Himachal Pradesh), NE India, C and S China, W and E Myanmar
yamadae Yamashina, 1936 S Taiwan
ma (A.H. Clark, 1907) NE China, Korea
Strix butleri   (Hume, 1878) Hume's Owl
iSE Egypt, Sinai, SE Israel, SW Jordan, Arabian Pen., S Iran
Strix omanensis   Robb, van den Berg & Constantine, 2013 Omani Owl
vAl Hajar Mts., N Oman [Robb, 2013 #15289]
Strix occidentalis Spotted Owl
caurina (Merriam, 1898) vSW Canada (SW British Columbia) to W USA (NW California)
occidentalis (Xántus de Vesey, 1860) αvW USA (C and S California) and NW Mexico (N Baja California)
huachucae Swarth, 1910249 SW USA (Arizona and New Mexico) to N Mexico (E Sonora, Chihuahua)
lucida (Nelson, 1903)250 vMountains of N and C Mexico (Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Jalisco, Guanajuato, Michoacán)
juanaphillipsae Dickerman, 1997 Mountains of C Mexico (México) [Dickerman, 1997 #1352]
Strix varia251 Barred Owl
varia Barton, 1799252 vS Canada (British Columbia to New Brunswick), NW and E USA (south to N California, C Idaho, E Texas and S Florida)
sartorii (Ridgway, 1874)253 αMountains of W and C Mexico (Durango to Guerrero; W Veracruz, E Puebla, N Oaxaca)
Strix fulvescens 254  (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1868) Fulvous Owl
iHighlands of S Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras
Strix hylophila   Temminck, 1825 Rusty-barred Owl
vSE Brazil (S Minas Gerais to N Rio Grande do Sul), SE Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Strix chacoensis 255  Cherrie & Reichenberger, 1921 Chaco Owl
vChaco of S Bolivia (S Santa Cruz) and W Paraguay to C Argentina (N La Pampa)
Strix rufipes Rufous-legged Owl
rufipes P.P. King, 1827 αC Chile (Valparaíso) and WC Argentina (W Mendoza) to Tierra del Fuego
sanborni Wheeler, 1938 Isla de Chiloé (off SC Chile)
Strix uralensis Ural Owl
macroura J. Wolf, 1810256 C and SE Europe [Meyer, 1810 #2656]
liturata Lindroth, 1788 vFenno-Scandia and NE Poland to C Russia and N Belarus [Lindroth, 1788 #2394]
uralensis Pallas, 1771257 vE Russia to W Siberia
yenisseensis Buturlin, 1915 vC and NE Siberia to NW Mongolia
daurica Stegmann, 1929258 vLake Baikal and NE Mongolia to W and N Amurland and W and N Heilongjiang
nikolskii (Buturlin, 1907)259 E Amurland, Sakhalin south to NE China and Korea
davidi (Sharpe, 1875)260 W and N Sichuan, NE Qinghai
japonica (A.H. Clark, 1907)261 vS Kuril Is., Hokkaido
hondoensis (A.H. Clark, 1907) vN Honshu
momiyamae Taka-Tsukasa, 1931 C Honshu
fuscescens Temminck & Schlegel, 1850 αS Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku Is.
Strix nebulosa Great Grey Owl
nebulosa J.R. Forster, 1772 vC Alaska east to SW Québec, south to EC California, WC Nevada, NW Wyoming and NE Minnesota
lapponica Thunberg, 1798262 vN Eurasia east to Kolyma Mts. and Sakhalin, south to N Mongolia
Strix woodfordii African Wood Owl
umbrina (von Heuglin, 1863) vEthiopia and E South Sudan
nigricantior (Sharpe, 1897)263 vS Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, E DR Congo
nuchalis (Sharpe, 1870)264 vSierra Leone to S South Sudan, Uganda, N and W DR Congo and NC Angola
woodfordii (A. Smith, 1834)265 δS Angola, SE DR Congo and Malawi to N Botswana and E and S South Africa
JUBULA Bates, G.L., 1929 F - Bubo lettii Büttikofer, 1889; type by original designation  
Jubula lettii   (Büttikofer, 1889) Maned Owl
iLiberia to N DR Congo
LOPHOSTRIX Lesson, 1836 F - Lophostrix griseata Lesson, 1836; type by monotypy = Strix cristata Daudin, 1800  
Lophostrix cristata Crested Owl
stricklandi P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1859 S Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to W Panama (Coclé)
wedeli Griscom, 1932 E Panama (Comarca Guna Yala, Darién) to NC and W Colombia, NW Venezuela and SW Ecuador (Guayas)
cristata (Daudin, 1800)266 vAmazonia (except NW) and the Guianas
BUBO Duméril, 1805 M - Strix bubo Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent monotypy (Froriep, 1806, C. Dumeril's Analytische Zoologie, p. 35).  
Bubo scandiacus 267  (Linnaeus, 1758) Snowy Owl
vN Fenno-Scandia to N Siberia, W and N Alaska, N Canada, N Greenland >> south to N Europe to N China, S Canada, N USA
Bubo virginianus268,269 Great Horned Owl
1 algistus (Oberholser, 1904)270 vCoastal W Alaska (Bristol Bay to Kotzebue Sound)
1 lagophonus (Oberholser, 1904)271 vInterior WC Alaska south through mountains of British Columbia to S Idaho (R. Snake) >> south to Texas
1 saturatus Ridgway, 1877 vCoastal SE Alaska to N California
1 pacificus Cassin, 1854 vCoastal California to NW Baja California
1 elachistus Brewster, 1902 vNW Mexico (S Baja California)
1 subarcticus P.R. Hoy, 1853272 αvC Canada (Northwest Territories to N Ontario) to NC USA (Wyoming, North Dakota)
1 pinorum Dickerman & A.B. Johnson, 2008 W USA (Rocky Mts. from S Idaho to Arizona and New Mexico) [Dickerman, 2008 #10782]
1 pallescens Stone, 1897 SW USA (S Utah and W Kansas to Arizona and W Texas) and Mexico (south to Guerrero and Veracruz)
1 heterocnemis (Oberholser, 1904)273 NE Canada (Québec, Newfoundland)
1 virginianus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSE Canada (Nova Scotia), E USA (west to Minnesota and E Texas)274
1 mayensis Nelson, 1901 vSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.)
