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PICIDAE - Wrynecks, Piculets and Woodpeckers1 (33:218)
JYNGINAE
JYNX Linnaeus, 1758 F - Jynx torquilla Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  
Jynx torquilla Northern Wryneck/Eurasian Wryneck
torquilla Linnaeus, 1758 Europe south to Alps, Bulgaria, Caucasus area >> sub-Saharan Africa
sarudnyi von Loudon, 1912 W Siberia (east to R. Yenisey) >> NE Africa, SW and S Asia
chinensis Hesse, 1911 vE Siberia, N Korea, NE and NC China >> S China, mainland SE Asia to (rarely) C Thai-Malay Pen.
japonica Bonaparte, 18502 vSakhalin, S Kuril Is., Hokkaido and N Honshu >> S Japan
himalayana Vaurie, 1959 vFoothills of W Himalayas (N Pakistan to Kashmir), S Xizang [Vaurie, 1959 #3960]
tschusii O. Kleinschmidt, 1907 Iberia (?), Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, Croatia to Greece (?)
mauretanica Rothschild, 1909 vNW Africa
Jynx ruficollis Rufous-breasted Wryneck
pulchricollis Hartlaub, 1884 vW DR Congo to W South Sudan and W Uganda
aequatorialis Rüppell, 1842 vEthiopia
ruficollis Wagler, 18303 vKenya to Angola and E South Africa
thorbeckei Reichenow, 19124 Cameroon
PICUMNINAE
VERREAUXIA Hartlaub, 1857 F - Sasia africana J. & E. Verreaux, 1855; type by original designation and monotypy  5
Verreauxia africana   (J. & E. Verreaux, 1855) African Piculet
vSierra Leone to Ghana; Nigeria to C DR Congo, Gabon and NW Angola
SASIA Hodgson, 1837 F - Sasia ochracea Hodgson, 1837; type by original designation and monotypy  
Sasia abnormis Rufous Piculet
abnormis (Temminck, 1825) vThai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas
magnirostris E. Hartert, 1901 vNias I. (off W Sumatra)
Sasia ochracea White-browed Piculet
ochracea Hodgson, 1837 αvHimalayan foothills (east from Uttarakhand), SE Xizang, N continental SE Asia
reichenowi Hesse, 19116 NE India, Bangladesh, W and S Yunnan, W and S continental SE Asia
kinneari Stresemann, 1929 SE China, N Vietnam
PICUMNUS Temminck, 1825 M - Picumnus minutissimus Temminck, 1825; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 54). = Picumnus buffoni Lafresnaye, 1845  7,8
Picumnus innominatus Speckled Piculet
innominatus E. Burton, 18369 vNE Afghanistan, Himalayan foothills (east from N Pakistan), NE India, SE Xizang
malayorum E. Hartert, 191210 S and E India, Bangladesh, SW Yunnan, mountains of mainland SE Asia, Sumatra and Borneo
chinensis (Hargitt, 1881) vS and C China
Picumnus aurifrons Bar-breasted Piculet
flavifrons Hargitt, 1889 NE Peru (Loreto, east of R. Ucayali), W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to lower R. Tefé)
juruanus Gyldenstolpe, 1941 vE Peru (Ucayali), W Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Juruá), N Bolivia (Pando, N La Paz, NW Beni)
purusianus Todd, 1946 vSW Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Purus)
wallacii Hargitt, 1889 C Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, middle and lower R. Purus to lower R. Madeira)
borbae von Pelzeln, 187011 C Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, lower R. Madeira to lower R. Tapajós)
aurifrons von Pelzeln, 1870 SC Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Madeira to upper R. Tapajós), NE Bolivia (N Santa Cruz, ?E Beni)
transfasciatus Hellmayr & Gyldenstolpe, 1937 vE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Tapajós to R. Tocantins)
Picumnus pumilus 12  Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863 Orinoco Piculet
vE Colombia (Vichada to Vaupés), NW Brazil (NW Amazonas), SW Venezuela (SW Amazonas)
Picumnus lafresnayi13,14 Lafresnaye's Piculet
lafresnayi Malherbe, 1862 Lowlands and E Andean foothills of SC Colombia and E Ecuador to N Peru (W Loreto, N San Martín)
punctifrons Taczanowski, 1886 E Andean foothills of N Peru (SE Amazonas)
taczanowskii Domaniewski, 1925 E Andean foothills of C Peru (Huánuco to NE Ayacucho)
pusillus O.M. de O. Pinto, 1936 vWC Amazonian Brazil (along R. Amazon, Codajás to R. Negro)
Picumnus exilis Golden-spangled Piculet
salvini Hargitt, 189315 NE Venezuela (SE Sucre to C Delta Amacuro)
clarus J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1946 vE Venezuela (S Delta Amacuro, E Bolívar)
undulatus Hargitt, 1889 vC and S Venezuela (Amazonas, W Bolívar), W Guyana, N Brazil (N Roraima)
buffonii Lafresnaye, 184516 δSurinam, French Guiana, N Brazil (Amapá)
pernambucensis J.T. Zimmer, 1947 vCoastal NE Brazil (E Pernambuco, Alagoas) [Zimmer, 1947 #4302]
alegriae Hellmayr, 1929 NE Brazil (NE Pará, NW Maranhão)
exilis (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vCoastal E Brazil (E Bahia to Espírito Santo)
Picumnus sclateri Ecuadorian Piculet
parvistriatus Chapman, 1921 vW Ecuador (C Manabí to Guayas)
sclateri Taczanowski, 1877 SW Ecuador (El Oro, Loja) and NW Peru (Tumbes)
porcullae J. Bond, 1954 NW Peru (N and E Piura, NE Lambayeque) [Bond, 1954 #431]
Picumnus squamulatus Scaled Piculet
roehli J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1944 N Colombia (Cesar, Norte de Santander), N Venezuela (NE Zulia to W Sucre and Monagas)
lovejoyi W.H. Phelps, Jr. & Aveledo, 198717 N Colombia (NE Magdalena), NW Venezuela (NW Zulia) [Phelps, 1987 #3054]
apurensis W.H. Phelps, Jr. & Aveledo, 1987 vW and NC Venezuela (SW Apure to Guárico and Anzoátegui) [Phelps, 1987 #3054]
obsoletus J.A. Allen, 189218 vNE Venezuela (NE Sucre)
squamulatus Lafresnaye, 1854 vNE and EC Colombia (Arauca to Meta)
Picumnus spilogaster19 White-bellied Piculet
orinocensis J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1950 vC and E Venezuela (along R. Orinoco from SE Apure to Delta Amacuro) [Zimmer, 1950 #4313]
spilogaster Sundevall, 186620 North parts of the Guianas; N Brazil (along R. Branco in Roraima)
pallidus E. Snethlage, 192421 vNE Amazonian Brazil (NE Pará)
Picumnus minutissimus   (Pallas, 1782) Arrowhead Piculet
vN parts of the Guianas
Picumnus pygmaeus 22  (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Spotted Piculet
vNE and E Brazil (Maranhão and W Ceará to W Pernambuco, NE Goiás and N Minas Gerais)
Picumnus steindachneri   Taczanowski, 1882 Speckle-chested Piculet
iAndes of N Peru (SE Amazonas, NW San Martín)
Picumnus varzeae   E. Snethlage, 1912 Varzea Piculet
iNC Amazonian Brazil (along R. Amazon, R. Madeira to R. Tapajós)
Picumnus cirratus23,24 White-barred Piculet
1 confusus Kinnear, 1927 vN Brazil (NE Roraima), SW Guyana; coastal French Guiana
1 macconnelli Sharpe, 1901 NE Amazonian Brazil (R. Tapajós to SE Amapá and NE Pará)
2 thamnophiloides J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1942 Andes of S Bolivia (Chuquisaca) to NW Argentina (W Salta)
2 tucumanus E. Hartert, 1909 vNW Argentina (C Salta to E La Rioja)
2 pilcomayensis Hargitt, 1891 vSE Bolivia (S Santa Cruz) and W Paraguay to NC Argentina (Santiago del Estero, N Buenos Aires)
2 cirratus Temminck, 1825 vSE and S Brazil (SE Bahia to Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná), E Paraguay
Picumnus dorbignyanus25 Ocellated Piculet
jelskii Taczanowski, 1882 E slope of Andes of SC Peru (S Huánuco to Cuzco)
dorbignyanus Lafresnaye, 184526 δvAndes of N Bolivia (La Paz) to NW Argentina (Salta)
Picumnus temminckii   Lafresnaye, 1845 Ochre-collared Piculet
iSE Brazil (São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Picumnus albosquamatus White-wedged Piculet
albosquamatus d'Orbigny, 1840 vNC and E Bolivia (La Paz to Santa Cruz)
guttifer Sundevall, 186627 C and S Brazil (SE Pará and S Maranhão to Mato Grosso do Sul and W São Paulo)
Picumnus fuscus 28  von Pelzeln, 1870 Rusty-necked Piculet
vR. Guaporé drainage in NE Bolivia (N Beni, N Santa Cruz) and SW Brazil (S Rondônia, SW Mato Grosso)
Picumnus rufiventris Rufous-breasted Piculet
rufiventris (Bonaparte, 1838) vSC Colombia, E Ecuador, NE Peru, W Brazil (SW Amazonas)
grandis Carriker, 1930 vE Peru, W Brazil (Acre)
brunneifrons Stager, 1968 N and C Bolivia (Pando to N Cochabamba) [Stager, 1968 #3692]
Picumnus fulvescens 29  Stager, 1961 Tawny Piculet
iNE Brazil (S Ceará to Paraíba and Alagoas) [Stager, 1961 #3691]
Picumnus limae   E. Snethlage, 1924 Ochraceous Piculet
iNE Brazil (N Ceará)
Picumnus nebulosus   Sundevall, 1866 Mottled Piculet
vSE Brazil (Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul), NE Argentina (Misiones, NE Corrientes), C and E Uruguay
Picumnus castelnau   Malherbe, 1862 Plain-breasted Piculet
iSE Colombia (along R. Amazon in SE Amazonas), NE and E Peru (along R. Amazon and R. Ucayali)30
Picumnus subtilis   Stager, 1968 Fine-barred Piculet
vFoothills of SE Peru (N and E Cuzco, W Madre de Dios, NW Puno), W Brazil (Acre) [Stager, 1968 #3693]
Picumnus olivaceus31 Olivaceous Piculet
dimotus Bangs, 1903 vCaribbean slope of NE Guatemala to E Nicaragua
flavotinctus Ridgway, 188932 vSW Costa Rica to WC Panama (Azuero Pen.); EC Panama (C Panamá) to extreme NW Colombia (N Chocó)
olivaceus Lafresnaye, 184533 vNC Colombia (Córdoba to Bolívar, then south in C Andes and on W slope of E Andes)
eisenmanni W.H. Phelps, Jr. & Aveledo, 196634 Sierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border) [Phelps, 1966 #3048]
tachirensis W.H. Phelps, Sr. & Gilliard, 1941 vAndes of SW Venezuela (Táchira), E slope of E Andes of NE Colombia (Norte de Santander)
harterti Hellmayr, 1909 SW Colombia (SW Nariño) to NW Peru (Tumbes)
Picumnus granadensis Grayish Piculet
antioquensis Chapman, 191535 vW Andes of Colombia (south to Chocó)
granadensis Lafresnaye, 1847 vWC Colombia (middle and upper Cauca valley, upper Dagua valley)
Picumnus cinnamomeus Chestnut Piculet
cinnamomeus Wagler, 1829 vN Colombia (Atlántico to Guajira, south to NE Antioquia and C Cesar)
persaturatus Haffer, 1961 vNW Colombia (Serranía de San Jacinto in NW Bolívar) [Haffer, 1961 #1868]
perijanus J.T. Zimmer & W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1944 vNW Venezuela (N Zulia)
larensis Aveledo, 199836 vNW Venezuela (NW Lara, W and C Falcón) [Aveledo, 1998 #120]
venezuelensis Cory, 1913 vW Venezuela (S Zulia to W Trujillo)
PICINAE

Tribe NESOCTITINI
NESOCTITES Hargitt, 1890 M - Picumnus micromegas Sundevall, 1866; type by original designation and monotypy  
Nesoctites micromegas Antillean Piculet
micromegas (Sundevall, 1866) Hispaniola
abbotti Wetmore, 1928 Ile de la Gonâve (off W Hispaniola)
Tribe HEMICIRCINI37
HEMICIRCUS Swainson, 1837 M - Picus concretus Temminck, 1821; type by monotypy  
Hemicircus concretus Grey-and-buff Woodpecker
sordidus (Eyton, 1845)38 vExtreme SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra (including Mentawai Is. and Bangka I.), Borneo
concretus (Temminck, 1821) vW and C Java
Hemicircus canente 39  (Lesson, 1832) α Heart-spotted Woodpecker
iW, E and NE India, Bangladesh, continental SE Asia (except extreme NW and NE), N Thai-Malay Pen.
