Back to families

ALCEDINIDAE - Kingfishers1 (18:91)
ALCEDININAE22
ISPIDINA Kaup, 1848 F - Todus pictus Boddaert, 1783; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 16).  
Ispidina lecontei3 African Dwarf Kingfisher
ruficeps Hartlaub, 18574 Sierra Leone to Ghana
lecontei Cassin, 18565 S Nigeria to S Uganda and N Angola [Cassin, 1856 #11486]
Ispidina picta6 African Pygmy Kingfisher
picta (Boddaert, 1783)7 vSenegal to Eritrea, south to Uganda and N Tanzania
ferrugina Clancey, 19848 vGuinea-Bissau to W Uganda south to NW Zambia [Clancey, 1984 #919]
natalensis (A. Smith, 1832) vS Angola, Zambia and S Tanzania to NE and lowland SE South Africa >> South Sudan, Uganda, C and E Kenya
CORYTHORNIS Kaup, 1848 M - Alcedo nais Kaup, 1848; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1849, The Genera of Birds, 3, App., p. 5).  9
Corythornis madagascariensis10 Madagascar Pygmy Kingfisher
madagascariensis (Linnaeus, 1766) vNW, N and E Madagascar
dilutus (Benson, 1974) vSW Madagascar [Benson, 1974 #272]
Corythornis leucogaster White-bellied Kingfisher
bowdleri (Neumann, 1908) Guinea to Mali and Ghana
leucogaster (Fraser, 1843)11 Nigeria to NW Angola, Bioko
leopoldi (A.J.C. Dubois, 1905) E PR Congo to S Uganda, south to NW Zambia
Corythornis cristatus12 African Malachite Kingfisher
galeritus (Statius Muller, 1776) vSenegal to Ghana
cyanostigma (Rüppell, 1837)13 Nigeria to Sudan, Ethiopia and W Somalia, south to C Angola, NW and S Zambia, E Zimbabwe and coastal NE South Africa [Rüppell, 1837 #15258]
nais (Kaup, 1848)14 Príncipe
thomensis Salvadori, 1902 vSão Tomé
robertsi (J.L. Peters, 1945)15 N Botswana
cristatus (Pallas, 1764) vS Namibia, South Africa and plateau Zimbabwe
Corythornis vintsioides16 Madagascar Malachite Kingfisher
vintsioides (Eydoux & Gervais, 1836) Madagascar
johannae R. Meinertzhagen, 192417 Comoros
CEYX Lacépède, 1799 M - Alcedo tridactyla Pallas, 1769; type by monotypy = Alcedo erithaca Linnaeus, 1758  18
Ceyx fallax Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfisher
†? sangirensis (A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1898) vSangir Is.
fallax (Schlegel, 1866) Sulawesi
Ceyx melanurus Philippine Dwarf Kingfisher
melanurus (Kaup, 1848) vLuzon, Polillo (Philippines)
samarensis Steere, 1890 vSamar, Leyte (Philippines)
mindanensis Steere, 1890 vMindanao, Basilan (Philippines)
Ceyx erithaca19,20 Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher
erithaca (Linnaeus, 1758)21 India to SE China south through mainland SE Asia to N Thai-Malay Pen. >> Sumatra, Bangka I., Belitung I., Simeulue I. and Batu Is. (off W Sumatra)
macrocarus Oberholser, 1917 vAndamans, Nicobars
rufidorsa Strickland, 184722,23,24 C and S Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas (except N and E Borneo), Philippines, Lesser Sundas east to Sumba and Flores
motleyi Chasen & Kloss, 1929 N and E Borneo
Ceyx lepidus25 Variable Dwarf Kingfisher
margarethae W. Blasius, 189026 Panay, Negros, Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu Arch. (Philippines)27
wallacii Sharpe, 1868 Sula Is.
uropygialis G.R. Gray, 1861 αvN Moluccas [Gray, 1861 #1799]
lepidus Temminck, 1836 vS Moluccas (except Buru)
cajeli Wallace, 1863 Buru (S Moluccas)
solitarius Temminck, 1836 vWestern Papuan Is., islands in Cenderawasih Bay, Aru Is., lowland New Guinea and islands off N coast, D'Entrecasteaux Arch.
dispar Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1914 Admiralty Is. (Bismarck Arch.)
mulcatus Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1914 vNew Hanover, New Ireland, Djaul I., Tabar Is., Lihir I. (Bismarck Arch.)
sacerdotis E.P. Ramsay, 1882 Umboi, New Britain and satellite islands (Bismarck Arch.)
meeki Rothschild, 190128 Buka, Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Isabel (N and C Solomons)
collectoris Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1901 vNew Georgia Is. (C Solomons)
malaitae Mayr, 1935 Malaita (SE Solomons)
nigromaxilla Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1905 Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
gentianus Tristram, 187929 δvSan Cristobal (SE Solomons)
Ceyx cyanopectus30 Indigo-banded Kingfisher
cyanopectus Lafresnaye, 1840 Luzon, Mindoro and smaller islands nearby (Philippines)
nigrirostris Bourns & Worcester, 1894 vCebu, Negros and Panay (Philippines)
Ceyx argentatus Silvery Kingfisher
flumenicola Steere, 1890 Bohol, Leyte and Samar (Philippines)
argentatus Tweeddale, 1877 vMindanao, Basilan, Dinagat and Siargao (Philippines)
Ceyx pusillus Little Kingfisher
halmaherae (Salomonsen, 1934)31 N Moluccas
laetior (Rand, 1941) vLowland N New Guinea (E coast of Cenderawasih Bay to Astrolabe Bay)
pusillus Temminck, 1836 vWestern Papuan Is. (Waigeo, Batanta, Misool), lowland NW (Vogelkop) to all S New Guinea and around SE tail to Huon Pen., Aru Is., D'Entrecasteaux Arch. (Goodenough I., Fergusson I.)32
ramsayi (North, 1912) Coast of NC Australia (Arnhem Land), Melville I., Bathurst I., Groote Eylandt, W Cape York Pen.
halli (Mathews, 1912) NE Australia (E Cape York Pen. to NE Queensland)33
masauji (Mathews, 1927) Umboi, New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, Djaul I., Tabar Is. (Bismarck Arch.)