1 mesembrinus (Oberholser, 1904)275 vS Mexico (SE Oaxaca, Chiapas) to W Panama
1 nacurutu (Vieillot, 1817)276 N and E Colombia to the Guianas and N Brazil; E Bolivia to E Brazil and E Argentina (Buenos Aires)
1 deserti Reiser, 1905277 E Brazil (NC Bahia)
1 nigrescens von Berlepsch, 1884278 Andes of Colombia to NW Peru (Piura)
2 magellanicus (Lesson, 1828)279,280,281 αvAndes of C Peru to Tierra del Fuego into lowlands of Patagonia [Lesson, 1828 #8968]
Bubo bubo282,283 Eurasian Eagle Owl
hispanus Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1910 vIberia
bubo (Linnaeus, 1758)284 Scandinavia to France, Sicily, W and N Romania and C and NW Russia
interpositus Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1910 vS Ukraine to N Greece east to Turkey, NW Iran, Caucasus area, Mangyshlak and lower R. Don
ruthenus Buturlin & Zhitkov, 1906 vE and S Russia (south to lower R. Volga and foot of N Caucasus)
sibiricus (Gloger, 1833)285 vSW and C Ural region and W Siberia to R. Ob'
yenisseensis Buturlin, 1911286 vWC and SC Siberia from R. Ob' to Lake Baikal, south to extreme N Xinjiang and N Mongolia
jakutensis Buturlin, 1908 vNC and NE Siberia, south to Stanovoi Mts.
turcomanus (Eversmann, 1835)287 vN Kazakhstan and SW Siberia from lower R. Ural to R. Irtysh and Lake Zaysan
ussuriensis Poliakov, 1915288 vSE Siberia from Lake Baikal and E Mongolia to NE China and Russian Far East
omissus Dementiev, 1932 vTurkmenistan to S Uzbekistan, SW Tajikistan and N Afghanistan
nikolskii Sarudny, 1905 Iraq to C and S Afghanistan and W Pakistan
hemachalanus Hume, 1873289 vPamir and Tien Shan Mts., SE Kazakhstan, W Himalayas, W Xizang, NW China (N and W Xinjiang)
tibetanus Bianchi, 1906 vC and E Tibetan Plateau, SW Gansu, W Sichuan, NW Yunnan
tarimensis Buturlin, 1906 vE Tarim Basin (east from Hami and Lop Nur) to SW and S Mongolia
kiautschensis Reichenow, 1903290 vKorea and E China from S Gansu and Shandong to Yunnan and Guangdong
borissowi Hesse, 1915291 δSakhalin, S Kuril Is. (north to Urup)
Bubo ascalaphus 292,293  Savigny, 1809 Desert Eagle Owl
iSahara south to Mauritania and C Sudan; Sinai and Syria to SW Iran and Arabian Pen.
Bubo bengalensis 294  (Franklin, 1831) Rock Eagle Owl
vPakistan, Nepal, India, (SW Myanmar?)
Bubo capensis Cape Eagle Owl
dillonii Des Murs & Prévost, 1846 Ethiopia and Eritrea
mackinderi Sharpe, 1899 Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and W Mozambique
capensis A. Smith, 1834 vSouth Africa to S and W Namibia
Bubo africanus Spotted Eagle Owl
2 milesi Sharpe, 1886 SW Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman
1 cinerascens Guérin-Méneville, 1843295 Senegal to Eritrea and W Somalia, south to Cameroon, N Uganda and N Kenya
2 africanus (Temminck, 1821)296 vS DR Congo, S Uganda and W, C and S Kenya to South Africa
Bubo poensis Fraser's Eagle Owl
poensis Fraser, 1854 αvSierra Leone to N Angola (Cabinda), N and C DR Congo and W Uganda
vosseleri Reichenow, 1908297 Usambara Mts. (NE Tanzania)
Bubo lacteus   (Temminck, 1820) Verreaux's Eagle Owl
vSenegal to N Cameroon; S Sudan and Eritrea to E Africa, S DR Congo and Angola and south to C Namibia and N South Africa
Bubo shelleyi   (Sharpe & Ussher, 1872) Shelley's Eagle Owl
iSierra Leone to SW Ghana; Cameroon and N DR Congo
Bubo sumatranus Barred Eagle Owl
sumatranus (Raffles, 1822) vSW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra
strepitans (Temminck, 1823) Java, Bali
tenuifasciatus Mees, 1964 vBorneo [Mees, 1964 #2602]
Bubo nipalensis Spot-bellied Eagle Owl
nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 vHimalayan foothills (east from Uttarakhand), SW and NE India, Bangladesh, continental SE Asia
blighi Legge, 1878 Sri Lanka
Bubo coromandus Dusky Eagle Owl
coromandus (Latham, 1790) vE Pakistan, S Nepal, N and C India, Bangladesh, SE China
klossii Robinson, 1911 W and SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen.
Bubo leucostictus   Hartlaub, 1855 Akun Eagle Owl
vSierra Leone to SW Ghana; Nigeria to C and E DR Congo
Bubo philippensis298 Philippine Eagle Owl
philippensis Kaup, 1851 vLuzon, Catanduanes (Philippines)
mindanensis (Ogilvie-Grant, 1906) vLeyte, Samar, Mindanao (Philippines)
Bubo blakistoni299 Blakiston's Eagle Owl
doerriesi Seebohm, 1895300 NE China and the Russian Far East north to the W and N shore of the Sea of Okhotsk
blakistoni Seebohm, 1884301 Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., Hokkaido
KETUPA Lesson, 1830 F - Ketupa javanensis Lesson, 1830; type by virtual tautonymy = Strix ketupu Horsfield, 1821  302
Ketupa zeylonensis Brown Fish Owl
semenowi Sarudny, 1905 SW Asia to S Pakistan
leschenaulti (Temminck, 1820)303 δS Asia (except Sri Lanka), SW Yunnan, W and C continental SE Asia, N and C Thai-Malay Pen.
zeylonensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSri Lanka
orientalis Delacour, 1926 vS China, Hainan, N and E continental SE Asia (east from NE Myanmar)
Ketupa flavipes   (Hodgson, 1836) Tawny Fish Owl
iHimalayan foothills (east from Himachal Pradesh), NE India, C and S China, N and E continental SE Asia
Ketupa ketupu Buffy Fish Owl
ketupu (Horsfield, 1821)304 NE India, Bangladesh, mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas
minor Büttikofer, 1896305 vNias I. (off W Sumatra)
SCOTOPELIA Bonaparte, 1850 F - Strix peli Temminck; type by monotypy = Scotopelia peli Bonaparte, 1850  306
Scotopelia peli   Bonaparte, 1850 Pel's Fishing Owl
iSenegal to Nigeria, Gabon and Congo basin; W Ethiopia and E Africa to Zambia, N Botswana and SE Zimbabwe to N KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa)
Scotopelia ussheri   Sharpe, 1871 Rufous Fishing Owl
iSierra Leone to SW Ghana
Scotopelia bouvieri   Sharpe, 1875 Vermiculated Fishing Owl
iBenin, Nigeria, S Cameroon to N Angola, W and N DR Congo
CICCABA Wagler, 1832 F - Strix huhula Daudin, 1800; type by monotypy  307
Ciccaba virgata Mottled Owl
squamulata (Bonaparte, 1850) vW Mexico (S Sonora to Guerrero and Morelos)
tamaulipensis (J.C. Phillips, 1911) vNE Mexico (S Nuevo León and Tamaulipas)
centralis Griscom, 1929 vE and S Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz) to W Panama (Veraguas, Herrera)
virgata (Cassin, 1849)308 αvE Panama (Panamá) to Ecuador, Venezuela and Trinidad
macconnelli C. Chubb, 1916 SE Venezuela, the Guianas
superciliaris (von Pelzeln, 1863) vE Peru, N and E Bolivia, Amazonian Brazil
borelliana (W. Bertoni, 1901) vSE Brazil (S Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Ciccaba nigrolineata   P.L. Sclater, 1859 Black-and-white Owl
vE and S Mexico (W Veracruz and N Oaxaca) to N and W Colombia, NW Venezuela and NW Peru (Piura)
Ciccaba huhula309 Black-banded Owl
huhula (Daudin, 1800) E Colombia to the Guianas, EC and SC Brazil, E Bolivia and NW Argentina (Jujuy)
albomarginata (von Spix, 1824)310 vSE Brazil (S Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones) [von Spix, 1824 #7983]
Ciccaba albitarsis311 Rufous-banded Owl
albitarsis (Bonaparte, 1850) vAndes of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador
opaca J.L. Peters, 1943 vE slope of Andes of C Peru [Peters, 1943 #3012]
tertia Todd, 1947 vE slope of Andes of Bolivia [Todd, 1947 #3845]

1 Subfamilies and their sequence based on Wink et al. in König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
2 This is the appropriate subfamily name; it has precedence over Ninoxinae, which has apparently not been introduced with the necessary description (I.C.Z.N., 1999; Art. 31) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
3 Despite limited taxon sampling outside Australia, species sequence follows Wink et al. in König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506]; but see also Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602].
4 König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506] noted that the dubious owl to which they had previously referred had not been validly named.
5 Includes aruensis; see Olsen (1999) [Olsen, 1999 #14160]. But see Mees (1964) [Mees, 1964 #2603].
6 Includes marginata Mees, 1964 [Mees, 1964 #2603]; see Mason & Schodde (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #2517].
7 For recognition as separate from nominate connivens see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3509]. The name enigma Mathews & Neumann, 1939 [Mathews, 1939 #2532], is thought to relate to an aberrant specimen, perhaps of this subspecies (Mees, 1964) [Mees, 1964 #2603].
8 Includes occidentalis; see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523], these authors also include addenda in the synonymy of nominate connivens.
9 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
10 For treatment as a separate species from N. novaeseelandiae see Schodde & Mason (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3509] and Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523]; but see also Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602].
11 May merit treatment as a separate species; vocalisations reported to be very distinctive (Verbelen, 2010) [Verbelen, 2010 #13541].
12 Includes arida Mayr, 1943 [Mayr, 1943 #2551]; see Mees (1964) [Mees, 1964 #2603], who also included marmorata in nominate boobook; however, Schodde & Mason (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3509] reassessed the distribution patterns and placed that in ocellata.
13 Also includes rufigaster Mees, 1961 [Mees, 1961 #2600]; see Schodde & Mason (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3509]. Also includes parocellata Mathews, 1946 [Mathews, 1946 #14208]; see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
14 For recognition see Mees (1961, 1964) [Mees, 1961 #2600] [Mees, 1964 #2603].
15 For treatment as a separate species from N. boobook and N. novaeseelandiae see König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506]; but see also Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602] and Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
16 Includes venatica; see Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
17 For separation from N. boobook see König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
18 Described in De Vis (1887) [De Vis, 1887 #1151], which antedates the expedition report usually cited; see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523]. For correct date see Anon. (1929) [Anon., 1929 #14054].
19 For treatment as a separate species from N. scutulata see King (2002) [King, 2002 #2222].
20 Includes ussuriensis; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
21 Includes macroptera; see Dickinson (1975) [Dickinson, 1975 #1358].
22 Mees (1970) [Mees, 1970 #2614] considered this a synonym of japonica; this has not been accepted by Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739] or Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875], and totogo is usefully maintained for this nonmigratory population. Includes yamashinae Ripley, 1953 [Ripley, 1953 #3303]; see Orn. Soc. Japan (1958) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 1958 #2873].
23 Treated as a separate species by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749], who excluded the Nicobar population, believing the type locality erroneous.
24 For transfer of this and rexpimenti from N. affinis to this species see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
25 Includes malaccensis; see Dickinson (1975) [Dickinson, 1975 #1358].
26 For recognition see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
27 For treatment as a separate species from N. scutulata see King (2002) [King, 2002 #2222].
28 Includes proxima Mayr, 1945 [Delacour, 1945 #1287] and also provisionally includes populations from much of the Visayas; see Rasmussen et al. (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #14038].
29 For restriction to Siquijor see Rasmussen et al. (2012) [Rasmussen, 2012 #14038].
30 Includes everetti; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
31 Correct original spelling. Invariable; noun in apposition.
32 Correct original spelling. Spelling sumbensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
33 Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] employed the name perversa Stresemann, 1938, a replacement name which is now unnecessary.