Tribe PICINI40
GEOCOLAPTES Swainson, 1832 M - Picus terrestris Burchell, 1824; type by original designation and monotypy = Picus olivaceus J.F. Gmelin, 1788  
Geocolaptes olivaceus 41  (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) Ground Woodpecker
vW, S and E South Africa (north to Mpumalanga), Lesotho
CAMPETHERA G.R. Gray, 1841 F - Dendromus brachyrhynchus Swainson, 1837; type by original designation = Picus maculosus Valenciennes, 1826  
Campethera punctuligera Fine-spotted Woodpecker
punctuligera (Wagler, 1827)42 vSenegal to Nigeria and Central African Republic
balia (von Heuglin, 1871) vS Chad, S Sudan, N DR Congo
Campethera bennettii Bennett's Woodpecker
1 bennettii (A. Smith, 1836)43 W Tanzania, SE DR Congo and N Angola to NW Malawi, Zimbabwe, S Mozambique, N and NE South Africa
1 capricorni Strickland, 185344 S Angola, N Namibia to N Botswana, SW Zambia
2 scriptoricauda (Reichenow, 1896)45,46 C and E Tanzania, N Mozambique, C and SE Malawi
Campethera nubica47 Nubian Woodpecker
nubica (Boddaert, 1783) vSudan, Ethiopia, N Somalia to Uganda, Kenya (except coast), N and C Tanzania
pallida (Sharpe, 1902) vS Somalia, coastal Kenya
Campethera abingoni Golden-tailed Woodpecker
chrysura (Swainson, 1837)48 vGambia to Central African Republic, S South Sudan, NE DR Congo and W Uganda
kavirondensis van Someren, 1926 vSW Kenya to C Tanzania
suahelica (Reichenow, 1902)49 vS Tanzania to E Zimbabwe, Mozambique, NE South Africa
abingoni (A. Smith, 1836)50 Angola (except SW), SE DR Congo and W Tanzania to NE Namibia, Botswana (except SW) and N South Africa
anderssoni (Roberts, 1936) SW Angola, Namibia (except NE), SW Botswana, NW South Africa
constricta Clancey, 1965 vSwaziland, KwaZulu-Natal [Clancey, 1965 #823]
Campethera mombassica 51  (G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884) Mombasa Woodpecker
vS Somalia, coastal Kenya, NE Tanzania
Campethera notata 52,53  (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) Knysna Woodpecker
vS KwaZulu-Natal to S Western Cape
Campethera cailliautii Green-backed Woodpecker
permista (Reichenow, 1876)54 vE Ghana to S Central African Republic, SW Ethiopia and SW Uganda, south to C DR Congo and NW Angola
nyansae (Neumann, 1900)55 SW Kenya, W Tanzania to E DR Congo, NE Angola and N Zambia
cailliautii (Malherbe, 1849) S Somalia to NE Tanzania
loveridgei E. Hartert, 192056 EC Tanzania to Mozambique
Campethera maculosa 57  (Valenciennes, 1826) Little Green Woodpecker
vGuinea to W Ghana
Campethera tullbergi Tullberg's Woodpecker
tullbergi Sjöstedt, 189258,59 SE Nigeria, W Cameroon, Bioko
taeniolaema Reichenow & Neumann, 189560 W Kenya, W Uganda to E DR Congo
hausburgi Sharpe, 1900 E and C Kenya
Campethera nivosa Buff-spotted Woodpecker
nivosa (Swainson, 1837)61 vSenegal to W DR Congo, N Angola
poensis Alexander, 1903 vBioko
herberti (Alexander, 1908)62 N, C and E DR Congo, Uganda, W Kenya
Campethera caroli Brown-eared Woodpecker
arizela (Oberholser, 1899) vSierra Leone to SW Ghana
caroli (Malherbe, 1852)63 S Nigeria, Cameroon to W Kenya, S DR Congo, NW Zambia, NW Angola
DINOPIUM Rafinesque, 1814 N - Dinopium (Picoides) erythronotus Rafinesque, 1814; type by monotypy = Picus javanensis Ljungh, 1797  
Dinopium rafflesii Olive-backed Woodpecker
rafflesii (Vigors, 1830)64,65 SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Bangka I. (off SE Sumatra)
dulitense Delacour, 1946 vBorneo
Dinopium shorii Himalayan Flame-backed Woodpecker
shorii (Vigors, 1831) αHimachal Pradesh to Bhutan, E India (E Ghats), Bangladesh
anguste Ripley, 1950 αMyanmar (except Tenasserim) [Ripley, 1950 #3300]
Dinopium javanense Common Flame-backed Woodpecker
malabaricum Whistler , 193466 vSW India
intermedium (Blyth, 1845) vS and SE Bangladesh, SW Yunnan, continental SE Asia (except N Myanmar)
javanense (Ljungh, 1797) vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Java
exsul (E. Hartert, 1901) Bali
borneonense (A.J.C. Dubois, 1897)67 vBorneo
everetti (Tweeddale, 1878) Palawan Group (Philippines)
Dinopium benghalense Black-rumped Woodpecker
benghalense (Linnaeus, 1758) vNC and C India (east to W Assam)
dilutum (Blyth, 1852)68 αvPakistan to NW India
tehminae (Whistler & Kinnear, 1934)69 SW India
puncticolle (Malherbe, 1845) vSE India
jaffnense (Whistler, 1944)70 vN Sri Lanka
psarodes (A.A.H. Lichtenstein, 1793)71 C and S Sri Lanka [Lichtenstein, 1793 #2382]
GECINULUS Blyth, 1845 M - Picus grantia Horsfield, 1840; type by monotypy  
Gecinulus grantia Pale-headed Woodpecker
grantia (Horsfield, 1840)72,73 Foothills of E Himalayas (west to E Nepal), NE India, W, N and C Myanmar
indochinensis Delacour, 1927 vW and S Yunnan, NW Thailand, E continental SE Asia
viridanus H.H. Slater, 1897 vSE China
Gecinulus viridis 74,75  Blyth, 1862 Bamboo Woodpecker
vS Myanmar, N Laos, S Vietnam and Thailand (except C) south to W of southern Thai-Malay Pen.
MICROPTERNUS Blyth, 1845 M - Picus badius Raffles, 1822; type by original designation  76
Micropternus brachyurus Rufous Woodpecker
jerdonii (Malherbe, 1849)77 W and SW India, Sri Lanka
humei Kloss, 1918 Foothills of W Himalayas (Uttarakhand)
phaioceps (Blyth, 1845) Foothills of E Himalayas (west to W Nepal), NE India, Bangladesh, W and S Yunnan, Myanmar, Thailand (except S and SW)
annamensis Delacour & Jabouille, 1924 vLaos, Cambodia, C and S Vietnam
fokiensis (Swinhoe, 1863) vSE China, NE Vietnam
holroydi Swinhoe, 1870 Hainan
williamsoni Kloss, 191878 S and SW Thailand
badius (Raffles, 1822)79,80 vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and satellites (Nias I., Bangka I., Belitung I.)
brachyurus (Vieillot, 1818) vJava
badiosus (Bonaparte, 1850) vN Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo
MEIGLYPTES Swainson, 1837 M - Picus poicilophus Temminck, 1823; type by monotypy = Picus tristis Horsfield, 1821  
Meiglyptes tristis Buff-rumped Woodpecker
grammithorax (Malherbe, 1862)81 Extreme SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and satellites (Nias I., Bangka I.), N Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo
tristis (Horsfield, 1821) vJava
Meiglyptes jugularis   (Blyth, 1845) Black-and-buff Woodpecker
vContinental SE Asia (except NW and N Myanmar)
Meiglyptes tukki Buff-necked Woodpecker
tukki (Lesson, 1839)82 Extreme SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra (including Banyak I., Belitung I.), N Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo (except S)
pulonis Chasen & Kloss, 1929 Banggi I. (off N Borneo)
percnerpes Oberholser, 1924 S Borneo
infuscatus Salvadori, 1887 vNias I. (off W Sumatra)
batu Meyer de Schauensee & Ripley, 1940 Batu Is. (off W Sumatra)
CHRYSOPHLEGMA Gould, 1850 N - Picus flavinucha Gould, 1834; type by monotypy  83
Chrysophlegma miniaceum Banded Woodpecker
perlutum (Kloss, 1918) vSW continental SE Asia
malaccense (Latham, 1790)84 vThai-Malay Pen., Sumatra and SE satellites (Bangka I., Belitung I.), Borneo
niasense Büttikofer, 1896 αvNias I. (off W Sumatra)
miniaceum (Pennant, 1769)85 δvJava
Chrysophlegma mentale Chequer-throated Woodpecker
humii Hargitt, 188986 S Myanmar (S Tenasserim), Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Bangka I. (off SE Sumatra), Borneo
mentale (Temminck, 1826)87 αvJava
Chrysophlegma flavinucha Greater Yellow-naped Woodpecker
kumaonense Koelz, 195088 vFoothills of W Himalayas (Uttarakhand and ?W Nepal) [Koelz, 1950 #2245]
flavinucha (Gould, 1834)89 Foothills of E Himalayas (west to C Nepal), NE India, Bangladesh, W and S Yunnan, Myanmar (except E); Thailand (except SE), Laos, and NW and C Vietnam
ricketti Styan, 1898 C Fujian
styani Ogilvie-Grant, 1899 S Guangxi, Hainan, NE Vietnam
pierrei (Oustalet, 1889) SE Thailand, Cambodia and S Vietnam
wrayi Sharpe, 1888 Mountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
mystacale Salvadori, 1879 vMountains of N and C Sumatra
korinchi Chasen, 1940 Mountains of S Sumatra
PICUS Linnaeus, 1758 M - Picus viridis Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Swainson, 1820, Zoological Illustrations, 1, pl. 4 and text).  90
Picus puniceus Crimson-winged Woodpecker
observandus (E. Hartert, 1896)91 vSW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Bangka I. (off SE Sumatra), Borneo
soligae Meyer de Schauensee & Ripley, 1940 Nias I. (off W Sumatra)
puniceus Horsfield, 1821 vJava
Picus chlorolophus Lesser Yellow-naped Woodpecker
1 simlae R. Meinertzhagen, 1924 Foothills of W Himalayas (Himachal Pradesh to EC Nepal)
1 chlorolophus Vieillot, 181892 vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to EC Nepal), NE India, E Bangladesh, SW Yunnan, Guangxi, Myanmar, W and N Thailand and N Laos
2 chlorigaster Jerdon, 1845 αC and S India
2 wellsi R. Meinertzhagen, 1924 Sri Lanka
3 citrinocristatus (Rickett, 1901) vFujian (to N Vietnam?)
3 longipennis (E. Hartert, 1910) vHainan
1 annamensis R. Meinertzhagen, 192493 vE and SE Thailand, S Laos, C and S Vietnam
4 rodgeri (E. Hartert & A.L. Butler, 1898) Mountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
4 vanheysti (Robinson & Kloss, 1919) Mountains of Sumatra
Picus awokera Japanese Woodpecker
awokera Temminck, 183694 αHonshu (Japan)
horii Taka-Tsukasa, 1918 Kyushu, Shikoku (Japan)
takatsukasae N. Kuroda, Sr., 192195 Tanega-shima, Yaku-shima (Osumi Is.)
Picus rabieri   (Oustalet, 1898) Red-collared Woodpecker
iLaos, NW and C Vietnam
Picus xanthopygaeus 96  (J.E. & G.R. Gray, 1846) Streak-throated Woodpecker
vHimalayas (east from Himachal Pradesh), India and Sri Lanka, W Yunnan, Myanmar (except N), N Thailand, S continental SE Asia
Picus vittatus 97  Vieillot, 1818 Laced Woodpecker
vE Myanmar and SW Yunnan south through continental SE Asia and Sumatra, Java, Bali and Kangean Is.
Picus viridanus 98,99  Blyth, 1843 Streak-breasted Woodpecker
vSW Bangladesh, WC and SW continental SE Asia south to WC Thai-Malay Pen.
Picus canus Grey-headed Woodpecker
1 canus J.F. Gmelin, 1788100 vN and C Europe to Turkey and C Siberia
1 jessoensis Stejneger, 1886101 vTarbagatay Mts., Altai Mts. and N Mongolia to Sakhalin, Hokkaido and NE China
1 griseoviridis (A.H. Clark, 1907)102 vKorea
2 kogo (Bianchi, 1906) E Qinghai, Gansu, W Sichuan
2 guerini (Malherbe, 1849)103 E China (C Sichuan and Shaanxi to Shandong and Zhejiang)
2 sobrinus J.L. Peters, 1948 SE China, NE Vietnam
2 tancolo (Gould, 1863)104 αTaiwan, Hainan
2 sanguiniceps E.C.S. Baker, 1926 Foothills of W Himalayas (N Pakistan to W Nepal)
2 hessei Gyldenstolpe, 1916105 Foothills of E Himalayas (west to C Nepal), NE India, Bangladesh, continental SE Asia (except N and E Myanmar and N Vietnam)
2 sordidior (Rippon, 1906)106 vSW Sichuan, Yunnan, E Myanmar
3 robinsoni (Ogilvie-Grant, 1906) Mountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
4 dedemi (van Oort, 1911) Mountains of Sumatra
Picus erythropygius Black-headed Woodpecker
nigrigenis (Hume, 1874) vW and SW continental SE Asia
erythropygius (Elliot, 1865) vSE continental SE Asia
Picus viridis107 Green Woodpecker
viridis Linnaeus, 1758108 vN and C Europe
sharpei (H. Saunders, 1872) Iberia
karelini von Brandt, 1841109 Italy to Bulgaria, Turkey, N Iran and SW Turkmenistan
innominatus (Sarudny & von Loudon, 1905)110 vSW and S Iran
Picus vaillantii   (Malherbe, 1847) Levaillant's Woodpecker
iMorocco to Tunisia
Picus squamatus Scaly-bellied Woodpecker
flavirostris (Menzbier, 1886) vE Iran and S Turkmenistan to W Pakistan
squamatus Vigors, 1831 vW and C Himalayas (N Pakistan to Sikkim)
MULLERIPICUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Picus pulverulentus Temminck, 1826; type by monotypy  
Mulleripicus fulvus Ashy Woodpecker
fulvus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830) vN Sulawesi and satellites
wallacei Tweeddale, 1877111 Sulawesi (except N), Togian Is., Muna I., Buton I.
Mulleripicus funebris Sooty Woodpecker
funebris (Valenciennes, 1826)112 vCatanduanes, Luzon, Marinduque, Polillo (Philippines)
fuliginosus Tweeddale, 1877 vSamar, Leyte, Mindanao (Philippines)
Mulleripicus pulverulentus Great Slaty Woodpecker
mohun Ripley, 1950 Himalayan foothills (east from Himachal Pradesh) [Ripley, 1950 #3300]
harterti Hesse, 1911113 NE India, E Bangladesh, continental SE Asia (except N Vietnam), N Thai-Malay Pen.
pulverulentus (Temminck, 1826) vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, N Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo, and SW Philippines (Balabac, Palawan)
DRYOCOPUS Boie, 1826 M - Picus martius Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  
Dryocopus galeatus   (Temminck, 1822) Helmeted Woodpecker
vSE Brazil (S São Paulo to Santa Catarina and NW Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Dryocopus pileatus114 Pileated Woodpecker
abieticola (Bangs, 1898)115 S Canada, W, NC and NE USA (south to C California, N Idaho, Iowa and New Jersey)
pileatus (Linnaeus, 1758)116 vC and E USA (SE Kansas to Maryland, south to E Texas and Florida)
Dryocopus lineatus Lineated Woodpecker
scapularis (Vigors, 1829)117 vPacific slope of W and SW Mexico (S Sonora to C Oaxaca)
similis (Lesson, 1847)118 vNE and S Mexico (SE Nuevo León, S Tamaulipas, Veracruz, SE Oaxaca) to NW Costa Rica
lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766)119 vC Costa Rica to SW Colombia, N and E Bolivia, N Paraguay and S Brazil (São Paulo)
fuscipennis P.L. Sclater, 1860 vNW Ecuador (Esmeraldas) to NW Peru (Piura)
erythrops (Valenciennes, 1826)120 SE Brazil (Rio de Janeiro to Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul) and E Paraguay to NE Argentina (Corrientes)
Dryocopus schulzii 121,122  (Cabanis, 1882) Black-bodied Woodpecker
iSC Bolivia (SW Santa Cruz) and W Paraguay to NC Argentina (Chaco and N Córdoba) [Cabanis, 1882 #641]
Dryocopus javensis White-bellied Woodpecker
hodgsonii (Jerdon, 1840) W, SW, and EC India
richardsi Tristram, 1879 C and S Korea
forresti Rothschild, 1922 S Sichuan, W Yunnan, N Myanmar, (N Vietnam?)
feddeni (Blyth, 1863) Continental SE Asia (except extreme N)
javensis (Horsfield, 1821)123 vS Myanmar (S Tenasserim), Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas
parvus (Richmond, 1902) vSimeulue I. (off W Sumatra)
hargitti (Sharpe, 1884) Palawan (Philippines)
esthloterus Parkes, 1971124 vN Luzon (Philippines) [Parkes, 1971 #2925]
confusus (Stresemann, 1913) vC and S Luzon (Philippines)
pectoralis (Tweeddale, 1878)125 vBohol, Leyte and Samar (Philippines)
multilunatus (McGregor, 1907) vBasilan, Dinagat and Mindanao (Philippines)
suluensis (W. Blasius, 1890) vSulu Arch.
philippinensis (Steere, 1890)126 δvMasbate, Negros and Panay; formerly Guimaras (Philippines)
†? cebuensis Kennedy, 1987 vCebu (Philippines) [Kennedy, 1987 #2197]
mindorensis (Steere, 1890) vMindoro (Philippines)
Dryocopus hodgei 127  (Blyth, 1860) Andaman Woodpecker
iAndamans
Dryocopus martius Black Woodpecker
martius (Linnaeus, 1758)128 vW Europe and Caucasus area east to Kamchatka and Japan
khamensis (Buturlin, 1908) vSE and E fringes of Tibetan Plateau (W China)
CELEUS Boie, 1831 M - Picus flavescens J.F. Gmelin, 1788; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 55).  