bougainvillei (Ogilvie-Grant, 1914) Buka, Bougainville, Shortland, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Florida Is. (N and C Solomons)
richardsi (Tristram, 1882) New Georgia Is. (C Solomons)
aolae (Ogilvie-Grant, 1914) Malaita, Russell Is., Guadalcanal (SE Solomons)
Ceyx azureus Azure Kingfisher
affinis (G.R. Gray, 1861) αvN Moluccas
lessonii (Cassin, 1850)34 Western Papuan Is. (Waigeo, Batanta, Misool), lowland NW (Vogelkop) to all S New Guinea and around SE tail to Huon Pen., Aru Is., D'Entrecasteaux Arch. (Fergusson I.)
ochrogaster (Reichenow, 1903) Lowland N New Guinea (R. Mamberamo basin to R. Ramu basin and Astrolabe Bay), islands in Cenderawasih Bay (Numfoor I., Biak I., Yapen I.), Karkar I.
ruficollaris (Bankier, 1841)35 vN Australia (Kimberley Division to Cape York Pen.), Tanimbar Is. (?) (Lesser Sundas)
azureus (Latham, 1801)36 αvNE Queensland to SE and SC Australia (Mount Lofty Range)
diemenensis (Gould, 1846) vTasmania
Ceyx websteri   (E. Hartert, 1898) Bismarck Kingfisher
Umboi, New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, Lihir I. (Bismarck Arch.)
ALCEDO Linnaeus, 1758 F - Alcedo ispida Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Swainson, 1821, Zoological Illustrations, 1, pl. 26 and text).  
Alcedo euryzona Blue-banded Kingfisher
peninsulae Laubmann, 1941 SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo37
euryzona Temminck, 1830 vJava
Alcedo meninting Blue-eared Kingfisher
coltarti E.C.S. Baker, 1919 Foothills of C and E Himalayas (west to C Nepal), E and NE India, Bangladesh, continental SE Asia
phillipsi E.C.S. Baker, 192738 SW India, Sri Lanka
scintillans E.C.S. Baker, 1919 N Thai-Malay Pen.
rufigastra Walden, 1873 C and S Andamans
meninting Horsfield, 182139 C and S Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, SW Philippines (Palawan and satellites, Sulu Arch.), Sulawesi, Banggai Is., Sula Is., Lesser Sundas (Lombok)
Alcedo quadribrachys Shining-blue Kingfisher
quadribrachys Bonaparte, 1850 Gambia to WC Nigeria
guentheri Sharpe, 1892 S Nigeria to Uganda, N Angola and NW Zambia
Alcedo hercules   Laubmann, 1917 Blyth's Kingfisher
iE Himalayas (west to E Nepal), NE India, N and E continental SE Asia
Alcedo semitorquata Half-collared Kingfisher
heuglini Laubmann, 192540 Ethiopia
tephria Clancey, 195141 vNE and S Tanzania to Angola, Zimbabwe and C Mozambique [Clancey, 1951 #781]
semitorquata Swainson, 1823 vS Mozambique, E and coastal S South Africa
Alcedo atthis42 Common Kingfisher
ispida Linnaeus, 1758 NW and C Europe >> W, C and S Europe
atthis (Linnaeus, 1758) Mediterranean basin and E Europe to SW and C Asia >> N Africa and N Sudan
bengalensis J.F. Gmelin, 178843 vSE Siberia, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, N India, SE Xizang, China (except NW), continental SE Asia (except SE), Thai-Malay Pen., N Sumatra (?) >> E and SE Asia to Greater Sundas, Philippines, N Sulawesi, N Moluccas
taprobana O. Kleinschmidt, 1894 S India, Sri Lanka
floresiana Sharpe, 1892 vBali (?) and Lesser Sundas (east to Roma)
hispidoides Lesson, 1837 Talaud Is., Sangir Is., Sulawesi and satellites, Moluccas (south to Kai Is.), Western Papuan Is., coastal NE and SE New Guinea (Astrolabe Bay to Milne Bay), Bismarck Arch. (including Admiralty Is.), D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Louisiade Arch.
salomonensis Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1905 vNissan (Green Is.), Buka to San Cristobal (Solomons)
Alcedo coerulescens   Vieillot, 1818 Cerulean Kingfisher
iS Sumatra, Java, Bali, Kangean Is. (Java Sea), W Lesser Sundas (east to Sumbawa)
CERYLINAE
MEGACERYLE Kaup, 1848 F - Alcedo guttatus Vigors, 1831; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1871, A Monograph of the Alcedinidae, p. viii). = Ceryle guttulata Stejneger, 1892  44
Megaceryle lugubris Crested Kingfisher
continentalis (E. Hartert, 1900) vFoothills of W and C Himalayas (Kashmir to W Bhutan)
guttulata (Stejneger, 1892) vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to C Bhutan), NE India, C and S China, N continental SE Asia
pallida (Momiyama, 1927) vHokkaido (Japan), S Kuril Is.