34 For treatment as a separate species from N. squamipila see Rheindt & Hutchinson (2007) [Rheindt, 2007 #10835].
35 Correct original spelling. Spelling squampila in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
36 Separation from N. squamipila follows Rheindt & Hutchinson (2007) [Rheindt, 2007 #10835].
37 For reasons to treat this as a separate separate species from N. squamipila see Norman et al. (1998) [Norman, 1998 #2781].
38 Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] used the name solomonis; claiming the name Noctua variegata was preoccupied in Lepidoptera but see Art. 57.8 (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
39 For treatment as a synonym see Olsen (1999) [Olsen, 1999 #14160] and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
40 Genetic data (Wink et al. 2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009] confirm the monophyly of Glaucidium but support a major division between New World and some Old World species. Wink et al. (2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009] proposed the use of Taenioglaux for their second clade; acceptance here deferred pending better taxon-sampling.
41 Includes garoense Koelz, 1952 [Koelz, 1952 #2248]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
42 For the use of this name in place of peritum see Mees (1967) [Mees, 1967 #2611].
43 For recognition see Kemp in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
44 Includes lukolelae and kivuense Verheyen, 1946 [Verheyen, 1946 #3976]; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191]. Also includes elgonense; see Herroelen et al. (1999) [Herroelen, 1999 #1955].
45 Correct original spelling. Spelling whitelyi in Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
46 Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118] lumped this with G. cuculoides.
47 Includes principum Koelz, 1950 [Koelz, 1950 #2245]; see Greenway (1978) [Greenway, 1978 #1814].
48 Treated as a subspecies of G. cuculoides by Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] but see Ripley (1948, 1982) [Ripley, 1948 #3298] [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
49 For correct citation and spelling see Dickinson et al. (2009) [Dickinson, 2009 #11685], in which the date correction of Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9467] was unfortunately forgotten.
50 Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] cited wrong author but correct source.
51 Treated as a separate species by Kemp (1988) [Kemp, 1988 #4396]. See also Prigogine (1985) [Prigogine, 1985 #3150].
52 Includes clanceyi Prigogine, 1985 [Prigogine, 1985 #3150]; see Kemp (1988) [Kemp, 1988 #4396]. Also includes robertsi; see Kemp in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
53 May consist of more than one species; see König (1994) [König, 1994 #13932], Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143]. Group designations follow Howell & Webb (1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863]; see also Holt & Petersen (2000) [Holt, 2000 #13929].
54 Forms a superspecies with G. costaricanum and G. nubicola; see Robbins & Stiles (1999) [Robbins, 1999 #3354].
55 Diagnosability questionable (Holt et al. 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985]; not recognised by A.O.U. (1957) [A.O.U., 1957 #7], but see Holt & Petersen (2000) [Holt, 2000 #13929].
56 Treated as a separate species by Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
57 For treatment as a separate species from G. jardinii see Robbins & Stiles (1999) [Robbins, 1999 #3354].
58 For treatment as a separate species from G. jardinii see König (1991) [König, 1991 #2269] and Heidrich et al. (1995) [Heidrich, 1995 #1926]; thus we treat these two as allospecies.
59 Includes oberholseri; see Howell & Robbins (1995) [Howell, 1995 #2018]. Also includes griscomi R.T. Moore, 1947 [Moore, 1947 #2719]; see Buchanan (1964) [Buchanan, 1964 #12750] but see also Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
60 For treatment of this and G. griseiceps each as a separate species from G. minutissimum see Howell & Robbins (1995) [Howell, 1995 #2018].
61 Includes occultum R.T. Moore, 1947 [Moore, 1947 #2718] and rarum; see Howell & Robbins (1995) [Howell, 1995 #2018].
62 Sometimes dated from 1990, but in 2004 the editor of the journal concerned upheld the specified date of 1989.
63 König & Weick (2005) [König, 2005 #9929] suggested that the type of minutissimum matches mooreorum, which is therefore a junior synonym, and that the southeastern Brazilian population lacked a name, for which they proposed the name sicki. As a further complication the name pumila Lichtenstein, 1818, may be available and have priority over minutissimum; see Dickinson (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13236]; see Appendix 2.5.
64 Howell & Robbins (1995) [Howell, 1995 #2018] circumscribed a complex, here treated as a superspecies, comprising G. minutissimum, G. palmarum, G. sanchezi, G. griseiceps, G. parkeri and G. hardyi.
65 Status debatable. König & Weick (2005, 2008) [König, 2005 #9929] [König, 2008 #13506] considered that the type of G. minutissimum showed mooreorum to be a junior synonym. Believing the birds from southeasternmost Brazil to be a distinct species they named it Glaucidium sicki sp. nov.; unresolved issues here need further research.
66 Forms a superspecies with G. peruanum and G. nana; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
67 For recogntion see Proudfoot & Johnson (2000) [Proudfoot, 2000 #13939].
68 May merit treatment as a separate species, including subspecies cactorum and intermedium; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32]. Includes saturatum Brodkorb, 1941 [Brodkorb, 1941 #494]; see Friedmann et al. (1950) [Friedmann, 1950 #10178].
69 Treated as synonym of phaloenoides by Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143].
70 Correct original spelling. Spelling phalaenoides in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
71 Treated as a separate species by Heidrich et al. (1995) [Heidrich, 1995 #1926], Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32], and Wink et al. (2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009].
72 Includes pallens; see Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143].
73 May consist of more than one species (Holt et al. 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
74 For treatment as a separate species from G. brasilianum see König (1991) [König, 1991 #2269], Jaramillo (2003) [Jaramillo, 2003 #13739], and Wink et al. (2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009].
75 Correct original spelling. Invariable; noun in apposition.
76 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Speotyto; for merger into Athene see Amadon & Bull (1988) [Amadon, 1988 #4349].
77 Garrido (2001) [Garrido, 2001 #1680] noted that the other resident population in Cuba is undescribed.
78 Perhaps not diagnosable from brachyptera; see Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143].
79 Includes apurensis Gilliard, 1940; see Appendix 2.2.
80 Includes intermedia; see Bond (1955) [Bond, 1955 #13923].
81 Tentatively recognised following Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
82 For recognition see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], but see König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
83 Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] reported that A. b. poikila Yang & Li, 1989 [Yang Lan, 1989 #4281], had been reidentified as Aegolius funereus; for confirmation see Sun et al. (2003) [Sun Yue-hua, 2003 #3782].