Celeus loricatus Cinnamon Woodpecker
diversus Ridgway, 1914 vCaribbean slope of SE Nicaragua to W Panama (Bocas del Toro)
mentalis Cassin, 1860 vC Panama (E Colón, Panamá) to NW Colombia (N Antioquia)
innotatus Todd, 1917129 vNC Colombia (Córdoba to N Santander)
loricatus (Reichenbach, 1854) vNW Colombia (Chocó) to SW Ecuador (Guayas)
Celeus torquatus130,131 Ringed Woodpecker
torquatus (Boddaert, 1783) vE Venezuela, the Guianas, N and NE Amazonian Brazil (west to R. Branco and R. Xingu)
occidentalis (Hargitt, 1889)132 vW and C Amazonia (east to R. Negro and R. Tapajós)
tinnunculus (Wagler, 1829) Coastal E Brazil (SE Bahia, Espírito Santo)
Celeus flavus Cream-colored Woodpecker
flavus (Statius Muller, 1776)133 vE Colombia, SW and NE Venezuela, the Guianas and Amazonia
subflavus P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1877 vCoastal E Brazil (Alagoas; Bahia, Espírito Santo)
Celeus spectabilis Rufous-headed Woodpecker
spectabilis P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1880 vE Ecuador, NC Peru (N and W Loreto, Amazonas)
exsul J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1941 E Peru (Ucayali) and adjacent W Brazil (Acre) to C Bolivia (N Cochabamba)
Celeus obrieni 134  Short, 1973 Kaempfer's Woodpecker
Locally in EC Brazil (S Maranhão, W Piauí, Tocantins, Goiás, SE Mato Grosso) [Short, 1973 #3619]
Celeus castaneus   (Wagler, 1829) Chestnut-colored Woodpecker
vCaribbean slope of SE Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to W Panama (W Bocas del Toro)
Celeus grammicus135 Scale-breasted Woodpecker
verreauxii (Malherbe, 1858) SC Colombia (SW Meta to Putumayo), E Ecuador
grammicus (Natterer & Malherbe, 1845)136 vE and SE Colombia, S and SE Venezuela, W Amazonian Brazil (east to lower R. Negro and R. Purus), NE and E Peru; NE French Guiana
subcervinus Todd, 1937 vC Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Purus to R. Xingu)
latifasciatus von Seilern, 1936 vSE Peru, N Bolivia, adjacent W Amazonian Brazil (upper R. Madeira)
Celeus undatus Waved Woodpecker
amacurensis W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1950137 δvNE Venezuela (E Delta Amacuro) [Phelps, 1950 #3031]
undatus (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Venezuela (E Sucre, NE Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Branco)
multifasciatus (Natterer & Malherbe, 1845) vNE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Xingu)
Celeus ochraceus 138  (von Spix, 1824) Ochre-backed Woodpecker
vNE and E Brazil (NE Pará and Maranhão to Rio Grande do Norte, south to E Bahia)
Celeus flavescens139 Blond-crested Woodpecker
intercedens Hellmayr, 1908140 EC Brazil (Goiás to W Bahia and Minas Gerais)
flavescens (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) SE Brazil (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Celeus elegans Chestnut Woodpecker
1 hellmayri von Berlepsch, 1908141 E Venezuela (NW Anzoátegui, Sucre; E Bolívar), Guyana, Surinam, N Brazil (N Roraima)
1 deltanus W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1950 vCoastal NE Venezuela (NE Monagas, Delta Amacuro) [Phelps, 1950 #3031]
1 leotaudi Hellmayr, 1906 Trinidad
1 elegans (Statius Muller, 1776) E Surinam, French Guiana, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Branco)
2 citreopygius P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1867142 vSC and SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru [Sclater, 1867 #13810]
2 jumanus (von Spix, 1824)143,144 vE Colombia, S Venezuela, W, C and S Amazonian Brazil (east to R. Negro and NW Maranhão), N Bolivia
Celeus lugubris145 Pale-crested Woodpecker
olrogi Fraga & Dickinson, 2008146 E Bolivia (Beni, Santa Cruz) [Fraga, 2008 #10393]
lugubris (Malherbe, 1851) vSW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso, NW Mato Grosso do Sul)
kerri Hargitt, 1891 SW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso do Sul), C Paraguay, N Argentina (E Formosa, E Chaco, NW Corrientes)
PICULUS von Spix, 1824 M - Piculus macrocephalus von Spix, 1824; type by subsequent designation (Oberholser, 1923, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 36, p. 201). = Picus chrysochloros Vieillot, 1818  
Piculus simplex 147,148  (Salvin, 1870) Rufous-winged Woodpecker
iCaribbean slope of E Honduras to W Panama (N Veraguas)
Piculus callopterus   (Lawrence, 1862) Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker
vFoothills of C and E Panama (E Colón and N Panamá to Darién)
Piculus leucolaemus 149  (Natterer & Malherbe, 1845) White-throated Woodpecker
vSC Colombia, EC Ecuador, EC and SE Peru, NW Bolivia and locally in C and E Amazonian Brazil
Piculus litae 150  (Rothschild, 1901) Lita Woodpecker
W and NC Colombia (Pacific slope and south in Magdalena valley to Caldas) to NW Ecuador (NW Pichincha)
Piculus flavigula Yellow-throated Woodpecker
flavigula (Boddaert, 1783) C and E Venezuela (Bolívar), the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Branco)
magnus (Cherrie & Reichenberger, 1921) vE Ecuador to S Venezuela, NE Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil (north of R. Amazon, east to R. Negro, south of R. Amazon throughout)
erythropis (Vieillot, 1818)151 vCoastal E and SE Brazil (Pernambuco; SE Bahia to NE Santa Catarina)
Piculus chrysochloros152 Golden-green Woodpecker
aurosus (Nelson, 1912) vE Panama, N Colombia (Córdoba and N Antioquia to Magdalena)
xanthochlorus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1875) vNE Colombia (Norte de Santander), NW Venezuela (Zulia to Cojedes)
capistratus (Malherbe, 1862) vSE Colombia to S Venezuela (Amazonas), N Brazil (north of R. Amazon), Guyana and Surinam
guianensis Todd, 1937 vFrench Guiana
paraensis (E. Snethlage, 1907) vNE Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Tapajós)
laemostictus Todd, 1937 vW Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Purus)
hypochryseus Todd, 1937 vC Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, R. Purus to R. Tapajós), N Bolivia
chrysochloros (Vieillot, 1818)153 δNE, EC and S Brazil (Ceará to Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul), SE Bolivia, Paraguay, N Argentina
polyzonus (Valenciennes, 1826) vSE Brazil (SE Minas Gerais, SE Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro)
Piculus aurulentus 154  (Temminck, 1821) α White-browed Woodpecker
vSE Brazil (SW Espírito Santo to São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
COLAPTES Vigors, 1825 M - Cuculus auratus Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation  155,156
Colaptes fernandinae 157  Vigors, 1827 Fernandina's Flicker
iCuba
Colaptes auratus158,159 Northern Flicker
1 cafer (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSE Alaska to NW California
1 collaris Vigors, 1829160 vSW Canada (SE British Columbia), W and WC USA, NW and W Mexico (NW Baja California; E Sonora and W Chihuahua to Durango)
1†? rufipileus Ridgway, 1876 Guadalupe I. (off W Baja California)
1 nanus Griscom, 1934 Mountains of SW USA (SW Texas) and NE Mexico (Coahuila, W Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, W Tamaulipas)
2 mexicanus Swainson, 1827 vMountains of C and S Mexico (Nayarit to Hidalgo, Guerrero and Oaxaca)
2 mexicanoides Lafresnaye, 1844161 Mountains of S Mexico (Chiapas) to NC Nicaragua
3 luteus Bangs, 1898162 vC Alaska and Canada to NC and NE USA (E North Dakota to Oklahoma and N Virginia)
3 auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE USA (E Texas to S Virginia and Florida)
4 chrysocaulosus Gundlach, 1858 vCuba
4 gundlachi Cory, 1886 Grand Cayman (Cayman Is.)
Colaptes chrysoides163 Gilded Flicker
mearnsi Ridgway, 1911 SW USA (SE California, SW Arizona) to NW Mexico (N Sonora)
tenebrosus van Rossem, 1930 vPacific slope of NW Mexico (C Sonora to N Sinaloa)
brunnescens Anthony, 1895 NW Mexico (N and C Baja California)
chrysoides (Malherbe, 1852) NW Mexico (S Baja California)
Colaptes melanochloros164,165 Green-barred Woodpecker
1 nattereri (Malherbe, 1845)166 NE to S Brazil (Ilha de Marajó; Maranhão to Pernambuco, C Bahia and Mato Grosso do Sul), NE Paraguay, E Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
1 melanochloros (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)167 SE Brazil (S Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul), NE Argentina (Misiones), SE Paraguay
2 melanolaimus (Malherbe, 1857) vAndes of C and S Bolivia (Cochabamba and W Santa Cruz to E Potosí and W Tarija)
2 nigroviridis (C.H.B. Grant, 1911) vS Bolivia (E Tarija) and W Paraguay to N Argentina (NE Santa Fé, NW Corrientes)
2 leucofrenatus Leybold, 1873168 vNW, C and S Argentina (Tucumán to Entre Ríos, south to E Neuquén and N Río Negro), Uruguay
Colaptes rivolii169 Crimson-mantled Woodpecker
quindiuna (Chapman, 1923) C Andes of Colombia
zuliensis (Aveledo & Perez, 1989)170 vSierra de Perijá (Colombian-Venezuelan border) [Aveledo, 1989 #117]
rivolii (Boissonneau, 1840) Andes of SW Venezuela (S Táchira), E Andes of Colombia
meridae (Chapman, 1923) Andes of W Venezuela (Trujillo to N Táchira)
brevirostris (Taczanowski, 1875) vAndes of SW Colombia (Nariño) to S Peru (on W slope south to Cajamarca, on E slope south to Ayacucho)
atriceps (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1876) E slope of Andes of SE Peru (Cuzco) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
Colaptes rupicola Andean Flicker
cinereicapillus Reichenbach, 1854 Andes of S Ecuador (SE Loja) to C Peru (Ancash, Huánuco)
puna Cabanis, 1883 Andes of C and S Peru (Pasco and E Lima to Puno)
rupicola d'Orbigny, 1840 Andes of N Bolivia (La Paz) to NW Argentina (Catamarca) and N Chile (Tarapacá)
Colaptes pitius 171  (G.I. Molina, 1782) Chilean Flicker
iC and S Chile (Coquimbo to C Magallanes) and adjacent W Argentina (W Neuquén to W Santa Cruz)
Colaptes campestris Campo Flicker
campestris (Vieillot, 1818)172 vS Surinam; E Brazil (west to Maranhão and Mato Grosso do Sul, south to Santa Catarina) to NE and E Bolivia and N Paraguay
campestroides (Malherbe, 1849)173 S Paraguay, SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, E Argentina (south to E Río Negro)
Colaptes punctigula174 Spot-breasted Woodpecker
striatigularis (Chapman, 1914)175 vE Panama (Darién), W and WC Colombia (Pacific slope, Cauca valley, Magdalena valley)
ujhelyii (von Madarász, 1912) N Colombia
punctipectus (Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863) E Colombia, C and N Venezuela (east of Andes, north of R. Orinoco)
zuliae (Cory, 1915) NW Venezuela (S and E Zulia, NW Táchira, W Trujillo)
punctigula (Boddaert, 1783) The Guianas
guttatus (von Spix, 1824)176 vAmazonia from E Ecuador and NE Peru to N Bolivia and Brazil (N Mato Grosso to Pará)
Colaptes auricularis Gray-crowned Woodpecker
sonoriensis (van Rossem & Hachisuka, 1937)177 vPacific slope of W Mexico (SE Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Colima)
auricularis (Salvin & Godman, 1889) vPacific slope of SW Mexico (Guerrero to S Oaxaca)
Colaptes rubiginosus178 Golden-olive Woodpecker
1 aeruginosus (Malherbe, 1862)179 vNE Mexico (C Nuevo León and S Tamaulipas to C Veracruz)
2 yucatanensis (S. Cabot, 1844)180 vS Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to W Panama
2 alleni (Bangs, 1902) Santa Marta Mts. (N Colombia)
2 meridensis (Ridgway, 1911) vSierra de Perijá; Andes and W Coastal Range of Venezuela
2 rubiginosus (Swainson, 1820) vCoastal Range of NC and NE Venezuela
2 deltanus (Aveledo & Ginés, 1953) vNE Venezuela (S Delta Amacuro) [Aveledo, 1953 #116]
2 paraquensis (W.H. Phelps & W.H. Phelps, Jr., 1948) vTepuis of SC Venezuela [Phelps, 1948 #3028]
2 guianae (Hellmayr, 1918) Tepuis of SE Venezuela (SE Bolívar) and adjacent Guyana
2 viridissimus (Chapman, 1939) vSE Venezuela (upper slopes of Auyan Tepui)
2 nigriceps (Blake, 1941)181 Mountains of S Guyana (Serra Acari) and C Surinam
2 trinitatis (Ridgway, 1911) Trinidad
2 tobagensis (Ridgway, 1911) vTobago
2 gularis (Hargitt, 1889)182 vW and C Andes of Colombia
2 rubripileus (Salvadori & Festa, 1900) Lowlands and foothills of SW Colombia (Nariño) to NW Peru (Lambayeque)
2 palmitae (Meyer de Schauensee, 1952)183 W slope of E Andes of N Colombia (Cesar to Santander) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1952 #10931]
2 buenavistae (Chapman, 1915) E slope of E Andes of Colombia (Norte de Santander to Meta)
2 michaelis (Meyer de Schauensee, 1952)184,185 E slope of E Andes from SE Colombia (S Nariño) to S Ecuador (Zamora-Chichipe) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1952 #10931]
2 coloratus (Chapman, 1923) vE slope of Andes of S Ecuador (Cordillera del Cóndor) to N Peru (to San Martín)
2 chrysogaster (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1902) E slope of Andes of C Peru (Huánuco to Cuzco)
2 canipileus (d'Orbigny, 1840) E slope of Andes of S Peru (Puno) to C Bolivia (Cochabamba)
2 tucumanus (Cabanis, 1883) vE slope of Andes of S Bolivia (Chuquisaca) to NW Argentina (Tucumán)
Colaptes atricollis Black-necked Woodpecker
atricollis (Malherbe, 1850) vW slope of Andes of Peru (S La Libertad to N Tacna)
peruvianus (Reichenbach, 1854) vNW Peru (Marañón valley from E Cajamarca and SW Amazonas to W Huánuco)
†? Colaptes oceanicus   Olson, 2013 Bermuda Flicker
Bermuda
Tribe CAMPEPHILINI186,187
BLYTHIPICUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Picus rubiginosus Swainson, 1837; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 94).  
Blythipicus rubiginosus 188  (Swainson, 1837) Maroon Woodpecker
vExtreme SW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo
Blythipicus pyrrhotis Bay Woodpecker
pyrrhotis (Hodgson, 1837)189 vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to W Nepal), NE India, E Bangladesh, SW China, continental SE Asia (except extreme SE)
sinensis (Rickett, 1897) vS and SE China
annamensis Kinnear, 1926 vS Vietnam
hainanus (Ogilvie-Grant, 1899) vHainan
cameroni Robinson, 1928 Mountains of S Thai-Malay Pen.