lugubris (Temminck, 1834) vC and S Japan, Korea
Megaceryle maxima Giant Kingfisher
maxima (Pallas, 1769) vSenegal to N Nigeria, W Ethiopia and S Kenya, south to Angola, N Botswana and South Africa
gigantea (Swainson, 1837) vLiberia to S Nigeria and N Angola, east to W Tanzania; Bioko
Megaceryle torquata Ringed Kingfisher
torquata (Linnaeus, 1766) vS USA (S Texas) and Mexico (S Sinaloa, Nuevo León) to NW Peru, N Argentina and Uruguay
stictipennis (Lawrence, 1885)45 vGuadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)
stellata (Meyen, 1834) vS Chile, S Argentina >> north to C Chile, NE Argentina
Megaceryle alcyon 46,47  (Linnaeus, 1758) Belted Kingfisher
iAlaska to Newfoundland, south to C California, C Texas and N Florida >> south to N South America and West Indies
CERYLE Boie, 1828 M - Alcedo rudis J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 11). = Alcedo rudis Linnaeus, 1758  48
Ceryle rudis Pied Kingfisher
syriacus Roselaar, 199549 vAsia Minor and the Levant to SW Iran [Roselaar, 1995 #3385]
rudis (Linnaeus, 1758) Egypt; Senegal to Ethiopia south to South Africa
leucomelanurus Reichenbach, 1851 vE Afghanistan, S Asia to C and SE India, W and S Yunnan, continental SE Asia
travancoreensis Whistler, 193550 vSW India
insignis E. Hartert, 1910 vSE China, Hainan
CHLOROCERYLE Kaup, 1848 F - Alcedo superciliosa Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (Sharpe, 1871, A Monograph of the Alcedinidae, p. viii). = Alcedo aenea Pallas, 1764  51
Chloroceryle amazona 52  (Latham, 1790) Amazon Kingfisher
vC Mexico (S Sinaloa, S Tamaulipas) to W Colombia (Valle), C Argentina (Córdoba, N Buenos Aires) and Uruguay
Chloroceryle aenea American Pygmy Kingfisher
stictoptera (Ridgway, 1884) vS Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca, S Chiapas) to C Costa Rica
aenea (Pallas, 1764) vC Costa Rica to W Ecuador (Pichincha), C and S Brazil (Pará to São Paulo) and NE Argentina (Misiones)
Chloroceryle americana Green Kingfisher
hachisukai (Laubmann, 1941)53 SW USA (S Arizona, SW Texas), NW Mexico (Sonora to Coahuila and Nayarit)
septentrionalis (Sharpe, 1892)54 vS USA (SE Texas) and Mexico (Jalisco, Nuevo León) to N Colombia and W Venezuela
cabanisii (von Tschudi, 1846)55 W Colombia to N Chile (Arica)
americana (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)56 vE Ecuador to the Guianas, NE Bolivia and C Brazil (Rondônia, Pará, Bahia)
mathewsii Laubmann, 1927 E Bolivia and S Brazil (Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais) to C Argentina (Mendoza, N Buenos Aires)
Chloroceryle inda Green-and-rufous Kingfisher
inda (Linnaeus, 1766) vSE Nicaragua to N Colombia and east of Andes from Amazonia to NE Paraguay; coastal E Brazil
chocoensis Todd, 194357 vW Colombia to NW Ecuador (Esmeraldas)
HALCYONINAE5858
LACEDO Reichenbach, 1851 F - Dacelo pulchella Horsfield, 1821; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 16).  
Lacedo pulchella Banded Kingfisher
amabilis (Hume, 1873)59 vContinental SE Asia (except NW), N Thai-Malay Pen.
pulchella (Horsfield, 1821) vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, N Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Java
melanops (Bonaparte, 1850) Bangka I. (off SE Sumatra), Borneo
PELARGOPSIS Gloger, 1841 F - Alcedo javana Boddaert, 1783; type by subsequent designation (J.L. Peters, 1945, Check-list of Birds of the World, 5, p. 186).  
Pelargopsis capensis Stork-billed Kingfisher
capensis (Linnaeus, 1766)60 vNepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
osmastoni (E.C.S. Baker, 1934)61 Andamans [Baker, 1934 #4351]
intermedia Hume, 1874 vNicobars
burmanica Sharpe, 1870 vYunnan, continental SE Asia, N Thai-Malay Pen.
malaccensis Sharpe, 1870 vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Riau Arch. and Lingga Arch. (off E Sumatra)
cyanopteryx (Oberholser, 1909) Sumatra and SE satellites (Bangka I., Belitung I.)
simalurensis Richmond, 1903 vSimeulue I. (off W Sumatra)
sodalis Richmond, 190362 Banyak Is. to Mentawai Is. (off W Sumatra)
innominata (van Oort, 1910) vBorneo
javana (Boddaert, 1783)63 vJava
floresiana Sharpe, 187064 vBali and W Lesser Sundas (east to Flores) [Sharpe, 1870 #14296]
gouldi Sharpe, 1870 Lubang, Mindoro and Palawan (W Philippines)65
gigantea Walden, 187466 vC and S Philippines (including Sulu Arch.)
Pelargopsis melanorhyncha Black-billed Kingfisher
melanorhyncha (Temminck, 1826) vSulawesi and SE satellites
dichrorhyncha A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1896 vBanggai Is.
eutreptorhyncha E. Hartert, 1898 vSula Is.
Pelargopsis amauroptera   (J.T. Pearson, 1841) Brown-winged Kingfisher
vCoastal E India (Orissa) to (Bangladesh?) and W coastal mainland SE Asia to C Thai-Malay Pen.
HALCYON Swainson, 1821 F - Alcedo senegalensis Linnaeus, 1766; type by original designation  
Halcyon coromanda Ruddy Kingfisher
coromanda (Latham, 1790) vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to C Nepal), NE India, S Yunnan, mainland SE Asia to C Thai-Malay Pen. >> S Asia, mainland SE Asia, Sumatra
major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848)67 vJapan, Korea, extreme NE China >> Borneo, Philippines, N Sulawesi
bangsi (Oberholser, 1915) Tokara Is. and Ryukyu Is. (Japan), Taiwan and Lanyu I. >> Philippines, Talaud Is.
mizorhina (Oberholser, 1915) vAndamans and Nicobars
minor (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848) vS Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas and satellites
linae Hubbard & duPont, 1974 Palawan (Philippines) [Hubbard, 1974 #2030]
claudiae Hubbard & duPont, 1974 Tawi-Tawi Group (Sulu Arch.) [Hubbard, 1974 #2030]
rufa Wallace, 1863 vSulawesi and N and SE satellites
pelingensis Neumann, 1939 vBanggai Is.
sulana Mees, 1970 vSula Is. [Mees, 1970 #2614]
Halcyon smyrnensis White-throated Kingfisher
smyrnensis (Linnaeus, 1758) vNE Mediterranean basin to NW India
fusca (Boddaert, 1783) vN India (Uttarakhand to West Bengal), Sri Lanka
saturatior Hume, 1874 vAndamans
perpulchra von Madarász, 1904 vE India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, mainland SE Asia, Sumatra, W Java
fokiensis Laubmann & Gotz, 1926 vS and E China
gularis (Kuhl, 1820) vPhilippines
Halcyon cyanoventris   (Vieillot, 1818) Javan Kingfisher
vJava, Bali
Halcyon badia Chocolate-backed Kingfisher
obscuridorsalis Dickerman & Cane, 199468 vSierra Leone to Ghana [Dickerman, 1994 #1348]
badia J. & E. Verreaux, 185169 vS Nigeria to Gabon and E DR Congo, W Uganda; Bioko
Halcyon pileata   (Boddaert, 1783) Black-capped Kingfisher
vKorea, China (except NW), N continental SE Asia >> E India, Sri Lanka, SE Asia to Greater Sundas, Philippines, N Sulawesi
Halcyon leucocephala Grey-headed Kingfisher
acteon (Lesson, 1830) Cape Verde Is.