84 Includes albida Koelz, 1950 [Koelz, 1950 #2245]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], but see also König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
85 For suggestions of potential splits from this species see van Nieuwenhuyse et al. (2008) [van Nieuwenhuyse, 2008 #14168]. Limited taxon-sampling deters subspecies group recognition.
86 Includes grueni von Jordans & Steinbacher, 1942 [von Jordans, 1942 #4050], and cantabriensis Harrison, 1957 [Harrison, 1957 #1899]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
87 Includes sarda; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967]. Also includes salentina Trischitta, 1939 [Trischitta, 1939 #3880], and daciae Keve & Kohl, 1961 [Keve, 1961 #2211]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
88 Introduced to England, Wales, Scotland and New Zealand (E South Island).
89 Includes kessleri and caucasica; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
90 Treated as a separate species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
91 May merit treatment as a separate species (Wink et al. 2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009].
92 Subsumed in glaux by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506]. Includes solitudinis; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
93 Contra Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] not a nomen nudum in 1863; description is in text on next page.
94 König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506] treated this as a separate species, including somaliensis.
95 For transfer to Athene from Ninox see Wink et al. in König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
96 For use of this monotypic genus see Rasmussen & Collar (1999) [Rasmussen, 1999 #3216].
97 Includes jakutorum; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
98 Includes juniperi Koelz, 1939 [Koelz, 1939 #2244], placed in caucasicus by Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332], but NW Indian birds reassigned here by Roselaar in Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086]. Also includes poikila Yang Lan & Li Gui-yuan, 1989 [Yang Lan, 1989 #4281]; see Sun et al. (2003) [Sun Yue-Hua, 2003 #3782].
99 Subsumed in caucasicus by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
100 Probably includes brodkorbi Briggs, 1954 [Briggs, 1954 #483], which is based on a juvenile (Holt et al., 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
101 Includes rostrata; see Marshall (1943) [Marshall, 1943 #13935]. Also includes tacanensis R.T. Moore, 1947 [Moore, 1947 #2718]; see König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
102 For continued inclusion in Aegolius see Wink et al. (2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009].
103 Species sequence follows König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506], but some proposed splits and taxon reallocations await broader taxon-sampling.
104 Includes Mimizuku see Miranda et al. (1997) [Miranda, 1007 #2687].
105 Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] listed burbidgei; for rejection of origin and thus placement in synonymy of nominate form see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
106 For initial doubts about validity see Kotagama et al. (2006) [Kotagama, 2006 #12406]; but later see Kotagama & Ratnavira (2010) [Kotagama, 2010 #13847].
107 Includes rupchandi Koelz, 1952 [Koelz, 1952 #2248]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
108 Treated as a separate species by Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010], but see van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920] who treated stresemanni as a synonym. See also Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
109 For treatment as a separate species from O. spilocephalus see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
110 For recognition of two Madagascan populations and resurrection of name madagascariensis see Rasmussen et al. (2000) [Rasmussen, 2000 #3221], but for treatment of the two as conspecific see Fuchs et al. (2007) [Fuchs, 2007 #9863].
111 Secondary homonymy with O. madagascariensis A. Smith, 1834, may be ignored under Article 59.2 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
112 For corroboration of treatment of this, O. pauliani, O. capnodes and O. pembaensis as separate species from O. rutilus see Rasmussen et al. (2000) [Rasmussen, 2000 #3221].
113 For recognition see Rasmussen et al. (2000) [Rasmussen, 2000 #3221].
114 Includes vincii Trischitta, 1939 [Trischitta, 1939 #3880]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
115 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
116 For link to corrected citation, earlier than that given by Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] see our range statement.
117 Mlíkovsky & Frahnert (2009) [Mlíkovsky, 2009 #11933] suggested this might be a junior synonym of semenowi.
118 Mlíkovsky & Frahnert (2009) [Mlíkovsky, 2009 #11933] designated a lectotype of this taxon and considered it a migrant and probably a synonym of the nominate form.
119 For date correction see Pittie (2006) [Pittie, 2006 #9574].
120 This and socotranus treated as separate species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
121 Includes caecus and graueri; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191]. Also includes ugandae and hendersonii; see Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1970) [Mackworth-Praed, 1970 #13853]. Also includes pygmea; see Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1957) [Mackworth-Praed, 1957 #2465]. Also includes latipennis and implicitly pusilla and intermedia; see Kemp in Hockey et al. (2005)[Hockey, 2005 #12724].
122 Also implicitly includes huszari Keve, 1959 [Keve, 1959 #2210], see Clancey (1996) [Clancey, 1996 #13854] and nivosus Keith & Twomey, 1968 [Keith, 1968 #2179]; however, the latter is Recognized by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
123 For treatment as a separate species from O. scops see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], Marshall (1978) [Marshall, 1978 #2501], and Roberts & King (1986) [Roberts, 1986 #3361].
124 Includes khasiensis Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
125 Requires re-evaluation; see Marshall (1978) [Marshall, 1978 #2501]; sometimes treated as synonym of modestus, e.g. by Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
126 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
127 May consist of more than one species; see Takagi (2011) [Takagi, 2011 #13275].
128 Includes batanensis Manuel & Gilliard, 1952 [Manuel, 1952 #2480]; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
129 Rasmussen & Prŷs-Jones (2003) [Rasmussen, 2003 #3225] considered the Ternate population distinct and as yet unnamed.
130 Includes bouruensis; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194], but see also König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
131 This and kalidupae each treated as species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
132 Provisionally recognised as a species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
133 Includes obsti Eck, 1973 [Eck, 1973 #1473]; see Rasmussen & Prys Jones (2003) [Rasmussen, 2003 #3225] for belief that Java was an unsubstantiated and mistaken origin.
134 Recognised as a species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506] and considered close to O. manadensis.
135 Includes steerei; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
136 Treated by Marshall (1978) [Marshall, 1978 #2501] as a subspecies of O. magicus, but restored to species rank by Rasmussen (1998) [Rasmussen, 1998 #3213] and Rasmussen et al. (2000) [Rasmussen, 2000 #3221].
137 Recognised as a species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
138 For treatment as a separate species from O. bakkamoena see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], also supported by vocal evidence (Marshall, 1978) [Marshall, 1978 #2501].