CAMPEPHILUS G.R. Gray, 1840 M - Picus principalis Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation  190
Campephilus pollens Powerful Woodpecker
pollens (Bonaparte, 1845) Andes of SW Venezuela (S Táchira), Colombia and Ecuador
peruvianus (Cory, 1915) vE slope of Andes of N and C Peru (Amazonas to Junín)
Campephilus haematogaster Crimson-bellied Woodpecker
splendens Hargitt, 1889191 NW and EC Panama (Bocas del Toro, E Panamá) to NC and W Colombia and NW Ecuador (W Pichincha)
haematogaster (von Tschudi, 1844) E slope of E Andes of Colombia, E slope of Andes of Ecuador to S Peru (Puno)
Campephilus rubricollis Red-necked Woodpecker
rubricollis (Boddaert, 1783) vE Ecuador, E Colombia, S and E Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon)
trachelopyrus (Malherbe, 1857) vE Peru, NW Bolivia (Pando, La Paz), W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Juruá)
olallae (Gyldenstolpe, 1945) C and E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Madeira), NE Bolivia (Beni, N Santa Cruz)
Campephilus robustus   (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1819) Robust Woodpecker
vSE Brazil (S Bahia and SE Goiás to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes)
Campephilus guatemalensis Pale-billed Woodpecker
nelsoni (Ridgway, 1911)192 Pacific slope of W and S Mexico (S Sonora to S Oaxaca)
regius Reichenbach, 1854 vNE and E Mexico (S Tamaulipas to Veracruz)
guatemalensis (Hartlaub, 1844) vS Mexico (Chiapas, Yucatan Pen.) to W Panama (W Bocas del Toro, W Chiriquí)
Campephilus melanoleucos193 Crimson-crested Woodpecker
malherbii G.R. Gray, 1845 W Panama (E Bocas del Toro, E Chiriquí) to W and N Colombia and W Venezuela (W and S Zulia, NW Táchira, W Mérida)
melanoleucos (J.F. Gmelin, 1788)194 Venezuela (east of the Andes), the Guianas, Amazonia, E and S Brazil (south from Goiás) to N Paraguay and NE Argentina
cearae (Cory, 1915) NE Brazil (Maranhão to Ceará and Bahia)
Campephilus gayaquilensis 195  (Lesson, 1845) Guayaquil Woodpecker
vLowlands and foothills of SW Colombia (SW Cauca) to NW Peru (W Cajamarca)
Campephilus leucopogon 196  (Valenciennes, 1826) Cream-backed Woodpecker
iC Bolivia, W and C Paraguay to N Argentina (W Córdoba, NE San Luis), SE Brazil (SW Rio Grande do Sul) and NW Uruguay
Campephilus magellanicus   (P.P. King, 1827) α Magellanic Woodpecker
vS Chile (south from S Maule) and adjacent SW Argentina
Campephilus principalis Ivory-billed Woodpecker
†? principalis (Linnaeus, 1758) vSE USA (formerly SE Oklahoma and E Texas to North Carolina)
†? bairdii Cassin, 1863197 Cuba
†? Campephilus imperialis   (Gould, 1832) Imperial Woodpecker
vMountains of W Mexico (Chihuahua to Jalisco and Michoacán)
REINWARDTIPICUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Picus validus Temminck, 1825; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 92).  
Reinwardtipicus validus Orange-backed Woodpecker
xanthopygius (Finsch, 1905) vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Bangka I. (off SE Sumatra), N Natuna Is. (Indonesia), Borneo
validus (Temminck, 1825) vW and C Java
CHRYSOCOLAPTES Blyth, 1843 M - Picus strictus Horsfield, 1821; type by subsequent designation (Hargitt, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 18, p. 442).  
Chrysocolaptes lucidus198 Greater Flame-backed Woodpecker
1 sultaneus (Hodgson, 1837) vFoothills of NW Himalayas
1 guttacristatus (Tickell, 1833) vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to EC Nepal), NE India, Bangladesh, W and S Yunnan, mainland SE Asia to N Thai-Malay Pen.; SE India
1 socialis Koelz, 1939199 vSW India
1 indomalayicus Hesse, 1911200 vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., Sumatra, Bangka I. (off SE Sumatra), W Java
2 stricklandi (E.L. Layard, 1854) Sri Lanka
3 strictus (Horsfield, 1821) vC and E Java, Bali
3 kangeanensis Hoogerwerf, 1963201 vKangean Is. (Java Sea) [Hoogerwerf, 1963 #2004]
1 andrewsi Amadon, 1943 E Borneo
4 erythrocephalus Sharpe, 1877 vPalawan Group (Philippines)
5 haematribon (Wagler, 1827)202 Luzon, Polillo, Catanduanes and Marinduque (Philippines)
6 rufopunctatus Hargitt, 1889 vSamar, Leyte, Bohol (Philippines)
6 montanus Ogilvie-Grant, 1905 vMindanao (except Zamboanga Pen.)
6 lucidus (Scopoli, 1786)203,204 αvMindanao (Zamboanga Pen.), Basilan
7 xanthocephalus Walden & E.L. Layard, 1872 vMasbate, Panay, Negros and Ticao; formerly Guimaras (Philippines)
Chrysocolaptes festivus White-naped Woodpecker
festivus (Boddaert, 1783) vSW Nepal, India (except NE)
tantus Ripley, 1946 vSri Lanka
Tribe MELANERPINI205,206
SPHYRAPICUS S.F. Baird, 1858 M - Picus varius Linnaeus, 1766; type by original designation  
Sphyrapicus thyroideus Williamson's Sapsucker
thyroideus (Cassin, 1852) αvMountains of SW Canada (SC British Columbia) to NW Mexico (Sierra de San Pedro Martir in N Baja California)
nataliae (Malherbe, 1854) Mountains of WC USA (Idaho and W Montana to C Arizona and W New Mexico) >> south to WC Mexico
Sphyrapicus varius 207,208  (Linnaeus, 1766) Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
vE Alaska, S Canada, NC and NE USA >> C and S USA to Panama, Greater Antilles
Sphyrapicus nuchalis   S.F. Baird, 1858 Red-naped Sapsucker
vMountains of SW Canada (SE British Columbia, SW Alberta) to SW USA (NW and SE Arizona, New Mexico) >> south to W and C Mexico
Sphyrapicus ruber Red-breasted Sapsucker
ruber (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vSE Alaska, W and C British Columbia, W Washington, W Oregon
daggetti G.B. Grinnell, 1901 W USA (SW Oregon to SC California)
XIPHIDIOPICUS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Picus percussus Temminck, 1826; type by monotypy  209
Xiphidiopicus percussus Cuban Green Woodpecker
percussus (Temminck, 1826)210 Cuba, including cays off north coast
insulaepinorum Bangs, 1910211 Isla de la Juventud, Cayo Caballones, Cayo Cantiles
MELANERPES Swainson, 1832 M - Picus erythrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy  212
Melanerpes candidus 213  (Otto, 1796) White Woodpecker
vCoastal Surinam and French Guiana; lower R. Amazon; SE Peru (Pampas de Heath) to E, S and SE Brazil, N Argentina and Uruguay
Melanerpes lewis 214  (G.R. Gray, 1849) Lewis's Woodpecker
iSW Canada (SE British Columbia), W USA (Washington to W South Dakota, C California and New Mexico)
Melanerpes herminieri   (Lesson, 1830) Guadeloupe Woodpecker
iGuadeloupe (C Lesser Antilles)
Melanerpes portoricensis   (Daudin, 1803) Puerto Rican Woodpecker
vPuerto Rico, Vieques I.
Melanerpes erythrocephalus 215  (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-headed Woodpecker
vS Canada (S Saskatchewan to S Québec), E and C USA (west to E Montana and E New Mexico)
Melanerpes formicivorus216 Acorn Woodpecker
bairdi Ridgway, 1881217 NW USA (NW Oregon) to NW Mexico (N Baja California)
formicivorus (Swainson, 1827)218 vMountains of SW USA (E Arizona, W New Mexico, SW Texas) to S Mexico (S Veracruz, Oaxaca)
angustifrons S.F. Baird, 1870 NW Mexico (extreme S Baja California)
albeolus Todd, 1910 vLowlands of Belize, N and E Honduras and NE Nicaragua
lineatus (Dickey & van Rossem, 1927)219 vMountains of SE Mexico (SE Oaxaca, Chiapas) to NC Nicaragua
striatipectus Ridgway, 1874 Mountains of C Costa Rica (Cordillera Central) to W Panama (Veraguas)
flavigula (Malherbe, 1849) Andes of Colombia
Melanerpes cruentatus 220,221  (Boddaert, 1783) Yellow-tufted Woodpecker
vAmazonia and the Guianas
Melanerpes flavifrons 222  (Vieillot, 1818) Yellow-fronted Woodpecker
iSE Brazil (SE Bahia and E Goiás to N Rio Grande do Sul), E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones)
Melanerpes chrysauchen   Salvin, 1870 Golden-naped Woodpecker
SW Costa Rica to W Panama (Chiriqui)
Melanerpes pulcher 223  P.L. Sclater, 1870 Beautiful Woodpecker
vMiddle Magdalena valley of Colombia (Bolívar to N Tolima)
Melanerpes pucherani 224,225  (Malherbe, 1849) Black-cheeked Woodpecker
iS Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to NW and W Colombia and SW Ecuador (El Oro)
Melanerpes cactorum 226,227  (d'Orbigny, 1839) α White-fronted Woodpecker
iC Bolivia (E Cochabamba) to SW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso), south to C Argentina (NE San Luis, N Córdoba, NW Entre Ríos)
Melanerpes striatus   (Statius Muller, 1776) Hispaniolan Woodpecker
vHispaniola, Isla Beata
Melanerpes radiolatus   (Wagler, 1827) Jamaican Woodpecker
vJamaica
Melanerpes hypopolius   (Wagler, 1829) Gray-breasted Woodpecker
vSC Mexico (N Guerrero and Morelos to C Oaxaca)
Melanerpes pygmaeus228 Yucatan Woodpecker
rubricomus J.L. Peters, 1948 vSE Mexico (N Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo), N Belize
pygmaeus (Ridgway, 1885) vIsla de Cozumel (off Yucatan Pen.)
tysoni (J. Bond, 1936) Isla de Guanaja (off N Honduras)
Melanerpes rubricapillus229 Red-crowned Woodpecker
rubricapillus (Cabanis, 1862)230 SW Costa Rica to N Colombia, N Venezuela and Tobago; coastal Guyana and Surinam
subfusculus (Wetmore, 1957) vIsla de Coiba (off SW Panama) [Wetmore, 1957 #4141]
seductus Bangs, 1901 vIsla del Rey (Arch. de las Perlas off S Panama)
paraguanae (Gilliard, 1940)231 NW Venezuela (Paraguaná Pen.)
Melanerpes hoffmannii 232,233  (Cabanis, 1862) δ Hoffmann's Woodpecker
iPacific slope of S Honduras to WC Costa Rica
Melanerpes chrysogenys Golden-cheeked Woodpecker
chrysogenys (Vigors, 1839) W Mexico (S Sinaloa, Nayarit)
flavinuchus (Ridgway, 1911)234 SW and S Mexico (Pacific slope from Jalisco to Oaxaca, inland from Michoacán to SW Puebla)
Melanerpes uropygialis235 Gila Woodpecker
uropygialis (S.F. Baird, 1854)236 vW USA (SE California to SW New Mexico) and W Mexico (Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Jalisco and Aguascalientes; Isla Tiburón)
cardonensis (G.B. Grinnell, 1927) vNW Mexico (NE and C Baja California)
brewsteri (Ridgway, 1911) NW Mexico (S Baja California)
Melanerpes superciliaris West Indian Woodpecker
1 nyeanus (Ridgway, 1886)237,238 δvGrand Bahama, San Salvador (Bahamas)
1 blakei (Ridgway, 1886) Great Abaco (Bahamas)
1 superciliaris (Temminck, 1827)239 vCuba
1 murceus (Bangs, 1910) vIsla de la Juventud, Cayo Real, Cayo Largo
2 caymanensis (Cory, 1886)240 vGrand Cayman (Cayman Is.)
Melanerpes carolinus 241  (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-bellied Woodpecker
vC and E USA (SE North Dakota to S Massachusetts, south to E Texas and Florida)
Melanerpes aurifrons242 Golden-fronted Woodpecker
1 aurifrons (Wagler, 1829)243,244 SC USA (SW Oklahoma to C and S Texas) to C Mexico (Jalisco to Hidalgo)
2 veraecrucis Nelson, 1900245 E Mexico (S Veracruz) to N Guatemala
2 dubius (S. Cabot, 1844) vSE Mexico (Yucatan Pen.), Belize, NE Guatemala
2 leei (Ridgway, 1885) Isla de Cozumel (off Yucatan Pen.)
2 turneffensis (Russell, 1963)246 vTurneffe Is. (off Belize) [Russell, 1963 #3430]
2 canescens (Salvin, 1889) Isla de Roatán, Isla de Barbareta (off N Honduras)
2 polygrammus (Cabanis, 1862)247 vS Mexico (SE Oaxaca to C and S Chiapas)
2 grateloupensis (Lesson, 1839)248 vE and S Mexico (C San Luis Potosí and S Tamaulipas to E Puebla and C Veracruz)
2 santacruzi (Bonaparte, 1838) S Mexico (SE Chiapas), C and S Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, NC Nicaragua
2 hughlandi Dickerman, 1987 EC Guatemala [Dickerman, 1987 #1337]
2 pauper (Ridgway, 1888) Coastal N Honduras
2 insulanus (J. Bond, 1936) vIsla de Utila (off N Honduras)
DENDROPICOS Malherbe, 1849 M - Dendropicos lafresnayi Malherbe, 1849; type by subsequent designation (W.L. Sclater, 1921, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 42, p. 25).  