leucocephala (Statius Muller, 1776)70 vSenegal to Ethiopia, south to N DR Congo and N Tanzania
semicaerulea (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vYemen
hyacinthina Reichenow, 1900 vS Somalia to NE Tanzania
pallidiventris Cabanis, 1880 vS DR Congo and W Tanzania south to N Namibia and NE South Africa >> Kenya, Uganda and N DR Congo
Halcyon albiventris Brown-hooded Kingfisher
orientalis W. Peters, 186871 vS Somalia and coastal Kenya to C Mozambique, Malawi, N Zimbabwe, S Zambia and N Botswana
albiventris (Scopoli, 1786) vWestern Cape and Eastern Cape (South Africa)
vociferans Clancey, 1952 S Zimbabwe and S Mozambique to C and E South Africa [Clancey, 1952 #782]
prentissgrayi Bowen, 193072 PR Congo, Angola, S DR Congo, N Zambia, W and C Tanzania, S and C Kenya
Halcyon chelicuti Striped Kingfisher
eremogiton E. Hartert, 1921 C Mali to C Sudan
chelicuti (Stanley, 1814)73 Senegal to Nigeria and Ethiopia, E and S Africa to C Namibia and N and E South Africa
Halcyon malimbica Blue-breasted Kingfisher
torquata Swainson, 183774 vS Senegal to N Ghana
forbesi Sharpe, 1892 Sierra Leone to W Cameroon; Bioko
dryas Hartlaub, 1853 Príncipe
malimbica (Shaw, 1812)75 αvUganda south to NW Angola and NW Zambia
Halcyon senegalensis76 Woodland Kingfisher
fuscopileus Reichenow, 1906 Sierra Leone to DR Congo and N Angola
senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) vSenegal to Ethiopia and W Kenya
cyanoleuca (Vieillot, 1818) vS Angola to W Tanzania south to N Namibia, N and E Botswana and NE South Africa >> South Sudan and Kenya
Halcyon senegaloides 77  A. Smith, 1834 Mangrove Kingfisher
iCoastal E and SE Africa
CARIDONAX Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1860 M - Halcyon fulgidus Gould, 1857; type by monotypy  
Caridonax fulgidus 78  (Gould, 1857) White-rumped Kingfisher
vLombok to Flores (Lesser Sundas)
ACTENOIDES Bonaparte, 1850 M - Actenoides hombroni Bonaparte, 1850; type by monotypy  
Actenoides monachus Green-backed Kingfisher
monachus (Bonaparte, 1850)79 N and C Sulawesi
capucinus (A.B. Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1896) δSulawesi (except N and C)
Actenoides princeps80 Scaly Kingfisher
princeps (Reichenbach, 1851) NE Sulawesi
erythrorhamphus (Stresemann, 1931) δvNW and C Sulawesi
regalis (Stresemann, 1932) vSE Sulawesi
Actenoides bougainvillei Moustached Kingfisher
bougainvillei (Rothschild, 1904) Bougainville (N Solomons)
excelsus (Mayr, 1941) vGuadalcanal (SE Solomons)
Actenoides lindsayi Spotted Kingfisher
lindsayi (Vigors, 1831) Catanduanes, Marinduque, Luzon (Philippines)
moseleyi Steere, 1890 Negros, Panay (Philippines)
Actenoides hombroni 81  Bonaparte, 1850 Blue-capped Kingfisher
iMindanao (Philippines)
Actenoides concretus Rufous-collared Kingfisher
peristephes (Deignan, 1946) Extreme SW continental SE Asia, N Thai-Malay Pen. [Deignan, 1946 #1181]
concretus (Temminck, 1825) vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and satellites (Belitung I., Bangka I., Mentawai Is.)
borneanus (Chasen & Kloss, 1930) vBorneo
SYMA Lesson, 1827 F - Syma torotoro Lesson, 1827; type by monotypy  
Syma torotoro Yellow-billed Kingfisher
torotoro Lesson, 182782 Western Papuan Is. (Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati, Misool), lowland NW, SW and N New Guinea (Vogelkop to Astrolabe Bay in north and R. Fly region in south), Yapen I., Aru Is.
meeki Rothschild & E. Hartert, 190183 Lowland SE New Guinea (west to Huon Pen. in north and Gulf of Papua in south)
ochracea Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1901 vGoodenough I., Fergusson I., Normanby I. (D'Entrecasteaux Arch.)
flavirostris (Gould, 1850) vNE Australia (N and E Cape York Pen.)
Syma megarhyncha Mountain Kingfisher
wellsi Mathews, 1918 Montane WC New Guinea (Maoke Mts.)
sellamontis Reichenow, 1919 Montane NE New Guinea (mountains of Huon Pen.)
megarhyncha Salvadori, 1896 vMontane EC and SE New Guinea (central cordillera from Central Highlands to Owen Stanley Range)
TODIRAMPHUS Lesson, 1827 M - Todiramphus sacra Lesson, 1827; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 10). = Alcedo tuta J.F. Gmelin, 1788  84
Todiramphus nigrocyaneus Blue-black Kingfisher
nigrocyaneus (Wallace, 1862) vBatanta, Salawati, lowland NW and SW New Guinea (Vogelkop east to head of Cenderawasih Bay in north and R. Digul in south)
quadricolor (Oustalet, 1880) Lowland N New Guinea (E coast of Cenderawasih Bay to Astrolabe Bay), Yapen I.