139 The case, based on vocal evidence, to split this species has yet to be convincingly tied to morphology, and vocal repertoire is apparently not yet understood (Wells, 1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
140 Includes manipurensis Roonwal & Nath, 1949 [Roonwal, 1949 #3379], and alboniger Koelz, 1952 [Koelz, 1952 #2248]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
141 Treated as a separate species by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]. Associated subspecies here signalled as a species group.
142 Includes stewarti Koelz, 1939 [Koelz, 1939 #2244]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
143 Not recognised by König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32], but see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
144 Includes aurorae Allison, 1946 [Allison, 1946 #52]; see Deignan (1950) [Deignan, 1950 #1212].
145 Includes hypnodes Deignan, 1950 [Deignan, 1950 #1210], and cnephaeus Deignan, 1950 [Deignan, 1950 #1210]; see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
146 For recognition see Smythies (1999) [Smythies, 1999 #3667] and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
147 Includes whiteheadi; see Dickinson (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
148 For treatment of this and O. everetti as separate species from O. megalotis see Miranda et al. (2011) [Miranda, 2011 #12791].
149 Includes boholensis; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
150 For treatment as a separate species from O. bakkamoena see Marshall & King in Amadon & Bull (1988) [Amadon, 1988 #4349].
151 Placed in Otus by Miranda et al. (2011) [Miranda, 2011 #12791].
152 Previously placed Otus; see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
153 Previously placed in Otus, but see Wink & Heidrich in König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
154 Includes margarethae; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
155 This name was proposed as a new name for Scops erlangeri Ogilvie-Grant, 1906, preoccupied in Otus. The name erlangeri seems unlikely to be preoccupied in Ptilopsis, but continued use of granti within a broad genus Otus by some authors would seem to prevent restoration; see Art. 59.3. (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
156 For treatment as a separate species from P. leucotis see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
157 Diagnosability questioned by Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] but see Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
158 Diagnosability of this and barberoi questionable (Holt et al. 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
159 This species and A. abyssinicus considered to form a superspecies with A. madagascariensis by Colston in Snow (1978) [Snow, 1978 #13852].
160 Formerly placed in monotypic Rhinoptynx, but Olson (1995) [Olson, 1995 #2857] transferred it to Pseudoscops. Wink et al. (2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009] found that it was the sister to A. otus.
161 Doubtfully diagnosable (Olson 1996) [Olson, 1996 #2859].
162 Garrido (2007) [Garrido, 2007 #10604] treated this as a separate species, with subspecies cubensis and portoricensis.
163 May deserve species rank; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], Garrido (2007) [Garrido, 2007 #10604] and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
164 May merit treatment as a separate species (Garrido 2007) [Garrido, 2007 #10604].
165 For treatment as separate from Otus and sister to Megascops see Proudfoot et al. (2007) [Proudfoot, 2007 #10636] and Wink et al. (2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009].
166 For treatment as monotypic, including rara and idahoensis, as well as borealis Hekstra 1982, meridionalis Hekstra, 1982 and frontalis Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931], see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], partly based on Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
167 For treatment as a separate genus from Otus see König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32] and Wink et al. 2009 [Wink, 2009 #12009].
168 Hekstra's new names are validly introduced only in his formal publication [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; his dissertation [Hekstra, 1982 #26] carried a disclaimer on the back cover (I.C.Z.N., 1999: Art. 8.2) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
169 For treatment as a separate species from M. asio see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500] and A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8]. Subspecies classification follows Cannings et al. (2009) [Cannings, 2009 #13874].
170 Includes brewsteri and saturatus; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
171 Correct original spelling. Spelling kennicotti in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
172 Treated as undiagnosable from bendirei by Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500], but see Cannings et al. (2009) [Cannings, 2009 #13874].
173 Includes clazus and quercinus; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
174 Includes inyoensis, cineraceus, mychophilus and gilmani; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500] and Cannings et al. (2009) [Cannings, 2009 #13874].
175 Includes sortilegus R.T. Moore, 1941 [Moore, 1941 #2715]; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
176 Includes sinaloensis; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
177 Described in O. vinaceus. For treatment as a separate species from O. asio and O. kennicottii see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500]. Includes colimensis Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
178 For continued treatment as a separate species from M. asio or M. kennicottii see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
179 For treatment as a subspecies of M. cooperi see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500], but see also König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32], Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143], and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
180 Includes chiapensis R.T. Moore, 1947 [Moore, 1947 #2719]; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
181 Subspecies classification follows Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500]. The subspecies name ocreatus Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #26] is unavailable, because the dissertation in which this name was published carried a disclaimer.
182 Includes swenki; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
183 Includes naevia; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
184 Includes semplei Sutton & Burleigh, 1939 [Sutton, 1939 #3785]; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
185 Subspecies classification follows Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
186 Includes pinosus, ridgwayi and guerrerensis; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500] and Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
187 Includes pumilus; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
188 Subspecies classification follows Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
189 Includes portoricensis Lesson = portoricensis Kelso; see Ridgway (1914) [Ridgway, 1914 #3282]. Also includes alticola and montanus Hekstra, 1982, caucae Hekstra, 1982, guyanensis Hekstra, 1982 and kelsoi Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931] see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985]. As regards the name kelsoi Hekstra, 1982, see Greenway (1987) [Greenway, 1987 #4878] and Browning (1989) [Browning, 1989 #538].
190 Perhaps also includes morelius Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Marshall in Browning (1989) [Browning, 1989 #538] taking account of type locality which excludes O. sanctaecatarinae. Not mentioned in Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] or König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
191 Correct original spelling. Variable, see David & Gosselin (2011) [David, 2011 #13197].
192 Correct original spelling. Spelling suturutus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
193 Includes caatingensis Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
194 Includes chapadensis Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
195 Includes alilicuco Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
196 Spelling selected by a First Reviser; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541] and Browning (1989) [Browning, 1990 #539].
197 Described as a subspecies of M. guatemalae. For recognition, placement as a subspecies of M. roboratus, and treatment of rufus Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931] as a synonym, see Johnson & Jones (1990) [Johnson, 1990 #12755]; may deserve species rank (König et al. 1999) [König, 1999 #32], König (2000) [König, 1998 #8964], Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #
198 For treatment as valid species, see Marshall and King in Amadon & Bull (1988) [Amadon, 1988 #4349] and Fjeldså et al. (2012) [Fjeldså, 2012 #14161].