Dendropicos elachus   Oberholser, 1919 Little Grey Woodpecker
iSenegal to W Sudan
Dendropicos poecilolaemus   Reichenow, 1893 Speckle-breasted Woodpecker
vCameroon to Uganda, W Kenya
Dendropicos abyssinicus 249  (Stanley, 1814) Gold-mantled Woodpecker
vEthiopia and Eritrea
Dendropicos fuscescens Cardinal Woodpecker
lafresnayi Malherbe, 1849250 δSenegal to Nigeria
sharpii Oustalet, 1879251 Cameroon, Central African Republic to W DR Congo, N Angola
lepidus (Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863) vSouth Sudan, SW Ethiopia, E DR Congo to C Kenya and NW Tanzania
hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1833)252 N and E Ethiopia, Somalia, N and E Kenya
massaicus Neumann, 1900 vSC Ethiopia, W and C Kenya, to NC Tanzania
hartlaubii Malherbe, 1849253 SE Kenya to Malawi and N Mozambique
centralis Neumann, 1900254 vN Angola, S DR Congo, N Zambia, W Tanzania
stresemanni Grote, 1922255 S Angola, S Zambia to N Namibia, N Botswana, W Zimbabwe, N South Africa
intermedius Roberts, 1924256 vE Zimbabwe, E South Africa, S and C Mozambique
fuscescens (Vieillot, 1818)257 C Namibia, SW Botswana, W and C South Africa
Dendropicos gabonensis Gabon Woodpecker
1 lugubris Hartlaub, 1857258 vGuinea to SW Nigeria
2 reichenowi Sjöstedt, 1893 S Nigeria, SW Cameroon
2 gabonensis (J. & E. Verreaux, 1851) vGabon to NE and C DR Congo
Dendropicos stierlingi   Reichenow, 1901 Stierling's Woodpecker
iS Tanzania, N Mozambique, S Malawi
CHLOROPICUS Malherbe, 1845 M - Picus (Chloropicus) pyrrhogaster Malherbe, 1845; type by subsequent designation, this work  259
Chloropicus namaquus Bearded Woodpecker
schoensis (Rüppell, 1842)260 vEthiopia, Somalia, N Kenya
namaquus (A.A.H. Lichtenstein, 1793)261 Central African Republic, C and S Kenya and Tanzania to N Namibia, Botswana and N South Africa
coalescens (Clancey, 1958) S Mozambique and E South Africa (E Limpopo to KwaZulu-Natal) [Clancey, 1958 #794]
Chloropicus xantholophus   (Hargitt, 1883) Yellow-crested Woodpecker
vSE Nigeria, S Cameroon to NW Angola and W Kenya
Chloropicus pyrrhogaster 262  (Malherbe, 1845) Fire-bellied Woodpecker
Guinea to SE Nigeria
MESOPICOS Malherbe, 1849 M - Picus goertae Statius Muller, 1776; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 92).  263
Mesopicos elliotii Elliot's Woodpecker
johnstoni (Shelley, 1887)264 E Nigeria, Cameroon (Mont Cameroun and Mont Koupé), Bioko
elliotii (Cassin, 1863)265 S Cameroon to N Angola and Uganda
Mesopicos goertae266 Grey Woodpecker
1 goertae (Statius Muller, 1776) Senegal and Gambia to Mali
1 koenigi Neumann, 1903 Mali to W and C Sudan
1 abessinicus Reichenow, 1900 vE Sudan, N and W Ethiopia
1 centralis Reichenow, 1900267 vSierra Leone to Nigeria, South Sudan, W Kenya, Uganda, NW Tanzania
1 meridionalis (Louette & Prigogine, 1982) vSE DR Congo, NW Angola, S Gabon [Louette, 1982 #2425]
2 spodocephalus (Bonaparte, 1850)268 High plateaux of C and S Ethiopia
2 rhodeogaster (G.A. Fischer & Reichenow, 1884) Highlands of C and SE Kenya to NE Tanzania
Mesopicos griseocephalus Olive Woodpecker
ruwenzori Sharpe, 1902 E DR Congo, SW Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
kilimensis Neumann, 1926 vN and E Tanzania
griseocephalus (Boddaert, 1783)269 E and S South Africa (Limpopo to KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape)
persimilis Neumann, 1933270 vAngola, N Zambia, SE DR Congo, N Malawi, SW Tanzania
IPOPHILUS Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863 M - Picus obsoletus Wagler, 1829; type by monotypy  271
Ipophilus obsoletus272 Brown-backed Woodpecker
obsoletus (Wagler, 1829) vGambia to W and S Sudan and C Uganda
heuglini (Neumann, 1904) NE Sudan to N Eritrea
ingens (E. Hartert, 1900)273 W Ethiopia, NE Uganda, W and C Kenya
crateri (W.L. Sclater & Moreau, 1935) N Tanzania
DENDROCOPOS Koch, 1816 M - Picus major Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Hargitt, 1890, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 18, p. 201).  274
Dendrocopos temminckii   (Malherbe, 1849) Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker
iSulawesi, Togian Is.
Dendrocopos maculatus Philippine Pygmy Woodpecker
1 validirostris (Blyth, 1849)275,276 αvLuzon, Catanduanes and Mindoro (Philippines) [Blyth, 1849 #372]
1 maculatus (Scopoli, 1786)277 vSibuyan, Cebu, Guimaras, Negros and Panay (Philippines)
1 fulvifasciatus (Hargitt, 1881)278 vSamar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao, Dinagat and Basilan (Philippines)
2 ramsayi (Hargitt, 1881)279,280 Jolo, Siasi and Tawi-Tawi (Sulu Arch.)
Dendrocopos moluccensis281 Brown-capped Woodpecker
1 nanus (Vigors, 1832) W and N India, S Nepal
1 hardwickii (Jerdon, 1845)282 αC India
1 cinereigula (Malherbe, 1849) SW India
1 gymnopthalmos (Blyth, 1849)283 δvSri Lanka
2 moluccensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) vS Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas
2 grandis (Hargitt, 1882)284 vLombok to Alor (Lesser Sundas)
Dendrocopos kizuki285,286 Japanese Pygmy Woodpecker
permutatus (Meise, 1934) vLiaoning, N Korea, SE Siberia
seebohmi (Hargitt, 1884)287 Sakhalin, S Kuril Is., N Japan (Hokkaido)
wilderi (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1926)288 Shandong and N Hebei
nippon (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1922)289 Korea, Cheju-do, C Japan (Honshu except SW)
shikokuensis (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1922) vSW Honshu, Shikoku (S Japan)
kizuki (Temminck, 1835) Kyushu (S Japan)
matsudairai (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1921) Yaku-shima, Izu Is. (Japan)
kotataki (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1922) Oki Is., Tsushima (Japan)
amamii (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1922) Amami Is. (Japan)
nigrescens (Seebohm, 1887) Okinawa (Okinawa Is.)
orii (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1923) Iriomote-jima (Yaeyama Is.)
Dendrocopos canicapillus290 Grey-capped Pygmy Woodpecker
doerriesi (Hargitt, 1881) SE Siberia, E Heilongjiang, Korea
scintilliceps (Swinhoe, 1863) αE China north to Hebei
szetschuanensis (Rensch, 1924)291 vWC Sichuan to S Shaanxi
omissus (Rothschild, 1922)292 vN and W Yunnan and W Sichuan to E Qinghai and SW Gansu
obscurus (La Touche, 1921)293 vSW and S Yunnan
kaleensis (Swinhoe, 1863)294 vS China, Taiwan and N Vietnam
swinhoei (E. Hartert, 1910) Hainan
mitchellii (Malherbe, 1849)295 δFoothills of W and C Himalayas (N Pakistan to E Nepal)
semicoronatus (Malherbe, 1849)296 vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to E Nepal)
canicapillus (Blyth, 1845) NE India, Bangladesh, W and N continental SE Asia
delacouri (Meyer de Schauensee, 1938) E and SE Thailand, Cambodia and S Vietnam
auritus (Eyton, 1845) vSW continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Riau Arch. (off E Sumatra)
volzi (Stresemann, 1920) Sumatra
aurantiiventris (Salvadori, 1868) vBorneo
Dendrocopos minor Lesser Spotted Woodpecker
comminutus E. Hartert, 1907 vEngland, Wales
minor (Linnaeus, 1758) vScandinavia, NE Poland and Russia (east to to Ural Mts.)
kamtschatkensis (Malherbe, 1861)297 vSiberia from Ural Mts. to Sea of Okhotsk and N Mongolia
immaculatus Stejneger, 1884298 vKamchatka and Anadyr basin
amurensis (Buturlin, 1908)299 vNE China, SE Siberia, Sakhalin and Korea
hortorum (C.L. Brehm, 1831)300 C Europe (N France and N Alps to C Poland and Romania)
buturlini (E. Hartert, 1912)301 S Europe (Iberia to Bulgaria and NW Greece)
danfordi (Hargitt, 1883) C and E Greece, Turkey
colchicus (Buturlin, 1908) vCaucasus and Transcaucasia
quadrifasciatus (Radde, 1884) vSE Azerbaijan
hyrcanus (Sarudny & Bilkevitch, 1913) vN Iran
morgani Sarudny & von Loudon, 1904 SW Iran
ledouci (Malherbe, 1855) NW Africa
Dendrocopos noguchii 302  (Seebohm, 1887) Okinawan Woodpecker
N Okinawa (Okinawa Is.)
Dendrocopos macei Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker
1 westermani (Blyth, 1870)303 δFoothills of W and C Himalayas (N Pakistan to W Nepal)
1 macei (Vieillot, 1818)304 Foothills of E Himalayas (west to C Nepal), NE India, Bangladesh, W and N Myanmar
2 andamanensis (Blyth, 1859) vAndamans
2 longipennis Hesse, 1912 vWC and SE continental SE Asia
2 analis (Bonaparte, 1850)305 vS Sumatra, Java, Bali
Dendrocopos atratus Stripe-breasted Woodpecker
atratus (Blyth, 1849) vC Bhutan, NE India, Myanmar, W and N Thailand, Laos
vietnamensis Stepanyan, 1988306 vC Vietnam [Stepanyan, 1988 #3720]
Dendrocopos auriceps Brown-fronted Woodpecker
auriceps (Vigors, 1831) E Afghanistan, foothills of W and C Himalayas (N Pakistan to W Nepal)
incognitus (Scully, 1879)307 vC Nepal [Scully, 1879 #3562]
Dendrocopos mahrattensis Yellow-crowned Woodpecker
pallescens Biswas, 1951 E Pakistan, NW India [Biswas, 1951 #311]
mahrattensis (Latham, 1801)308 αvNepal, India, Sri Lanka, W, WC and S continental SE Asia
Dendrocopos dorae   (Bates, G.L. & Kinnear, 1935) Arabian Woodpecker
iSW Saudi Arabia, W Yemen
Dendrocopos cathpharius Crimson-breasted Woodpecker
cathpharius (Blyth, 1843) Foothills of E Himalayas (west from WC Nepal)
ludlowi Vaurie, 1959 SE Xizang (China) [Vaurie, 1959 #3959]
pyrrhothorax (Hume, 1881)309 NE India (Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram), W Myanmar
tenebrosus (Rothschild, 1926) vSW Yunnnan and N continental SE Asia (except extreme NE)
pernyii (J. Verreaux, 1867) N Yunnan, WC Sichuan, S Gansu (C China)
innixus (Bangs & J.L. Peters, 1928) vNE Sichuan and SE Shaanxi to W Hubei (NC China)
Dendrocopos darjellensis Darjeeling Woodpecker
darjellensis (Blyth, 1845)310 vFoothills of E Himalayas (west to WC Nepal), NE India, S Xizang, W Yunnan, W and N Myanmar, NW Vietnam
desmursi (J. Verreaux, 1871)311 αSC China (W Sichuan)
Dendrocopos medius Middle Spotted Woodpecker
medius (Linnaeus, 1758)312 vEurope to NW Turkey
caucasicus (Bianchi, 1904)313 vN Asia Minor, Caucasus, Transcaucasia
anatoliae (E. Hartert, 1912)314 W and S Asia Minor to N Iraq
sanctijohannis (Blanford, 1873) Zagros Mts. (SW Iran)
Dendrocopos leucotos315 White-backed Woodpecker
leucotos (Bechstein, 1802)316 αC and N Europe to E Alps, Carpathian Mts. and EC Europe, S Russia to SE Siberia, Korea, Sakhalin and NE China
uralensis (Malherbe, 1861) vW Ural Mts. to Lake Baikal area
lilfordi (Sharpe & Dresser, 1871)317 Pyrenees; Balkans, Turkey, Caucasus area
tangi Cheng Tso-hsin, 1956 W Sichuan (China) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1956 #722]
fohkiensis (Buturlin, 1908) vNW Fujian (SE China)
insularis (Gould, 1863) αvTaiwan
subcirris (Stejneger, 1886) vS Kuril Is., N Japan (Hokkaido)
stejnegeri (N. Kuroda, Sr., 1921)318 N and C Honshu, Sadoga-shima (C Japan)
namiyei (Stejneger, 1886) W Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Oki Is. (C and S Japan)
owstoni (Ogawa, 1905) Amami Is. (Japan)
takahashii (N. Kuroda, Sr. & Mori, 1920) Ullung-do (off E Korea)
quelpartensis (N. Kuroda, Sr. & Mori, 1918) vCheju-do (off S Korea)
Dendrocopos himalayensis Himalayan Woodpecker
albescens (E.C.S. Baker, 1926) E Afghanistan, W Himalayas (N Pakistan to Himachal Pradesh)
himalayensis (Jardine & Selby, 1831) αvFoothills of W Himalayas (E Himachal Pradesh to W Nepal)
Dendrocopos assimilis   (Blyth, 1849) Sind Woodpecker
vSE Iran, Pakistan, NW India
Dendrocopos syriacus Syrian Woodpecker
syriacus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833)319 vC Europe to Turkey, Levant and SW Iran
transcaucasicus Buturlin, 1910 vTranscaucasia and N Iran
milleri Sarudny, 1909 Kuh-e Taftan Mts. (SE Iran)
Dendrocopos leucopterus 320  (Salvadori, 1871) α White-winged Woodpecker
vE Turkmenistan, C Uzbekistan, SW Kazakhstan, Pamir and Tien Shan Mts. to SE Kazakhstan and Xinjiang
Dendrocopos major321 Great Spotted Woodpecker
major (Linnaeus, 1758) vScandinavia, NE Poland and Russia (east to Ural Mts.)
brevirostris (Reichenbach, 1854)322 vUral Mts. to W shore Sea of Okhotsk, NE China, N Mongolia and NE Tien Shan Mts.
kamtschaticus (Dybowski, 1883) vKamchatka and N shore Sea of Okhotsk
anglicus E. Hartert, 1900 vBritish Isles
pinetorum (C.L. Brehm, 1831) C Europe (Denmark and France to Alps and Carpathian Mts.)
parroti E. Hartert, 1911323 Corsica
harterti Arrigoni, 1902 Sardinia
italiae (Stresemann, 1919) Mainland Italy, Sicily, W Slovenia
hispanus (Schlüter, 1908) vIberia
canariensis (A.F. Koenig, 1889) vTenerife (Canary Is.)
thanneri le Roi, 1911 Gran Canaria (Canary Is.)
mauritanus (C.L. Brehm, 1855)324 vMorocco
numidus (Malherbe, 1843) vN Algeria, Tunisia
candidus (Stresemann, 1919) vRomania and S Ukraine to Greece
paphlagoniae (Kummerlöwe & Niethammer, 1935)325 N Asia Minor
tenuirostris Buturlin, 1906326 vCaucasus and Transcaucasia
poelzami (Bogdanov, 1879) SE Azerbaijan, N Iran, SW Turkmenistan
japonicus (Seebohm, 1883)327 vSE Siberia and N and E Heilongjiang to S Kuril Is., N and C Japan and Korea
wulashanicus Cheng Tso-hsin, Xian Yao-hua, Zhang Yin-sun & Jiang Zhi-hua, 1975328 vSC Nei Mongol [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1975 #732]
cabanisi (Malherbe, 1854) S Heilongjiang to N Anhui and N Jiangsu (E China)
beicki (Stresemann, 1927) NE Sichuan and E Qinghai to Gansu and Shaanxi
mandarinus (Malherbe, 1857) vS China, E Myanmar, N Laos, N Vietnam
stresemanni (Rensch, 1924) NE India, SE Xizang, W Sichuan, Yunnan, W and N Myanmar
hainanus E. Hartert & Hesse, 1911 vHainan
Dendrocopos hyperythrus329 Rufous-bellied Woodpecker
marshalli (E. Hartert, 1912) Foothills of NW Himalayas
hyperythrus (Vigors, 1831)330 vHimalayan foothills (east from Uttarakhand), NE India, W Sichuan, Yunnan, Myanmar, N Thailand
subrufinus (Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863) vRussian Far East, Korea, NE China >> S China, NE continental SE Asia
annamensis (Kloss, 1925) vMountains of S Laos and SC Vietnam
PICOIDES Lacépède, 1799 M - Picus tridactylus Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 54).  