stictolaemus (Salvadori, 1876) vLowland SC and SE New Guinea (west to R. Fly region)
Todiramphus winchelli85 Rufous-lored Kingfisher
nigrorum (Hachisuka, 1934) Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros and Samar (Philippines)
nesydrionetes (Parkes, 1966) Romblon, Sibuyan and Tablas (Philippines) [Parkes, 1966 #2918]
mindanensis (Parkes, 1966) vMindanao (Philippines) [Parkes, 1966 #2918]
winchelli (Sharpe, 1877)86 Basilan (Philippines)
alfredi (Oustalet, 1890) Sulu Arch. [Oustalet, 1890 #4418]
Todiramphus diops 87  (Temminck, 1824) Blue-and-white Kingfisher
iN Moluccas
Todiramphus lazuli   (Temminck, 1830) Lazuli Kingfisher
iAmbon, and Seram and satellites (S Moluccas)
Todiramphus macleayii Forest Kingfisher
elisabeth (F. Heine, Jr., 1883)88 δLowland SE New Guinea (savannas between R. Lakekamu and Cloudy Bay)
macleayii (Jardine & Selby, 1830)89 Sermata (E Lesser Sundas), Aru Is., NC Australia (Arnhem Land)
incinctus (Gould, 1838) vNE to EC Australia (including Cape York Pen.) >> SE Moluccas (Kai Is.), N, S and E New Guinea, Bismarck Arch. (New Britain)
Todiramphus albonotatus 90  (E.P. Ramsay, 1884) α New Britain Kingfisher/White-backed Kingfisher
vNew Britain (Bismarck Arch.)
Todiramphus leucopygius   (J. Verreaux, 1858) Ultramarine Kingfisher
vBuka, Bougainville, Fauro, Choiseul, Santa Isabel and satellite islets, Florida Is., Guadalcanal (Solomons)
Todiramphus farquhari   (Sharpe, 1899) Vanuatu Kingfisher
iEspíritu Santo, Aore, Malo, Malakula (Vanuatu)
Todiramphus funebris   (Bonaparte, 1850) Sombre Kingfisher
vHalmahera (N Moluccas)
Todiramphus chloris Collared Kingfisher
abyssinicus (von Pelzeln, 1856) vCoast of Red Sea and NW Somalia
kalbaensis (Cowles, 1980) vCoastal E Arabian Pen. (NE United Arab Emirates, NW Oman) [Cowles, 1980 #1070]
vidali (Sharpe, 1892) Coastal WC India (S Maharashtra to Goa)
davisoni (Sharpe, 1892) Coco Is. (off Myanmar) and Andamans
occipitalis Blyth, 1846 vNicobars
humii (Sharpe, 1892) Coastal E India (West Bengal), Bangladesh, W mainland SE Asia, NE Sumatra
armstrongi (Sharpe, 1892) Coastal EC to SE continental SE Asia
laubmannianus (Grote, 1933) vSumatra (except NE) and SE satellites, Borneo
chloropterus (Oberholser, 1919) vSimeulue I. to Mentawai Is. (off W Sumatra)
azelus (Oberholser, 1919) vEnggano I. (off W Sumatra)
palmeri (Oberholser, 1919) Java, Bali, and islands in Java Sea (Bawean I., Kangean I.)
collaris (Scopoli, 1786) vPhilippines (including Palawan Group)
chloris (Boddaert, 1783) Talaud Is., Sangir Is., Sulawesi, Moluccas, Lesser Sundas, Western Papuan Is. and NW New Guinea (W and S Vogelkop, including Bomberai Pen.)
sordidus (Gould, 1842) vCoastal SW to SE New Guinea (R. Mimika to Milne Bay), Aru Is., coastal NW to NE Australia
pilbara (R.E. Johnstone, 1983) Coastal WC Western Australia (Pilbara region) [Johnstone, 1983 #2148]
colcloughi (Mathews, 1916)91 Coastal EC to SE Queensland
colonus (E. Hartert, 1896) Islands off SE New Guinea (Egum Atoll, Alcester I., Bonvouloir Is., Louisiade Arch.)
teraokai (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1915) Palau
owstoni (Rothschild, 1904) Asuncion, Pagan, Alamagan (Northern Mariana Is.)
albicilla (C. Dumont, 1823) Saipan, Tinian (Northern Mariana Is.)
orii (Taka-Tsukasa & Momiyama, 1931) Rota (Northern Mariana Is.)
nusae (Heinroth, 1902) New Hanover and satellite islets, W New Ireland, Hibernian Is. (Bismarck Arch.)
matthiae (Heinroth, 1902) St. Matthias Group (Bismarck Arch.)
stresemanni (Laubmann, 1923) Long I., Umboi, Witu Is. and adjacent islets (Bismarck Arch.)
novaehiberniae (E. Hartert, 1925) Djaul I., S New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.)
bennetti (Ripley, 1947) Nissan (Green Is.) [Ripley, 1947 #3296]
tristrami (E.L. Layard, 1880) New Britain and satellite islets (Bismarck Arch.)
alberti (Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1905) Buka to Florida Is. and Guadalcanal (Solomons)
mala (Mayr, 1935) Malaita (SE Solomons)
pavuvu (Mayr, 1935) Russell Is. (SE Solomons)
solomonis (E.P. Ramsay, 1882) Uki, San Cristobal, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina (SE Solomons)
sororum (I.C.J. & E.H. Galbraith, 1962) Three Sisters Is. (SE Solomons) [Galbraith, 1962 #1646]
amoenus (Mayr, 1931) vRennell, Bellona (S Solomons)
brachyurus (Mayr, 1931) vSwallow Is. (Santa Cruz Is.)
vicina (Mayr, 1931) Duff Is. (Santa Cruz Is.)
ornatus (Mayr, 1931) vNdeni, Tinakula (Santa Cruz Is.)
utupuae (Mayr, 1931) Utupua (Santa Cruz Is.)
melanodera (Mayr, 1931) Vanikoro (Santa Cruz Is.)
torresianus (Mayr, 1931) vToga, Loh, Hiu (Torres Is., Vanuatu)
santoensis (Mayr, 1931) vBanks Is., Thion, Espíritu Santo (Vanuatu)
juliae (F. Heine, Sr., 1860) Maewo, Ambae, Malakula to Efaté (Vanuatu)
erromangae (Mayr, 1938) Erromango, Anatom (Vanuatu)
tannensis (Sharpe, 1892) vTanna (Vanuatu)
vitiensis (Peale, 1848) vFiji (except Kadavu and Lau Group)
eximius (Mayr, 1941) vKadavu and offshore islands (Fiji)
marinus (Mayr, 1941) vLau Group (Fiji)
regina (Mayr, 1941) Alofi, Futuna (Wallis and Futuna Is.)
sacer (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vC and S Tonga
pealei (Finsch & Hartlaub, 1867) Tutuila (American Samoa)
manuae (Mayr, 1941) Manu'a Is. (American Samoa)
Todiramphus enigma   (E. Hartert, 1904) Talaud Kingfisher
iTalaud Is.