199 Original spelling koepckei correctly emended by Greenway (1987) [Greenway, 1987 #4878] as Maria was clearly named.
200 For treatment as a separate species from M. ingens see Fitzpatrick & O'Neill (1986) [Fitzpatrick, 1986 #1558].
201 Includes aequatorialis and minima; see Fitzpatrick & O'Neill (1986) [Fitzpatrick, 1986 #1558].
202 Considered the sister species to M. colombianus by Fitzpatrick & O'Neill (1986) [Fitzpatrick, 1986 #1558], but for possible sister relationship to M. marshalli see König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
203 Forms a superspecies with M. petersoni; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
204 Probably includes ater Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Marshall in Browning (1989) [Browning, 1989 #538], although not mentioned by Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] or König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
205 First described in the Proc. Zool. Soc., London contra Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010]. Apparently includes inambarii Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931] and fulvescens Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32], but see Browning (1989) [Browning, 1989 #538].
206 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
207 Includes tomlini; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
208 Presumably includes pettingilli Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931], which Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] placed under hastatus, apparently a lapsus.
209 Doubtfully diagnosable; see Marshall (1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500] and Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
210 Includes peteni Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
211 Perhaps undiagnosable (Marshall 1967) [Marshall, 1967 #2500].
212 Treated as a separate species, including subspecies roraimae and napensis, by Meyer de Schauensee (1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678], Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
213 Includes inexpectus Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931], see Browning (1989) [Browning, 1989 #538]; also includes centralis Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931], see König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506]. Probably also includes pallidus Hekstra, 1982 [Hekstra, 1982 #1931]; see Appendix 2.2.
214 The name centralis was used at species level by Hardy et al. (1989) [Hardy, 1989 #13891] and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
215 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
216 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
217 Includes helleri L. Kelso, 1940 [Kelso, 1940 #2189], and bolivianus Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1941 [Bond, 1941 #424]; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], but see also Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143].
218 Tentatively treated as a species following Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], but see Vuilleumier et al. (1992) [Vuilleumier, 1992 #4066].
219 Several names coined by Hekstra (1982) [Hekstra, 1982 #1931] as subspecies of atricapilla are in the synonymy of the species M. watsonii.
220 May form a superspecies with M. guatemalae, M. hoyi and M. sanctaecatarinae; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
221 Correct original spelling. Invariable noun in opposition. Gender agreement in Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3020] thus incorrect.
222 Treated as a synonym of M. atricapilla by Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] but see König (1994) [König, 1994 #13932] and Heidrich et al. (1995) [Heidrich, 1995 #1925]. Maximus is a synonym of sanctaecatarinae; see Weick (2005) [Weick, 2005 #10306] and Mlíkovsky (2009) [Mlíkovsky, 2009 #11980].
223 The name argentinus mentioned by Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] cannot be attributed to Hekstra (1982) [Hekstra, 1982 #26] as this thesis carried a disclaimer, but the name may have been validly published before 1879 and might then have precedence over the name sanctaecatarinae for this species. See our Appendix 2.5.
224 Includes krugii Gundlach, 1874 [Gundlach, 1874 #1838]; see Lawrence (1878) [Lawrence, 1878 #13934].
225 Diagnosability questionable (Holt et al. 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
226 Subspecies classification follows Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], with the exception that the name aequatorialis is taken to apply to variants of nominate M. ingens, following Traylor (1952) [Traylor, 1952 #3860] and König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
227 Diagnosability questionable (Holt et al. 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985]; treated as a synonym of meridensis by Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143].
228 A replacement name for Gymnoglaux which was an objective homonym of Gymnasio both names belonging in the synonymy of Megascops.
229 Includes exsul; see Garrido (2000) [Garrido, 2000 #1681].
230 The disposition of the name P. perspicillata pintoi Kelso, 1939 [Kelso, 1939 #2188] is uncertain.
231 Doubtfully diagnosable from nominate perspicillata; see Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143].
232 Treated as a synonym of nominate perspicillata by Weick (2006) [Weick, 2006 #10143].
233 Treated as a separate species by König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32] and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
234 Forms a superspecies with P. koeniswaldiana; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
235 Diagnosability questionable (Holt et al. 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
236 Subspecies classification follows Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], except where indicated.
237 Doubtfully distinct; see Kinnear cited in Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] and Collar (2004) [Collar, 2004 #1017], who also suggested Hainan population may not belong here.
238 Treated as a separate species by König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32], but see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
239 Includes connectens Koelz, 1950 [Koelz, 1950 #2245]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
240 Treated as a separate species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
241 Not accepted by Mees (1986) [Mees, 1986 #2631]; but see also van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920] who quoted Mees (op. cit.) out of context.
242 Treated as a separate species by König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506].
243 Includes volhyniae Dunajewski, 1948 [Dunajewski, 1948 #1441]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
244 Includes clanceyi von Jordans, 1950 [von Jordans, 1950 #14229]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
245 Includes obscurata; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
246 Originally spelled härmsi but Dr. Harms was Estonian, and his name not evidently German in origin, so that the spelling 'haermsi' is unjustified; see Art.32.5.2.1 (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
247 Includes obrieni Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
248 Treated as a separate species by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
249 For recognition see Dickerman (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1352].
250 May deserve species rank, presumably including subspecies huachucae and juanaphillipsae; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
251 Forms a superspecies with S. fulvescens; see A.O.U. (1983) [A.O.U., 1983 #8].
252 Includes georgica and helveolum; see Pyle (1997) [Pyle, 1997 #13940], who implicitly included sablei, and Barrowclough et al. (2011) [Barrowclough, 2011 #13203].
253 May merit species rank or treatment as subspecies of S. fulvescens; see Barrowclough et al. (2011) [Barrowclough, 2011 #13203].
254 For treatment as a separate species from S. varia see Friedmann et al. (1950) [Friedmann, 1950 #10178].
255 For treatment as a separate species from S. rufipes see Straneck et al. (1995) [Straneck, 1995 #3757] and König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
256 Implicitly includes carpathica Dunajewski, 1940 [Dunajewski, 1940 #1440]; see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
257 Includes buturlini Dementiev, 1951 [Dementiev, 1951 #1308]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
258 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
259 Includes tatibanai; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. Also includes coreensis; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
260 May merit treatment as a separate species; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and Scherzinger (2005) [Scherzinger, 2005 #3490].