Picoides nuttallii   (Gambel, 1843) Nuttall's Woodpecker
iSW USA (N and W California) to NW Mexico (NW Baja California)
Picoides scalaris331 Ladder-backed Woodpecker
cactophilus (Oberholser, 1911)332 vSW USA (SE California to C Texas) to C and NE Mexico (Jalisco, N Michoacán, N Puebla and Tamaulipas)
eremicus (Oberholser, 1911) vNW Mexico (N Baja California)
lucasanus (Xántus de Vesey, 1860)333 αvNW Mexico (S Baja California and nearby islands in Golfo de California)
soulei (Banks, 1963)334 Isla Cerralvo (off SE Baja California) [Banks, 1963 #189]
graysoni (S.F. Baird, 1874) Islas Marías (off W Mexico)
sinaloensis (Ridgway, 1887)335 vW and SW Mexico (S Sonora and Sinaloa; S Michoacán to S Puebla, Guerrero and S Oaxaca)
scalaris (Wagler, 1829)336 vE and S Mexico (Veracruz, Tabasco, E and C Chiapas)
parvus (S. Cabot, 1844)337 αvSE Mexico (N Campeche, Yucatán, N Quintana Roo) [Cabot, 1844 #5967]
leucoptilurus (Oberholser, 1911) vLocally from Belize and Guatemala to NE Nicaragua
Picoides pubescens338 Downy Woodpecker
medianus (Swainson, 1832)339 vC Alaska, S Canada, E USA (south to E Kansas, Virginia and W North Carolina)
glacialis (G.B. Grinnell, 1910) vCoastal S and SE Alaska
fumidus (Maynard, 1889)340 vCoastal SW Canada (British Columbia) to NW USA (W Washington) [Maynard, 1889 #2537]
gairdnerii (Audubon, 1839) Coastal W USA (W Oregon to NW California)
leucurus (Hartlaub, 1852)341 vMountains of SE Alaska, W Canada and W USA (E Washington and Montana to NE California, Arizona and New Mexico)
turati (Malherbe, 1860) W USA (NC Washington to C and SE California)
pubescens (Linnaeus, 1766) SE USA (SE Kansas to South Carolina and E North Carolina, south to SE Texas and Florida)
Picoides villosus342 Hairy Woodpecker
septentrionalis (Nuttall, 1840) vC Alaska, S Canada (east to C Québec), NC USA (Montana and North Dakota)
terraenovae (Batchelder, 1908) E Canada (Newfoundland)
villosus (Linnaeus, 1766) vSE Canada (S Ontario to Nova Scotia), E USA (E North Dakota to Maine, south to C Texas, Kentucky and C Virginia)
audubonii (Swainson, 1832) SE USA (E Texas to SE Virginia and Florida)
piger (G.M. Allen, 1905) vGrand Bahama, Moores, Great Abaco (Bahamas)
maynardi (Ridgway, 1887) Andros, New Providence (Bahamas)
harrisi (Audubon, 1838)343 Coastal SE Alaska and W Canada (W British Columbia) to SW USA (NW California)
picoideus (Osgood, 1901) vW Canada (Queen Charlotte Is.)
hyloscopus (Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863)344 vMountains of SW USA (N California) to NW Mexico (N Baja California)
orius (Oberholser, 1911) vInterior mountains of W North America (SC British Columbia to E California and SW Utah)
monticola (Anthony, 1896) Rocky Mts. of W North America (C British Columbia to W South Dakota, W Nebraska and N New Mexico)
leucothorectis (Oberholser, 1911) Mountains of SW USA (SE California, S Nevada and SW Utah to New Mexico and W Texas)
icastus (Oberholser, 1911) vMountains of SW USA (SE Arizona, SW New Mexico) to W Mexico (Jalisco)
intermedius (Nelson, 1900) vMountains of E Mexico (SE Coahuila and SW Nuevo León to E Jalisco and Hidalgo)
jardinii (Malherbe, 1845) Mountains of S Mexico (Michoacán to S Veracruz and Oaxaca)
sanctorum (Nelson, 1897)345 Mountains of S Mexico (Chiapas) to NW Nicaragua
extimus (Bangs, 1902) vMountains of NC Costa Rica (Cordillera de Tilarán) to W Panama (Chiriquí, Bocas del Toro)
Picoides arizonae346 Arizona Woodpecker
arizonae (Hargitt, 1886) Mountains of SW USA (SE Arizona, SW New Mexico) to NW Mexico (NE Sonora, NW Durango)
fraterculus (Ridgway, 1887)347 Mountains of W Mexico (SE Sinaloa and W Durango to Jalisco and Michoacán)
Picoides stricklandi 348  (Malherbe, 1845) Strickland's Woodpecker
iMountains of EC Mexico (México to S Puebla and WC Veracruz)
Picoides borealis 349  (Vieillot, 1809) α Red-cockaded Woodpecker
vSE USA (locally from SE Oklahoma and E Texas to SE Virginia and Florida)
Picoides albolarvatus White-headed Woodpecker
albolarvatus (Cassin, 1850) vMountains of SW Canada (SC British Columbia) and W USA (E Washington and W Idaho to SC California)
gravirostris (G.B. Grinnell, 1902) vMountains of SW USA (SW California from San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mts. to Laguna Mts.)
Picoides tridactylus350 Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker
tridactylus (Linnaeus, 1758)351 vN Europe to Ural Mts.; S Ural Mts through S Siberia and N Mongolia to Sakhalin and N Heilongjiang to NE Asia
alpinus C.L. Brehm, 1831 vC and SE Europe to the Carpathian Mts.
crissoleucus (Reichenbach, 1854) vN and C Ural Mts. to Sea of Okhotsk and Gulf of Anadyr
albidior Stejneger, 1888 vKamchatka
tianschanicus Buturlin, 1907 vC and E Tien Shan Mts., Dzhungarian Alatau Mts.
kurodai Yamashina, 1930 SE Heilongjiang and NE Korea
inouyei Yamashina, 1943352 Hokkaido
funebris J. Verreaux, 1871 αvN Yunnan and W Sichuan to E Qinghai and W Gansu
Picoides dorsalis353 American Three-toed Woodpecker
fasciatus S.F. Baird, 1870 vWC Alaska to WC Canada (N and C Saskatchewan) and NW USA (Oregon, N Idaho)
dorsalis S.F. Baird, 1858 vMountains of WC USA (W Montana to NE Arizona and C New Mexico)
bacatus Bangs, 1900 vC and E Canada (Manitoba to Newfoundland), NE USA (NE Minnesota to Maine)
Picoides arcticus   (Swainson, 1832) Black-backed Woodpecker
vC Alaska and Canada to NW and NE USA (C California, C Idaho and NW Wyoming; NE Minnesota to Maine)
Picoides fumigatus354 Smoky-brown Woodpecker
oleagineus (Reichenbach, 1854) vMountains of E and SW Mexico (SW Tamaulipas to Puebla and WC Veracruz; Nayarit, Jalisco, Guerrero)
sanguinolentus (P.L. Sclater, 1859) vS Mexico (S Veracruz, N Oaxaca) to W Panama (Veraguas)
reichenbachi (Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863)355 Coastal Range of Venezuela
fumigatus (d'Orbigny, 1840)356 vSanta Marta Mts.; Sierra de Perijá; Andes of W Venezuela to NW Argentina (Jujuy)
obscuratus (Chapman, 1927) vW slope of Andes of SW Ecuador (El Oro) to NW Peru (Cajamarca)
VENILIORNIS Bonaparte, 1854 M - Picus sanguineus A.A.H. Lichtenstein, 1793; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1855, Cat. of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, p. 92).  
Veniliornis kirkii Red-rumped Woodpecker
neglectus Bangs, 1901 vSW Costa Rica to W Panama (Veraguas; Isla de Coiba)
cecilii (Malherbe, 1849) E Panama (E Comarca Guna Yala, Darién), W and N Colombia and W Ecuador to NW Peru (Tumbes)
continentalis Hellmayr, 1906 vW and N Venezuela (east to C Anzoátegui and W Sucre)
monticola Hellmayr, 1918 Tepuis of C and SE Venezuela (NW Amazonas; SE Bolívar) and W Guyana (Mt. Roraima)
kirkii (Malherbe, 1845) NE Venezuela (Paria Pen.), Trinidad, Tobago
Veniliornis cassini   (Malherbe, 1862) Golden-collared Woodpecker
iC and E Venezuela, the Guianas, N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, west to R. Branco)
Veniliornis spilogaster   (Wagler, 1827) White-spotted Woodpecker
iSE Brazil (SE Goiás and SW Minas Gerais) to E Paraguay, NE Argentina (E Entre Ríos) and Uruguay
Veniliornis mixtus Checkered Woodpecker
cancellatus (Wagler, 1829) vE Bolivia (NE Santa Cruz) to EC and S Brazil (S Piauí, W Minas Gerais and W São Paulo)
mixtus (Boddaert, 1783) vE Argentina (Corrientes to Buenos Aires), SE Brazil (SW Rio Grande do Sul) and W Uruguay
malleator (Wetmore, 1922)357 SE Bolivia, W Paraguay, N Argentina (south to La Rioja and Santa Fé)
berlepschi (Hellmayr, 1915) C Argentina (San Luis and Córdoba to Neuquén and Río Negro)
Veniliornis lignarius 358  (G.I. Molina, 1782) Striped Woodpecker
vAndes of C Bolivia (La Paz) to NW Argentina (NW Salta); C and S Chile (Coquimbo to N Magallanes), adjacent W Argentina
Veniliornis sanguineus 359  (A.A.H. Lichtenstein, 1793) Blood-colored Woodpecker
vCoast of the Guianas
Veniliornis passerinus360 Little Woodpecker
modestus J.T. Zimmer, 1942 vC and NE Venezuela (along R. Orinoco from S Guárico and N Bolívar to Delta Amacuro)
fidelis (Hargitt, 1889) vE Colombia (south to Meta and Vaupés), W and SW Venezuela (E Táchira to E Trujillo; S Apure, NW Amazonas)
passerinus (Linnaeus, 1766)361 vThe Guianas, NE Amazonian Brazil (Amapá, Pará west to R. Xingu)
diversus J.T. Zimmer, 1942 vN Brazil (north of R. Amazon in Roraima and NE Amazonas)
agilis (Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863) vS Colombia (Putumayo, Amazonas), E Ecuador and E Peru to N Bolivia (Beni) and W Amazonian Brazil
insignis J.T. Zimmer, 1942 vW Amazonian Brazil (along south bank of R. Amazon, east to right bank of R. Madeira)
tapajozensis Gyldenstolpe, 1941 vEC Amazonian Brazil (both banks of R. Amazon at junction with R. Tapajós)
taenionotus (Reichenbach, 1854)362 NE and E Brazil (Maranhão to Pernambuco and Bahia)
olivinus (Natterer & Malherbe, 1845) vE Bolivia (Santa Cruz) and S Brazil (Mato Grosso to Minas Gerais and Paraná) to N Argentina (Corrientes, Santa Fé)
Veniliornis frontalis   (Cabanis, 1883) Dot-fronted Woodpecker
vE slope of the Andes of C Bolivia (Cochabamba) to NW Argentina (Tucumán)
Veniliornis callonotus Scarlet-backed Woodpecker
callonotus (Waterhouse, 1841) vSW Colombia (Nariño) to SW Ecuador (El Oro)
major (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884) vSW Ecuador (El Oro) to NW Peru (NW La Libertad; Marañón valley in NE Cajamarca and NW Amazonas)
Veniliornis dignus Yellow-vented Woodpecker
dignus (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1877)363 vAndes of SW Venezuela (S Táchira) and Colombia, south on W slope to C Ecuador (W Cotopaxi)
baezae Chapman, 1923 E slope of Andes of Ecuador
valdizani (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894)364 E slope of Andes of N and C Peru (Amazonas; C Huánuco to Ayacucho and NW Cuzco)
Veniliornis nigriceps Bar-bellied Woodpecker
equifasciatus Chapman, 1912 vC Andes of Colombia, Andes of Ecuador, N Peru (to N Amazonas)
pectoralis (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1902)365,366 vE slope of Andes of Peru (S Amazonas to Junín)
nigriceps (d'Orbigny, 1840) E slope of Andes of S Peru (Cuzco) to C Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
Veniliornis affinis Red-stained Woodpecker
orenocensis von Berlepsch & E. Hartert, 1902367 vS and SE Colombia (Meta and Putumayo to Vaupés), S Venezuela (Amazonas), N Brazil (north of R. Amazon, east to R. Negro)
hilaris (Cabanis & F. Heine, Sr., 1863) vE Ecuador, E Peru, N Bolivia, W Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, east to R. Madeira)
ruficeps (von Spix, 1824) E Amazonian Brazil (south of R. Amazon, west to R. Madeira)
affinis (Swainson, 1821) vCoastal E Brazil (Alagoas; Bahia to Espírito Santo)
Veniliornis chocoensis 368  Todd, 1919 Choco Woodpecker
vFoothills of W Andes of NW Colombia (W Antioquia) to NW Ecuador (NW Pichincha)
Veniliornis maculifrons   (von Spix, 1824) Yellow-eared Woodpecker
iSE Brazil (SE Bahia, E Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro)

1 Subfamilies and tribes derive from Webb & Moore (2005) [Webb, 2005 #4093] and Benz et al. (2006) [Benz, 2006 #9508] except where indicated. However, each of their three tribe names in the Picinae is junior to established family-group names. Composition and sequence of genera derived from Benz et al. (2006) [Benz, 2006 #9508] and Fuchs et al. (2007) [Fuchs, 2007 #9862].
2 For recognition see Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875]. Omitted by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]. Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
3 The name pectoralis Sharpe & Bouvier, 1878, used by Clancey (1987) [Clancey, 1987 #4365] is preoccupied by pectoralis Vigors, 1831. Both are synonyms herein; so too are cosensi, striaticula Clancey, 1952 [Clancey, 1952 #783], rougeoti Berlioz, 1953 [Berlioz, 1953 #285], and diloloensis da Rosa Pinto, 1962 [da Rosa Pinto, 1962 #1108]; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
4 For recognition see Louette (1981) [Louette, 1981 #13691]. Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
5 For recognition as separate from Sasia see Fuchs et al. (2006) [Fuchs, 2006 #9861].
6 Includes querulivox, and ferruginea Koelz, 1952 [Koelz, 1952 #2248]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332]. Also includes hasbroucki; see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
7 Species limits in New World piculets are exceptionally uncertain because of an unusual degree of hybridization among taxa ranked as species.
8 Picumnus minutissimus Temminck, 1825, is now preoccupied in Picumnus by Picus minutissimus Pallas, 1782.
9 Includes simlaensis; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
10 Includes avunculorum; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
11 Formerly treated as a separate species, see e.g. Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], including juruanus; but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
12 For treatment as a separate species from P. lafresnayi see Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967] and Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
13 Formerly treated as conspecific with P. aurifrons, e.g. by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014]; but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
14 Forms a superspecies with P. pumilus; see Sibley & Monroe (1990).
15 Includes nigropunctatus Zimmer & Phelps, 1950 [Zimmer, 1950 #4313]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622], but see also Rodner et al. (2000) [Rodner, 2000 #3369], who considered salvini a junior synonym of P. squamulatus obsoletus.
16 Spelling selected by a First Reviser; see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
17 Doubtfully diagnosable (Winkler & Christie 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
18 May include P. exilis salvini; see Rodner et al. (2000) [Rodner, 2000 #3369].
19 Treated by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] as a synonym of P. minutissimus; but see Zimmer & Phelps (1950) [Zimmer, 1950 #4313] and Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
20 Includes leucogaster see Zimmer & Phelps (1950) [Zimmer, 1950 #4313].
21 Formerly treated as a separate species, e.g. by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] or as a subspecies of P. minutissimus (Meyer de Schauensee 1970) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1970 #2678]; but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
22 Presumably includes distinctus Pinto & Camargo, 1961 [Pinto, 1961 #3088] (Winkler & Christie 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187]; but see Pinto (1978) [Pinto, 1978 #3092].
23 Forms a superspecies with P. dorbignyanus and P. temminckii, with species limits among the three uncertain; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
24 May consist of more than one species (Winkler & Christie 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
25 Often treated as a subspecies of P. cirratus, but most recent classifications follow Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676] in treating it as a separate species.
26 Correct original spelling. No internal evidence permitting emendation.
27 Picumnus asterias, treated as a species by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], was considered a variant of P. a. guttifer by Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187] thought the name corumbanus applied to intergradient birds in Matto Grosso.