Todiramphus cinnamominus Micronesian Kingfisher
pelewensis (Wiglesworth, 1891) vBabeldaob to Peleliu (Palau)
†? cinnamominus (Swainson, 1821) vGuam92
reichenbachii Hartlaub, 1852 Pohnpei (Caroline Is.)
†? Todiramphus miyakoensis   (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1919) Miyako Island Kingfisher
vMiyako-jima (Miyako Is.)
Todiramphus saurophagus Beach Kingfisher
saurophagus (Gould, 1843) vMoluccas, Western Papuan Is., islands in Cenderawasih Bay, coastal N New Guinea and adjacent islands, Bismarck Arch. (except outlying NW groups), D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Louisiade Arch., Solomons
anachoreta (Reichenow, 1898) Wuvulu I., Ninigo Group, Hermit Is., Kaniet Is. (NW Bismarck Arch.)
admiralitatis (Sharpe, 1892) Admiralty Is. (Bismarck Arch.)
Todiramphus sanctus Sacred Kingfisher
sanctus (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)93 vCoastal and subcoastal Australia, E Solomons >> New Guinea and satellite islands, Bismarck Arch., Solomons, Wallacea, Greater Sundas (west to Sumatra)
vagans (Lesson, 1828)94,95 αNew Zealand, Lord Howe I., Kermadec Is.
norfolkiensis (Tristram, 1885)96,97 δvNorfolk I.
recurvirostris Lafresnaye, 184298 vSamoa
canacorum (Brasil, 1916) New Caledonia, Ile des Pins
macmillani (Mayr, 1940) Loyalty Is.
Todiramphus australasia99 Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher
australasia (Vieillot, 1818) Lombok and Sumba to Timor (Lesser Sundas)
tringorum (Hellmayr, 1914) Roma (Lesser Sundas)
dammerianus (E. Hartert, 1900) vDamar and Babar (Lesser Sundas)
interpositus (E. Hartert, 1904) vLeti and Moa (E Lesser Sundas)
odites (J.L. Peters, 1945) Tanimbar Is. (Lesser Sundas)
Todiramphus tutus Chattering Kingfisher
tutus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSociety Is. (except Moorea)
atiu (Holyoak, 1974) Atiu (Cook Is.) [Holyoak, 1974 #1987]
mauke (Holyoak, 1974) Mauke (Cook Is.) [Holyoak, 1974 #1987]
ruficollaris (Holyoak, 1974)100,101 vMangaia (Cook Is.) [Holyoak, 1974 #1987]
Todiramphus veneratus Tahitian Kingfisher
youngi Sharpe, 1892 Moorea (Society Is.)
veneratus (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vTahiti (Society Is.)
Todiramphus gambieri Tuamotu Kingfisher
†? gambieri (Oustalet, 1895) Mangareva (Iles Gambier)
gertrudae Murphy, 1924 Niau (Tuamotu Arch.)
Todiramphus godeffroyi   (Finsch, 1877) Marquesan Kingfisher
iHiva Oa, Tahuata (Iles Marquises)
Todiramphus pyrrhopygius 102  (Gould, 1841) Red-backed Kingfisher
vInland and N Australia
CITTURA Kaup, 1848 F - Dacelo cyanotis Temminck, 1824; type by original designation  
Cittura cyanotis Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher
sanghirensis Sharpe, 1868 vSangir Is.
cyanotis (Temminck, 1824)103 vSulawesi and NE satellite (Lembeh I.)
TANYSIPTERA Vigors, 1825 F - Alcedo dea Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy = Tanysiptera nais G.R. Gray, 1861  
Tanysiptera galatea Common Paradise Kingfisher
emiliae Sharpe, 1871 Rau (N Moluccas)
doris Wallace, 1862 Morotai (N Moluccas)
browningi Ripley, 1983 Halmahera (N Moluccas) [Ripley, 1983 #3334]
brunhildae Jany, 1955 Doi (N Moluccas) [Jany, 1955 #2108]
margarethae F. Heine, Sr., 1860 αBacan (N Moluccas)
sabrina G.R. Gray, 1861 αKayoa (N Moluccas)
obiensis Salvadori, 1877 vObi and satellites (N Moluccas)
acis Wallace, 1863 Buru (S Moluccas)
boanensis Mees, 1964 vBoano (S Moluccas) [Mees, 1964 #2604]
nais G.R. Gray, 1861 αAmbon, and Seram to Gorong Is. (S Moluccas)
galatea G.R. Gray, 1859 vN Moluccas (Gebe), Western Papuan Is. (Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati), lowland NW New Guinea (Vogelkop to head of Cenderawasih Bay)
meyeri Salvadori, 1889 Lowland N New Guinea (R. Mamberamo drainage to Astrolabe Bay and R. Ramu drainage), Tarawai I., Karkar I.
minor Salvadori & D'Albertis, 1875 vLowland SC and SE New Guinea (west on N coast to Holnicote Bay and on S coast to R. Fly-R. Digul region)
vulcani Rothschild & E. Hartert, 1915 Manam I. (off NE New Guinea)
rosseliana Tristram, 1889 vRossel (Louisiade Arch.)
Tanysiptera ellioti   Sharpe, 1870 Kafiau Paradise Kingfisher
iKafiau (Western Papuan Is.)