261 Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] listed this as a synonymn of coreensis, considering this preoccupied by S. japonica Temminck & Schlegel (now placed in Ninox); Art. 59.3 (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] allows reinstatement.
262 Includes elisabethae; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
263 Includes sokokensis Ripley & Bond, 1971 [Ripley, 1971 #3325]; see Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
264 Includes bohndorffi; see Chapin (1939) [Chapin, 1939 #13706].
265 Correct original spelling. Spelling woodfordi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
266 Implicitly includes amazonica L. Kelso, 1940 [Kelso, 1940 #2189]; see Holt et al. 1999 [Holt, 1999 #1985].
267 Formerly placed in the monotypic genus Nyctea; for transfer to Bubo see Wink & Heidrich (2000) [Wink, 1998 #4233].
268 Subspecies classification follows Houston et al. (1998) [Houston, 1998 #13930].
269 The name wapacuthu J.F. Gmelin, 1788 cannot be definitively associated with this species (or B. scandiacus); see Browning & Banks (1990) [Browning, 1990 #540].
270 For recognition see Gibson & Kessel (1997) [Gibson, 1997 #13862].
271 Diagnosability from saturatus questioned by Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
272 Includes occidentalis; see Dickerman (1991) [Dickerman, 1991 #12756]. Also includes scalariventris Snyder, 1961 [Snyder, 1961 #3676]; see Dickerman (2004) [Dickerman, 2004 #1355].
273 Doubtfully diagnosable from saturatus; see (Holt et al. 1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985].
274 Introduced to Iles Marquises (Hiva Oa).
275 For recognition see Webster & Orr (1958) [Webster, 1958 #12757].
276 Includes elutus and scotinus; see Traylor (1958) [Traylor, 1958 #11805].
277 For recognition see Traylor (1958) [Traylor, 1958 #11805].
278 Includes colombianus Lehmann, 1946 [Lehman, 1946 #4403]; see Traylor (1958) [Traylor, 1958 #11805].
279 Treated as a species by König et al. (1996, 1999) [König, 1996 #2271] [König, 1999 #32], Weick (2001) [Weick, 2001 #4100], Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985], Jaramillo (2003) [Jaramillo, 2003 #13739], and Wink et al. (2009) [Wink, 2009 #12009], but other, intervening South American taxa not yet studied.
280 Includes andicolus L. Kelso, 1941 [Kelso, 1941 #2190]; see Traylor (1958) [Traylor, 1958 #11805].
281 For determination of authorship see Traylor (1958) [Traylor, 1958 #11805].
282 Subspecies classification based on Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086], Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739], and Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
283 Considered to form a superspecies with B. virginianus, B. ascalaphus and B. capensis by Colston in Snow (1978) [Snow, 1978 #13852].
284 Includes ognevi Dementiev, 1952 [Dementiev, 1952 #1309], and meridionalis Orlando, 1957 [Orlando, 1957 #2872]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
285 Includes baschkirikus; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], who used the original spelling misused by Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010].
286 Includes zaissanensis; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
287 Includes gladkovi Zalataev, 1962 [Zalataev, 1962 #4291]; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721], although the name attaches to intermediates between this and omissus.
288 Includes dauricus and inexpectatus; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
289 Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] included auspicabilis, which was recognised by Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739].
290 Includes swinhoei, tenuipes and jarlandi; see Vaurie (1960) [Vaurie, 1960 #8352].
291 Correct original spelling. Spelling borrissowi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
292 For recognition see König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506], but species status controversial. Evidence of hybridization with B. b. interpositus summarised by Vaurie (1960, 1965) [Vaurie, 1960 #8352] [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], although he concluded the two were conspecific, a view supported by Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417].
293 Includes desertorum which is best treated as a colour morph occurring more often in southern areas (Vaurie, 1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
294 Treated as a separate species from B. bubo following Ramussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
295 For inclusion in B. africanus see Dowsett et al. (2008) [Dowsett, 2008 #12725]. Includes kollmannspergeri Niethammer, 1957 [Niethammer, 1957 #2771].
296 Includes tanae Keith & Twomey, 1968 [Keith, 1968 #2179]; see König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32]. These yellow-eyed birds may be an ingradient population.
297 For treatment as a subspecies of B. poensis see Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417] and Hunter et al. (1998) [Hunter, 1998 #13692].
298 Peters (1940) [Peters, 1940 #3010] placed this in Pseudoptynx; but see Delacour & Mayr (1945) [Delacour, 1945 #1287].
299 For placement in Bubo rather than Ketupa see König et al. (1999) [König, 1999 #32].
300 Includes piscivorus; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] and Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739].
301 Includes karafutonis; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] and Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875].
302 Wink et al. in König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506] subsumed this genus in Bubo but demonstrated that they formed a separate lineage.
303 Correct original spelling. Only substantiated in Dickinson (2012) [Dickinson, 2012 #13798].
304 Includes pageli; see Mayr (1938) [Mayr, 1938 #2545]. Also includes aagaardi; see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
305 The name minor is not available for this taxon if Ketupa is placed in the genus Bubo; see Chasen (1935) [Chasen, 1935 #708].
306 Wink et al. in König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506] subsume this genus in Bubo but demonstrate a two clade Bubo.
307 Included in Strix by many authors, e.g. Marks et al. (1999) [Marks, 1999 #2495].
308 Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] implicitly include minuscula Kelso, 1940 [Kelso, 1940 #2189], and occidentalis von Sneidern, 1955 [von Sneidern, 1955 #4447]; the latter name is preoccupied in Strix, and Eck (1971) [Eck, 1971 #1472] renamed it sneiderni. Neither taxon has been adequately evaluated.
309 Forms a superspecies with C. nigrolineata; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636]; they are possibly conspecific (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
310 For recognition see Partridge (1956) [Partridge, 1956 #12762].
311 Treated as monotypic by Holt et al. (1999) [Holt, 1999 #1985] and König & Weick (2008) [König, 2008 #13506]. Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) [Fjeldså, 1990 #1570] recognized only two subspecies but mistakenly used tertia for the name of the population that includes the type locality of opaca.
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