28 For treatment as a valid species see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
29 Includes saturatus Pinto & Camargo, 1961 [Pinto, 1961 #3088]; see Pinto (1978) [Pinto, 1978 #3092].
30 Type locality supposedly in Ecuador, but this may be an error (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
31 Forms a superspecies with P. granadensis, and may be conspecific; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
32 Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967] recognised the subspecies panamensis, but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] for continued treatment of it as a synonym of flavotinctus.
33 Includes malleolus Wetmore, 1965 = 1966 [Wetmore, 1966 #4148]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
34 A new name for perijanus Phelps & Phelps, Jr., 1953 [Phelps, 1953 #3037], preoccupied.
35 Treated as a subspecies of P. olivaceus by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] and Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967], but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
36 For tentative recognition see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
37 Sister to the remaining tribes in the Picinae see Fuchs et al. (2008) [Fuchs, 2008 #11221].
38 Includes coccometopus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]; but see van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920].
39 Includes cordatus; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
40 The name Malarpicini employed by Webb & Moore (2005) [Webb, 2005 #4093], if valid, is a junior synonym of Picini Leach, 1820 (see Principle of Coordination, Art. 36; I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
41 Includes theresae R. Meinertzhagen, 1949 [Meinertzhagen, 1949 #2645], petrobates Clancey, 1952 [Clancey, 1952 #784], and prometheus Clancey, 1952 [Clancey, 1952 #784]; see Earlé (1986) [Earlé, 1986 #1467].
42 Includes batesi; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
43 Includes uniamwesicus; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
44 Includes buysi Winterbottom, 1966 [Winterbottom, 1966 #4252]; see Tarboton in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
45 This taxon is treated in this species following Short (1973) [Short, 1973 #13826] and Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417], but see also Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
46 Includes vincenti Grant & Mackworth-Praed, 1953 [Grant, 1953 #1756], see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
47 Forms a superspecies with C. punctuligera and C. bennettii; see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #3625].
48 Includes tessmanni; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
49 Includes vibrator Clancey, 1953 [Clancey, 1953 #787]; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
50 Includes smithii, see Clancey (1967) [Clancey, 1967 #13827]; and implicitly annectens; see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #3625].
51 For treatment as a separate species from C. abingoni see Short & Horne (1988) [Short, 1988 #3623].
52 Includes relicta Clancey, 1958 [Clancey, 1958 #793]; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
53 Forms a superspecies with C. abingoni and C. mombassica; see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #4437].
54 Includes togoensis; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191]. Also includes kaffensis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
55 Includes fuelleborni; see Clancey (1970) [Clancey, 1970 #849], who acted as First Reviser for two names originating in the same publication.
56 Includes quadrosi da Rosa Pinto, 1959 [da Rosa Pinto, 1959 #1106]; see Clancey (1971) [Clancey, 1971 #849].
57 Forms a superspecies with C. cailliautii; see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #3625].
58 Implicitly includes poensis Eisentraut, 1968 [Eisentraut, 1968 #1495]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
59 Includes bansoensis and wellsi; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
60 Includes barakae; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
61 Includes efulenensis and maxima Traylor, 1970 [Traylor, 1970 #3866]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622], who later considered the latter doubtfully distinct (Short, 1988) [Short, 1988 #3625]. Implicitly includes canzelae Meise, 1958 [Meise, 1958 #2649]; see Dean (2000) [Dean, 2000 #14040].
62 Includes yalensis; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
63 Implicitly includes budongoensis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
64 Includes peninsularis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
65 For correction of authorship to Vigors alone see Bruce (2003) [Bruce, 2003 #552].
66 For corrected authorship see Pittie & Dickinson (2010) [Pittie, 2010 #12619].
67 Includes raveni; see Smythies (1981) [Smythies, 1981 #31].
68 Includes girensis Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
69 For corrected authorship see Pittie & Dickinson (2010) [Pittie, 2010 #12619].
70 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
71 Includes erithronothos; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
72 Includes aristus Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
73 For correction of authorship, not McClelland, see Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #1384].
74 Includes robinsoni and the more recent poilanei Deignan, 1950 [Deignan, 1950 #1208]; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
75 Evidence of apparent hybridization with G. grantia reported by Round et al. (2012) [Round, 2012 #14205].
76 Genus subsumed in New World Celeus by Short (1973) [Short, 1973 #3620]. Benz et al. (2006) [Benz, 2006 #9508] found this in a separate clade with Asian Meiglyptes and Dinopium and thus the genus is restored.
77 Includes kanarae Koelz, 1950 [Koelz, 1950 #2245]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
78 For recognition see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
79 Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] used the name squamigularis but that is a junior synonym; see Mees (1986) [Mees, 1986 #2631]. Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118] treated squamigularis as distinct from Sumatran birds; but see Wells (2007) [Wells, 2007 #10194].
80 Includes celaenephis, considered doubtfully distinct by Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
81 Includes micropterus and microterus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
82 Includes azaleus and calceuticus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
83 For recognition see Fuchs et al. (2008) [Fuchs, 2008 #11221].
84 Includes dayak; see Smythies (1957) [Smythies, 1957 #3666].
85 Correct original spelling miniaceus. The spelling mineaceus in Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] was an ISS.
86 Includes saba; see Smythies (1957) [Smythies, 1957 #3666].
87 Dated 1825 in Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] contra Sherborn (1898) [Sherborn, 1898 #3604]; see also Dickinson (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1369], although erroneously omitted from Appendix III therein.
88 Not recognised by Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622], but see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
89 Includes archon and lylei, and more recent marianae Biswas, 1952 [Biswas, 1952 #314]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
90 Species sequence based on Fuchs et al. (2008) [Fuchs, 2008 #11221].
91 Includes continentis; see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
92 Includes chlorolophoides and laotianus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
93 Includes krempfi; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
94 Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] dated this 1826, a typographical error.
95 Recognised by Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875].
96 Called P. myrmecophoneus Stresemann, 1920, by Deignan (1963) [Deignan, 1963 #1245] and Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332], but see Art. 11.6 (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
97 Includes eisenhoferi and connectens as well as the later eurous Deignan, 1955 [Deignan, 1955 #1227]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. Also includes limitans; see Mees (1996) [Mees, 1996 #2638]. But see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118] for recognition of the isolated Langkawi population.
98 For recognition of viridanus as separate from P. vittatus see Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118]. See also Rasmussen (2000) [Rasmussen, 2000 #3218]. Habitats differ and currently breeding sympatry not proved.
99 Includes weberi; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
100 Includes perspicuus; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
101 Includes zimmermanni; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967]. Also includes biedermanni; see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
102 For recognition see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
103 Includes brunneatus Allison, 1946 [Allison, 1946 #52]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967]. Said to include setschuanus; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187] but type locality far to the west, see Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014].
104 Includes hainanus; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187]. But see Collar (2004) [Collar, 2004 #1017].
105 Includes gyldenstolpei; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
106 Includes setschuanus; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
107 For suggested splits see Perktas et al. (2011) [Perktas, 2011 #13259].
108 Includes pluvius, frondium, saundersi, romaniae, dofleini and pronus; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
109 Recognised by Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
110 The name bampurensis given to SE Iranian birds was discounted by Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], and this population may now be extinct (Winkler & Christie, 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
111 Indrawan et al. (2006) [Indrawan, 2006 #9897] suggested intergradation between the two forms occurs in the Togian Is.
112 Includes mayri Gilliard, 1949 [Gilliard, 1949 #1704], and parkesi Manuel, 1958 [Manuel, 1958 #6918] (corrected date, see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287]); see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
113 The name celadinus Deignan, 1955 [Deignan, 1955 #1230], applies to intergrades with the nominate form (Wells, 1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118].
114 Forms a superspecies with D. lineatus and D. schulzi; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566].
115 Includes picinus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
116 Includes floridanus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
117 Includes obsoletus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
118 Includes petersi; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
119 Includes mesorhynchus, nuperus, and improcerus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
120 Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] recognised fulcitus as a subspecies of D. lineatus, but Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] considered it a hybrid between D. l. erythrops and D. schulzi.
121 D. major, treated as a synonym of D. schulzi [sic] by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], is now considered to be a hybrid between this and D. lineatus.
122 Published in Ornithologische Centralblatt before the 1883 description listed by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014].
123 Includes buettikoferi; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] and van Marle & Voous (1988) [van Marle, 1988 #3920].
124 Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
125 Includes samarensis Parkes, 1960 [Parkes, 1960 #2913]; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
126 Correct original spelling. The spelling philippensis in Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] was an ISS.
127 For treatment as a separate species from D. javensis see Winkler et al. (1995) [Winkler, 1995 #4247].
128 Includes pinetorum; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
129 Includes degener; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
130 Includes pieteroyensi Oren, 1993 [Oren, 1993 #2870]; overlooked by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187]. May require evaluation.
131 The correct original spelling of Oren's new taxon, of which there were multiple original spellings is pieterroyensi, see Oren in Oren & Roma (2011) [Oren, 2011 #14274].
132 Includes angustus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
133 Includes inornatus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. Also includes peruvianus and tectricialis; see Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
134 For recognition see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
135 Perhaps best treated as conspecific with C. undatus; see Benz & Robbins (2011) [Benz, 2011 #12772].
136 Includes undulatus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
137 Original spelling amarcurensis; emended based on internal evidence.
138 For treatment as a separate species from C. flavescens see Benz & Robbins (2011) [Benz, 2011 #12772].
139 Celeus roosevelti, treated as a subspecies of C. flavescens by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], is considered a hybrid between C. elegans jumanus and C. lugubris; see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #3618].
140 Taxonomic status uncertain (Benz & Robbins 2011) [Benz, 2011 #12772].
141 Includes approximans; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
142 First sufficiently described in 1867, rather than in the later work cited by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014]; for correct citation see cross-reference in our range statement.
143 Formerly treated as a separate species, including also citreopygius, but see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #3618]. See Benz & Robbins (2011) [Benz, 2011 #12772] for restoring species rank to the two groups; corroboration awaited.
144 Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] implicitly included saturatus.
145 Formerly treated as a subspecies of C. flavescens but see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #3618].
146 A nomen novum proposed to replace Celeus lugubris castaneus Olrog, 1963 [Olrog, 1963 #2825] preoccupied by Picus castaneus Wagler. For tentative recognition see Fraga & Dickinson (2008) [Fraga, 2008 #10393].
147 For treatment of this and P. callopterus as separate species from P. leucolaemus see Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151] and Stiles & Skutch (1989) [Stiles, 1989 #13786].
148 Includes allophyeus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
149 Considered to form a superspecies with P. simplex, P. callopterus and P. litae; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
150 For treatment as a separate species from P. leucolaemus, see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
151 May merit treatment as a separate species (Winkler & Christie 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
152 Forms a superspecies with P. aurulentus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
153 Correct original spelling. Spelling chrysochlorus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
154 Dated 1823 in Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] contra Sherborn (1898) [Sherborn, 1898 #3604]; see also Dickinson (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1369].
155 Includes Chrysoptilus; composition and species sequence follows Moore et al. (2011) [Moore, 2011 #12635].
156 See Opinion 67 (I.C.Z.N., 1916) [I.C.Z.N., 1916 #6614]; the Official List of Generic Names (I.C.Z.N., 1987) [I.C.Z.N., 1987 #4674] misrepresents this Opinion and incorrectly suggests that Swainson is the author.
157 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Nesoceleus, e.g. by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], but see Short (1965, 1982) [Short, 1965 #14258] [Short, 1982 #3622].
158 For treatment of the four subspecies groups as conspecific see Short (1965, 1967) [Short, 1965 #14258] [Short, 1967 #7889]. Subspecies classification follows Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
159 Forms a superspecies with C. chrysoides; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
160 Includes sedentarius and martirensis; see Short (1965, 1982) [Short, 1965 #14258] [Short, 1982 #3622].
161 Includes pinicolus; see Short (1967) [Short, 1967 #7889].
162 Includes borealis; see Short (1965) [Short, 1965 #14258].
163 For treatment as a separate species from C. auratus see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
164 This, C. punctigula, and C. atricollis formerly, e.g. by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], separated in genus Chrysoptilus, but see Moore et al. (2011) [Moore, 2011 #12635].
165 For treatment of the melanolaimus group as conspecific see Short (1972, 1982) [Short, 1972 #14259] [Short, 1982 #3622].
166 Includes flavilumbis and mariae; see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259].
167 Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] recognised cristatus as a subspecies, but this refers to intergrades between nattereri and nominate melanochloros; see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259].
168 For recognition see Traylor (1951) [Traylor, 1951 #14260] and Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259]. Includes perplexus and patagonicus; see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259].
169 For transfer from Piculus see Moore et al. (2011) [Moore, 2011 #12635].
170 Omitted by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187]. For recognition see Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477].
171 Includes cachinnans; see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259].
172 Includes chrysosternus; see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259].
173 For continued treatment as a subspecies of C. campestris see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259].
174 Includes proposed subspecies notata, known only from type specimen from Colombia; see Short (1972) [Short, 1972 #14259] and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
175 Includes lucescens (correct original spelling, verified); see Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151] and Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. Misspelled as lutescens in Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] and by later authors.
176 Includes speciosus and rubidipectus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
177 For recognition see Baptista (1978) [Baptista, 1978 #14244].
178 For transfer from Piculus see Moore et al. (2011) [Moore, 2011 #12635].
179 May merit treatment as a separate species (Howell & Webb 1995) [Howell, 1995 #13863], possibly also including yucatanensis, as in Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187], but see Baptista (1978) [Baptista, 1978 #14244].
180 Includes differens, maximus, and uropygialis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
181 Includes fortirostris Mees, 1974, and poliocephalus Mees, 1974 [Mees, 1974 #2619]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
182 Includes pacificus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
183 Recognition of this and michaelis tentative. Both overlooked by Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] and Restall et al. (2006) [Restall, 2006 #12477], and included in buenavistae without comments by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
184 Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
185 Mistakenly referred to as nuchalis by Hilty & Brown (1986) [Hilty, 1986 #1967].
186 The name Megapicini employed by Webb & Moore (2005) [Webb, 2005 #4093], if valid, is a junior synonym of Campephilini Blyth, 1851; see Bock (1994) [Bock, 1994 #398].
187 For placement of Campephilus with Asian genera see Webb & Moore (2005) [Webb, 2005 #4093], Benz et al. (2006) [Benz, 2006 #9508] and Fuchs et al. (2008) [Fuchs, 2008 #11221].
188 Includes parvus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
189 Includes porphyreus Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250], and pyrrhopipra Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
190 Includes Phloeoceastes; see Short (1970, 1982) [Short, 1970 #7909] [Short, 1982 #3622].
191 May merit treatment as a separate species (Winkler & Christie 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
192 Includes dorsofasciatus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] but see also Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
193 Forms a superspecies with C. guatemalensis and C. gayaquilensis; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
194 Includes albirostris; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] for assigning this name to intergrades between nominate melanoleucos snd cearae.
195 Formerly treated as a subspecies of C. melanoleucos but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
196 Includes major Olrog, 1958 [Olrog, 1958 #2822]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
197 Treated as a separate species by Fleischer et al. (2006) [Fleischer, 2006 #9849].
198 For proposed splits see Mees (1986, 1996) [Mees, 1986 #2631] [Mees, 1996 #2638] and Collar (2011) [Collar, 2011 #12810]. Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] separated stricklandi. Molecular evidence needed; until then we signal Collar's splits as subspecies groups.
199 For recognition see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] and Collar (2011) [Collar, 2011 #12810].
200 Antedates chersonesus Kloss, 1918, which is a synonym; see Mees (1986) [Mees, 1986 #2631].
201 For recognition see Collar (2011) [Collar, 2011 #12810]; but see also Mees (1986, 1996) [Mees, 1986 #2631] [Mees, 1996 #2638].
202 Includes ramosi Gilliard, 1949 [Gilliard, 1949 #1704], and montium Salomonsen, 1952 [Salomonsen, 1952 #3450]; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361]. Also includes grandis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
203 Includes maculiceps; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
204 Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] dated this 1796, a typographical error.