Tanysiptera riedelii   J. Verreaux, 1866 Biak Paradise Kingfisher
iBiak I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
Tanysiptera carolinae   Schlegel, 1871 Numfoor Paradise Kingfisher
iNumfoor I. (in Cenderawasih Bay)
Tanysiptera hydrocharis   G.R. Gray, 1858 Little Paradise Kingfisher
iAru Is., lowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region)
Tanysiptera sylvia Buff-breasted Paradise Kingfisher
leucura Neumann, 1915 vUmboi (Bismarck Arch.)
nigriceps P.L. Sclater, 1877 New Britain, Duke of York I. (Bismarck Arch.)
salvadoriana E.P. Ramsay, 1879 αvLowland SE New Guinea (S coast between Hall Sound and Cloudy Bay)
sylvia Gould, 1850 NE Australia (E Cape York Pen. to NE Queensland) >> lowland New Guinea
Tanysiptera nympha   G.R. Gray, 1840 Red-breasted Paradise Kingfisher
iLowland NW and NE New Guinea (Vogelkop to head of Cenderawasih Bay; Huon Pen. to R. Watut and Astrolabe Bay)
Tanysiptera danae   Sharpe, 1880 Brown-headed Paradise Kingfisher
iLowland SE New Guinea (west on N coast to Huon Gulf and on S coast to R. Aroa)
MELIDORA Lesson, 1830 F - Melidora euphrosiae Lesson, 1830; type by monotypy = Dacelo macrorrhinus Lesson, 1827  
Melidora macrorrhina Hook-billed Kingfisher
waigiuensis E. Hartert, 1930 vWaigeo (Western Papuan Is.)
macrorrhina (Lesson, 1827) vBatanta, Salawati, Misool (Western Papuan Is.), lowland NW and S New Guinea (Vogelkop south and east around the SE tail to Huon Pen.)
jobiensis Salvadori, 1880 vLowland N New Guinea (E coast of Cenderawasih Bay to Astrolabe Bay and R. Ramu drainage)
DACELO W.E. Leach, 1815 F - Alcedo gigantea Latham, 1790; type by monotypy = Alcedo novaeguineae Hermann, 1783  104
Dacelo novaeguineae Laughing Kookaburra
minor Robinson, 1900 vNE Australia (Cape York Pen.)
novaeguineae (Hermann, 1783) NE Queensland to SC South Australia105
Dacelo leachii106 Blue-winged Kookaburra
intermedia Salvadori, 1876107 vLowland SW to SE New Guinea (woodlands of lower R. Mimika, Trans-Fly region and R. Lakekamu to Amazon Bay region)
cervina Gould, 1838108 vN Australia (Melville I., Bathurst I. and adjacent mainland)
leachii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827109 αN and NE Australia (except Melville I. and adjacent mainland)
occidentalis Gould, 1869 vWC Australia (Pilbara region)
Dacelo tyro Spangled Kookaburra
archboldi (Rand, 1938) Lowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region)
tyro G.R. Gray, 1858 Aru Is. (off SW New Guinea)
Dacelo gaudichaud   Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 Rufous-bellied Kookaburra
iGebe (N Moluccas), Western Papuan Is., lowland New Guinea, Mios Num I., Yapen I. (in Cenderawasih Bay), Aru Is.
Dacelo rex Shovel-billed Kookaburra
rex (Sharpe, 1880) Lower montane C, NE and SE New Guinea (central cordillera and mountains of Huon Pen., except range of imperator)
imperator (van Oort, 1909) S slopes of lower montane WC New Guinea (Maoke Mts.)

1 Recognition of three subfamilies and sequence of genera derived from Moyle (2006) [Moyle, 2006 #9979], with placement of unsampled genera extrapolated from Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
2 Circumscription of genera and their sequence based on Moyle et al. (2007) [Moyle, 2007 #9982]; but see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
3 Peters (1945) [Peters, 1945 #3013] used the monotypic genus Myioceyx; but see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
4 For recognition see Dickerman (1993) [Dickerman, 1993 #1345].
5 Includes ugandae; see Dickerman (1993) [Dickerman, 1993 #1345].
6 Treatment of this species and lecontei in Ispidina follows Marks & Willard (2005) [Marks, 2005 #9967].
7 Includes jubaensis; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
8 Correct original spelling; ferruginea is an ISS.
9 For recognition see Forshaw & Cooper (1983) [Forshaw, 1983 #13694] and Moyle (2006) [Moyle, 2006 #9979].
10 For treatment in Corythornis see Marks & Willard (2005) [Marks, 2005 #9967].
11 Includes batesi; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
12 Subspecies recognition follows Clancey (1980) [Clancey, 1980 #909] and Clancey (1990) [Clancey, 1990 #13818].
13 Includes stuartkeithi Dickerman, 1989 [Dickerman, 1989 #1342]; see Clancey (1990) [Clancey, 1990 #13818].
14 For restoration to C. cristatus rather than C. leucogaster see Melo & Fuchs (2008) [Melo, 2008 #13695]. For previous treatment see Fry & Fry (1992) [Fry, 1992 #1628].
15 For recognition see Clancey (1978) [Clancey, 1978 #13817].
16 For treatment as a separate species from C. cristatus see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268]; thus treated here as an allospecies.
17 For recognition see Benson (1960) [Benson, 1960 #261].
18 Species potentially separable in Alcyone (type species australis = azureus) are included pending further molecular study.
19 For correct spelling of erithaca see David & Gosselin (2000) [David, 2000 #1123].
20 For incomplete speciation and consequent variability see Lim et al. (2010) [Lim, 2010 #12390].
21 Includes jungei; see Fry & Fry (1992) [Fry, 1992 #1628].
22 Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] considered rufidorsa applicable to a colour morph, however the name correctly applies to rufous-backed southern form which after differentiation made renewed contact with erithacus and successfully interbreeds so that much of its range is occupied by intergrades; see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
23 Includes vargasi see Dickinson (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361] and, provisionally captus which, contra van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #39220], requires re-evaluation based on dorsal colouration.
24 Correct original spelling; invariable see David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1124].
25 Molecular evidence (Moyle, 2006) [Moyle, 2006 #9979] shows this broad species will need splitting when taxon-sampling suffices.
26 An extremely variable population; the many synonyms include goodfellowi and virgicapitus; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
27 Apparently absent from the E Visayas (Samar and Leyte), Luzon and the Palawan group; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
28 Includes pallidus; see Schodde (1977) [Schodde, 1997 #13675].
29 Variable. Spelling gentiana in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] not adjusted.
30 Ceyx argentatus is an allospecies; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
31 For recent recognition of this and laetior see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268]; for treatment as synonyms of nominate pusillus see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
32 Not recognised as occurring in NE Australia; see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523], but see Higgins (1999) [Higgins, 1999 #1962] and Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
33 Population on Cape York Pen. placed here following Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523]; but see Higgins (1999) [Higgins, 1999 #1962] and Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
34 Includes wallaceana, given as doubtfully distinct by Peters (1945) [Peters, 1945 #3013].
35 Implicitly includes yamdenae; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194]; but see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268]. Also includes pulchra; see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
36 Includes mixta, see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1976) [Schodde, 1976 #3504].
37 For attribution of these populations to this form see Mees (1971) [Mees, 1971 #2616].
38 For recognition with this range see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268]. Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332] restricted this form to Sri Lanka.
39 Populations throughout this range show much individual variation and no real size difference (Mees 1986) [Mees, 1986 #2631]; Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118] agreed; thus nominate meninting includes verreauxii, proxima, subviridis, callima and amadoni duPont, 1971 [duPont, 1971 #1443]. But see also Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
40 For recognition see Fry in Fry et al. (1988) [Fry, 1988 #1625].
41 For recognition see Turpie in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
42 Forms a superspecies with A. semitorquata and A. hercules; see Fry in Snow (1978) [Snow, 1978 #13852].
43 Includes japonica; see Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875]. Also implicitly includes pallasii; see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
44 For treatment as separate from Ceryle see Moyle (2006) [Moyle, 2006 #9979].
45 Lawrence's paper was split between two deliveries and this was in the 1885 delivery; see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
46 Includes caurina; see Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151] and Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
47 Forms a superspecies with M. lugubris, M. maxima and M. torquata; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
48 Gender addressed by David & Gosselin (2002) [David, 2002 #1125]; but Megaceryle remained feminine.
49 Validity questioned by Kasparek (1996) [Kasparek, 1996 #2169] and Kirwan et al. (2008) [Kirwan, 2008 #13632].
50 For correct authorship see Pittie & Dickinson (2010) [Pittie, 2010 #12619].
51 Species sequence derived from Moyle (2006) [Moyle, 2006 #9979].
52 Includes mexicana; see Fry & Fry (1992) [Fry, 1992 #1628].
53 Peters (1945) [Peters, 1945 #3013] dated this 1942 but seven pages later dated Laubmann's other new name from this same work 1941. The author signed the paper on 25 January 1941; although 1941 is adopted here for consistency, proof is lacking.
54 Includes isthmica; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268]. Also implicitly includes bottomeana Aveledo & Perez, 1994 [Aveledo, 1994 #119]; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268], but see also Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
55 Includes hellmayri and ecuadorensis Yamashina, 1943 [Yamashina, 1943 #4279]; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
56 Includes croteta; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
57 Treated as a synoynym of nominate inda by Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268] and others, but see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
58 We use this subfamily following Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268] and Moyle (2006) [Moyle, 2006 #9979].
59 Includes deignani Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 [Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 #2668]; see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118], type locality N of Trang.
60 Stresemann (1952) [Stresemann, 1952 #3767] placed the type locality of gurial at Chandernagore and Ripley (1961) [Ripley, 1961 #3310] placed the name in the synonymy of capensis.
61 Includes shekarii Abdulali, 1964 [Abdulali, 1964 #14]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
62 Includes nesoeca and isoptera; see van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920].
63 We follow corrections of names by Mees (1971) [Mees, 1971 #2616] and his reasons to recognise the Bornean population, also followed by Smythies (1981) [Smythies, 1981 #31].
64 First published in Sharpe's Monograph (see cross-reference link after range statement) not in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society (Mees 2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
65 Despite Luzon being the type locality very probably not collected there; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
66 Includes smithi; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
67 Includes ochrothorectis; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
68 For recognition see Gatter (1997) [Gatter, 1997 #14189]; but see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
69 Implicitly includes lopezi and budongensis; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
70 Includes centralis; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
71 Includes erlangeri; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
72 Thought to include hylophila Clancey, 1986 [Clancey, 1986 #930]; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
73 Includes damarensis; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
74 Includes fortis; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
75 Includes prenticei; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
76 Forms a superspecies with H. senegaloides; see Fry in Snow (1978) [Snow, 1978 #13852].
77 Includes ranivorus; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
78 Includes gracilirostris; see Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094].
79 Includes intermedius; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
80 For reasons to retain princeps see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194]. The name kleinschmidti Laubmann, 1950 [Laubmann, 1950 #2334] was proposed as a nomen novum for that.
81 Previously treated as part of A. lindsayi, but see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361] where burtoni duPont, 1976 [duPont, 1976 #1448], was a synonym.
82 Includes brevirostris, pseustes and tentelare; see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2626].
83 For recognition see Coates (1985) [Coates, 1985 #1002]. But see Woodhall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
84 For recognition as distinct from the genus Halcyon see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
85 For recognition of all these subspecies see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
86 Dual original spellings; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
87 Forms a superspecies with T. lazuli, T. macleayii, T. albonotatus, T. leucopygius and T. farquhari; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
88 Correct original spelling; see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2626]. Spelling elizabeth, used by Peters (1945) [Peters, 1945 #3013] and Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
89 Includes insularis; see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2626].
90 Apparently first published in the Abstracts which appeared earlier than the journal page usually cited.
91 For recognition of this form see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
92 Extinct in the wild.
93 Includes westralasiana; see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
94 Includes adamsi; see Fry & Fry (1992) [Fry, 1992 #1628].
95 For correct citation to original source and date see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
96 For recognition see Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
97 Correct original spelling. Spelling norkolkiensis in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
98 Quite widely treated at specific level as Flat-billed Kingfisher following Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], but see Fry & Fry (1992) [Fry, 1992 #1628] and Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
99 Subspecies recognition follows Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
100 A substitute name mangaia Holyoak, 1976 [Holyoak, 1976 #1988], was proposed, but see Schodde & Holyoak (1977) [Schodde, 1977 #3505].
101 May merit treatment as a separate species see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
102 Includes obscurus; see Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
103 Includes modesta; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
104 Includes Clytoceyx based on molecular distance in Moyle (2006) [Moyle, 2006 #9979].
105 Introduced to SW Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand (North Island).
106 Circumscription of subspecies follows Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268]; but see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2626] and Schodde in Schodde & Mason (1997) [Schodde, 1997 #3523].
107 Includes superflua; see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
108 For recognition see Woodall (2001) [Woodall, 2001 #4268].
109 For date correction see Raphael (1970) [Raphael, 1970 #3206].
Top