205 The name Dendropicini employed by Webb & Moore (2005) [Webb, 2005 #4093], is objectively invalid and gives way to Picoidini which, in context here, is a junior synonym of Melanerpini G.R. Gray, 1846; see Bock (1994) [Bock, 1994 #398].
206 Generic sequence based on Webb & Moore (2005) [Webb, 2005 #4093] and Overton & Rhoads (2006) [Overton, 2006 #10002]. For African species taxon sampling is minimal and we have drawn on Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] and on Wolters (1976) [Wolters, 1976 #4259].
207 Includes appalachiensis Ganier, 1954 [Ganier, 1954 #1651]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
208 Forms a superspecies with S. nuchalis and S. ruber. For treatment of each of these last two as separate species see Johnson & Zink (1983) [Johnson, 1983 #14253], Johnson & Johnson (1985) [Johnson, 1985 #14252], and Cicero & Johnson (1996) [Cicero, 1996 #14245].
209 For placement in this subfamily see Overton & Rhoads (2006) [Overton, 2006 #10002].
210 Includes monticola Garrido, 1971 [Garrido, 1971 #1668], and cocoensis Garrido, 1978 [Garrido, 1978 #1671]; see Kirkconnell (2000) [Kirkconnell, 2000 #2226] and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
211 Includes gloriae Garrido, 1971 [Garrido, 1971 #1668], and marthae Regalado Ruiz, 1977 [Regalado Ruiz, 1977 #3229]; see Kirkconnell (2000) [Kirkconnell, 2000 #2226] and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
212 Composition and species sequence derived from Benz et al. (2006) [Benz, 2006 #9508], Overton & Rhoads (2006) [Overton, 2006 #10002], and García-Trejo et al. (2009) [García-Trejo, 2009 #12061].
213 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Leuconerpes, see Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
214 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Asyndesmus; see Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
215 Includes caurinus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
216 Subspecies classification follows Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]; see also the morphological groups found by Benítez-Díaz (1993) [Benítez-Díaz, 1993 #14246].
217 Includes martirensis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
218 Includes phasma Oberholser, 1974 [Oberholser, 1974 #2808]; see Browning (1978) [Browning, 1978 #536] and Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
219 Doubtfully diagnosable from albeolus; see Howell (1972) [Howell, 1972 #14249].
220 Forms a superspecies with M. flavifrons; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
221 Includes extensus and rubrifrons; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
222 Includes rubriventris; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
223 For treatment as a separate species from M. chysauchen see Wetmore (1968) [Wetmore, 1968 #4151] and Stiles & Skutch (1989) [Stiles, 1989 #13786].
224 Includes perileucus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
225 Forms a superspecies with M. chrysauchen and M. pulcher; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
226 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Trichopicus, see Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
227 Dated from the plate and caption which appeared before the relevant text.
228 Formerly treated as conspecific with M. rubricapillus, but see Friedmann et al. (1950) [Friedmann, 1950 #10178] and Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
229 Forms a superspecies with M. pygmaeus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
230 Includes costaricensis and terricolor; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
231 Perhaps undiagnosable (Winkler & Christie 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
232 Correct original spelling. Spelling hoffmanni in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
233 For treatment as a separate species from M. aurifrons see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
234 Includes morelensis R.T. Moore, 1950 [Moore, 1950 #2721]; see Short, 1982 [Short, 1982 #3622] but see also Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
235 For treatment as a separate species from M. hypopolius see Selander & Giller (1963) [Selander, 1963 #14257].
236 Includes albescens, tiburonensis and sulfuriventer; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. Also includes fuscescens; see Edwards & Schnell (2000) [Edwards, 2000 #14247] and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
237 Correct original spelling. The footnoted spelling nyaneus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was a lapsus.
238 Includes bahamensis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
239 Includess florentinoi Garrido, 1966 [Garrido, 1966 #1665], and sanfelipensis Garrido, 1973 [Garrido, 1973 #1670]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
240 Formerly treated as a separate species, e.g. by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], but see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
241 Includes zebra and perplexus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. Also includes harpaceus Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2251]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
242 The two subspecies groups probably represent separate species; see García-Trejo et al. (2009) [García-Trejo, 2009 #12061]. Subspecies classification and distribution follows Husak & Maxwell (1998) [Husak, 1998 #14250].
243 Includes incanescens; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622], but see also Wetmore (1948) [Wetmore, 1948 #14261].
244 May be more closely related to M. carolinus than to santacruzi group; see García-Trejo et al. (2009) [García-Trejo, 2009 #12061].
245 For recognition see Parkes (1990) [Parkes, 1990 #14255], but see also Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] and García-Trejo et al. (2009) [García-Trejo, 2009 #12061].
246 Recognised by Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
247 Includes frontalis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
248 May represent intergradation between nominate aurifrons and dubius; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
249 Forms a superspecies with D. fuscescens; see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #3625].
250 Correct original spelling. Spelling lafresnayei in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
251 Includes camerunensis; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
252 Includes cosensi; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
253 Includes chyulu; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
254 Includes loandae, see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #3625], and capriviensis, camacupae and transvaalensis, see Tarboton in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
255 For recognition see Dowsett et al. (2008) [Dowsett, 2008 #12725].
256 Includes natalensis, noomei and xylobates Clancey, 1980 [Clancey, 1980 #905]; see Tarboton in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
257 Includes harei and orangensis; see Tarboton in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
258 For placement here see Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417]. But see also Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
259 Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] treated these three species in Thripias overlooking the precedence of Chloropicus.
260 Includes saturatus; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
261 Includes decipiens; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
262 Forms a superspecies with C. xantholophus; see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #3625].
263 Includes Polipicus Cassin, 1863; subsumed here based on precedence of Mesopicos Malherbe, 1849; not noticed by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014].
264 Includes sordidatus and schultzei; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191]. Implicitly includes kupeensis Serle, 1952 [Serle, 1952 #3573]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
265 Includes gabela Rand & Taylor, 1959 [Rand, 1959 #3194], not recognised by Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
266 Forms a superspecies with M. griseocephalus; see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #3625].
267 For recognition, see Prigogine & Louette (1983) [Prigogine, 1983 #3147]. Includes oreites and agmen; see White (1965) [White, 1965 #4191].
268 This form and next treated as a species M. spodocephalus by Prigogine & Louette (1983) [Prigogine, 1983 #3147] and by Winkler et al. (1995) [Winkler, 1995 #4247]. But see Short (1988) [Short, 1988 #4437] and Dowsett & Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) [Dowsett, 1993 #1417].
269 Includes aureovirens Clancey, 1975 [Clancey, 1975 #872]; see Tarboton in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
270 For recognition see Dowsett et al. (2008) [Dowsett, 2008 #12725].
271 For recognition of this genus see Wolters (1976) [Wolters, 1976 #4259].
272 Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] listed this in Dendrocopos; for placement in Dendropicos see Goodwin (1968) [Goodwin, 1968 #1735]. Here we follow Wolters (1976) [Wolters, 1976 #4259].
273 Includes nigricans; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
274 Reportedly paraphyletic; see Fuchs et al. (2007) [Fuchs, 2007 #9862]. Revision deferred as only 50% of the species have had their DNA reported upon.
275 Includes igorotus Salomonsen, 1953 [Salomonsen, 1953 #3451]; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361].
276 Date unchanged, but citation link provided, after range statement, as Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] cited a later work (more correctly dated 1852); see Dickinson (2004) [Dickinson, 2004 #1389].
277 Includes menagei; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
278 Includes apo; see Dickinson et al. (1991) [Dickinson, 1991 #1361]. Also includes leytensis; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
279 Recognition at species rank recommended by Collar et al. (1999) [Collar, 1999 #8918]; but see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
280 Includes siasiensis; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
281 Split by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]. We retain one species following Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622], and Wells (1999) [Wells, 1999 #4118], but disjunct ranges support split and we signal the subspecies groups.
282 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
283 Correct original spelling. Spelling gymnophthalmus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
284 Includes excelsior; see White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
285 Ranges based on Orn. Soc. Japan. (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875], but nomenclature for the populations of Hokkaido and Honshu reflect lectotypification in Dickinson et al. (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1375]. Names thus revert to usage in Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014]. See Appendix 2.6.
286 A subspecies named kawikowchiensis Kiyosu, 1954 [Kiyosu, 1954 #12475] seems to have been considered, by the Ornithological Society of Japan, to have not satisfied Art. 8.1.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
287 Includes ijimae; see Dickinson et al. (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1375].
288 Placement in nippon as in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] may be justified but was not discussed by Dickinson et al. (2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1375]. Pending confirmation of this we restore wilderi recognised by Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967] and Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739].
289 Includes acutirostris; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], who mistakenly used the name seebohmi for the population of central Japan (Dickinson et al. 2001) [Dickinson, 2001 #1375].
290 Subspecies recognition for China follows Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739].
291 Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
292 Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
293 Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
294 Includes wattersi; see Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739]; also includes tonkinensis and nagamichii; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
295 Correct original spelling. Spelling mitchelli in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
296 Includes gigantisculus Koelz, 1952 [Koelz, 1952 #2248]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
297 Includes mongolicus; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
298 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
299 Includes nojidoensis, see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967]; also includes kemaensis Won, 1962 [Won, 1962 #4267], see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
300 Includes jordansi; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
301 Includes serbicus, wagneri and hispaniae as well as heinrichi von Jordans, 1940 [von Jordans, 1940 #4049]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967]. Heinrichi was a junior homonym now replaced by gerdi Dickinson, Frahnert & Roselaar, 2009 nom. nov. [Dickinson, 2009 #12097].
302 Treated in the monotypic genus Sapheopipo by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014]. Molecular evidence (Winkler et al., 2005) [Winkler, 2005 #10119] placed this in Dendrocopos.
303 Correct original spelling. Spelling westermanni in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] an ISS.
304 Includes humei Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
305 Includes montis; see Mees (1996) [Mees, 1996 #2638].
306 Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
307 For recognition see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332], who placed conoveri Rand & Fleming, 1956 [Rand, 1956 #3193], in the synonymy of this. Not recognised by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
308 Includes aurocristatus, and koelzi Biswas, 1951 [Biswas, 1951 #311]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332], who synonymised pallescens but recognised blanfordi.
309 Includes cruentipectus Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
310 Includes fumidus Ripley, 1951 [Ripley, 1951 #3301] and diatropus Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
311 For recognition see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
312 Includes splendidior and lilianae; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
313 Includes laubmanni; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
314 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
315 Subspecies classification follows Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
316 Includes sinicus, ussuriensis, saghalinensis and voznesenskii; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
317 For a comparison of these two highly disjunct but supposedly indistinguishable populations see Grangé & Vuilleumier (2009) [Grangé, 2009 #13398].
318 Dual original spellings; selection made in Errata in the same volume (David et al., 2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
319 Includes balcanicus; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
320 Includes leptorhynchus, albipennis, korejevi, jaxartensis and the later spangenbergi Gladkov, 1951 [Gladkov, 1951 #1712]; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967]. But see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721].
321 Subspecies classification follows Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967] except as noted.
322 Includes tianshanicus, a name used by Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967], Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739] and Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721] despite Opinion 402 (I.C.Z.N., 1956) [I.C.Z.N., 1956 #9622].
323 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
324 Includes lynesi; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
325 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1985) [Cramp, 1985 #1086].
326 If treated in the genus Picoides this must be called kitsutsuki Hachisuka, 1952 [Hachisuka, 1952 #1861], as tenuirostris is preoccupied in Picoides.
327 Includes tscherskii and hondoensis; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
328 Tentatively recognised. Multiple original spellings; we treat Cheng (1976) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1976 #733] as First Reviser under Art. 24.2 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
329 Seen as a sapsucker and treated in a monotypic genus Hypopicus by Zusi & Marshall (1970) [Zusi, 1970 #4340] and others, but restored to Dendrocopos by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187]; since corroborated by Benz et al. (2006) [Benz, 2006 #9508].
330 Includes haemorrhous Koelz, 1952 [Koelz, 1952 #2248] and henoticus Koelz, 1954 [Koelz, 1954 #2250]; see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332]. Also includes heinrichi Stresemann, 1940 [Stresemann, 1940 #5484]; see Dickinson et al. (2009) [Dickinson, 2009 #12097].
331 Forms a superspecies with P. nuttallii; see Short (1968, 1982) [Short, 1968 #7895] [Short, 1982 #3622].
332 Includes symplectus, centrophilus, giraudi, mohavensis, and yumanensis; see Short (1968, 1982) [Short, 1968 #7895] [Short, 1982 #3622].
333 Mistakenly attributed to Baird by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014].
334 For continued recognition see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539], but see also Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. Overlooked by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
335 Includes azelus and lambi A.R. Phillips, 1966 [Phillips, 1966 #3066]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
336 Includes ridgwayi and percus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
337 Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] dated this 1845; for earlier source follow cross-reference in range statement.
338 Subspecies classification follows Browning (1997) [Browning, 1997 #549].
339 Includes nelsoni, and by implication, microleucus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
340 For recogntion see Browning (1997) [Browning, 1997 #549]. Not mentioned by Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
341 Includes parvirostris Burleigh, 1961 [Burleigh, 1961 #581]; see Browning (1990) [Browning, 1990 #539].
342 Subspecies classification follows Jackson et al. (2002) [Jackson, 2002 #14251]; but see also Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
343 Includes sitkensis; see Jackson et al. (2002) [Jackson, 2002 #14251].
344 Includes scrippsae; see Short & Crossin (1967) [Short, 1967 #7896].
345 Includes parvulus and fumeus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622] and Jackson et al. (2002) [Jackson, 2002 #14251].
346 For treatment as a separate species from P. stricklandi see Ligon (1968) [Ligon, 1968 #14254] and Johnson et al. (1999) [Johnson, 1999 #2134]; but see also Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
347 Includes websteri A.R. Phillips, 1962 [Phillips, 1962 #3061]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
348 Includes aztecus Moore, 1946 [Moore, 1946 #2716]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622], but see also Hardy & Webber (1975) [Hardy, 1975 #14275].
349 Includes hylonomus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
350 Recognition of subspecies follows Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
351 Includes sakhalinensis; see Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
352 Recognised by Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875]; but see also Vaurie (1965) [Vaurie, 1965 #3967].
353 For treatment as a separate species from P. tridactylus see Zink et al. (2002) [Zink, 2002 #4334] and Banks et al. (2003) [Banks, 2003 #202].
354 For transfer from Veniliornis see Moore et al. (2006) [Moore, 2006 #9978].
355 Perhaps undiagnosable (Phelps, 1972) [Phelps, 1972 #14256]. Includes tectricialis [sic]; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
356 Includes exsul; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
357 This and berlepschi may be based on specimens from zones of intergradation; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
358 Forms a superspecies with V. mixtus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
359 Misdated 1783 in Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014], a lapsus.
360 Forms a superspecies with V. frontalis; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
361 Includes saturatus; see Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
362 The name transfluvialis refers to intergradation between this and olivinus; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
363 Includes abdominalis Phelps & Phelps, Jr., 1956 [Phelps, 1956 #3042]; see Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622].
364 Incorrect authorship given by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
365 Perhaps undiagnosable (Winkler & Christie 2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
366 Incorrect authorship used by Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533].
367 Includes caquetanus Meyer de Schauensee, 1949 [Meyer de Schauensee, 1949 #2669]; see Short (1974) [Short, 1974 #3621].
368 Treated as a subspecies of V. cassini by Peters (1948) [Peters, 1948 #3014] and of V. affinis by Short (1982) [Short, 1982 #3622]. For treatment as a separate species see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Winkler et al. (1995) [Winkler, 1995 #4247], Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274], and Winkler & Christie (2002) [Winkler, 2002 #12187].
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