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SITTIDAE - Nuthatches, Salpornises and Wallcreeper (3:28)
SITTA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Sitta europaea Linnaeus, 1758; type by monotypy   
Sitta europaea1 Eurasian Nuthatch
1 europaea Linnaeus, 1758 vN and E Europe
2 caesia J. Wolf, 1810 vW, C and SE Europe (British Isles to Greece)
2 hispaniensis Witherby, 19132 vSpain, Portugal, NW Africa
2 cisalpina Sachtleben, 19193 vItaly, Sicily, W Slovenia, W Croatia
2 levantina E. Hartert, 1905 vIsrael, Lebanon, S Turkey
2 caucasica Reichenow, 1901 vNE Turkey, Caucasus area
2 persica Witherby, 1903 vSE Turkey, N Iraq, SW Iran
2 rubiginosa von Tschusi & Sarudny, 1905 vN Iran, Azerbaijan
3 asiatica Gould, 18354 αvSW and SC Siberia from Ural Mts. east to Sayan and Altai ranges, W Baikal, W Mongolia
3 baicalensis Taczanowski, 18825 vSiberia east from SW Yakutia and Baikal, W Russian Far East, C Mongolia
3 albifrons Taczanowski, 1882 iKamchatka, SE Koryakland
3 sakhalinensis Buturlin, 19166 vSakhalin
3 takatsukasai Momiyama, 19317,8 δKuril Is. on Iturup and Urup
3 clara Stejneger, 18879,10 αvS Kuril Is., Hokkaido
4 hondoensis Buturlin, 191611 vJapan from Honshu to N Kyushu
4 roseilia Bonaparte, 1850 vJapan in S Kyushu
4 amurensis Swinhoe, 1871 vRussian Far East (east of baicalensis), Korea, NE China
4 bedfordi Ogilvie-Grant, 1909 iCheju-do (off Korea)
4 seorsa Portenko, 1955 vNW China in NW Xinjiang
5 sinensis J. Verreaux, 187112 αvChina from Gansu east to Hebei, south to Guangxi and N Guangdong
5 formosana Buturlin, 191113 vTaiwan
Sitta arctica 14  Buturlin, 1907 Taiga Nuthatch
vNE Siberia from Lena basin to Anadyr and N Koryakland
Sitta nagaensis15 Chestnut-vented Nuthatch
montium La Touche, 189916 iE Xizang, N and E Yunnan, SW Sichuan and Guizhou; NW Fujian; N continental SE Asia from E Myanmar and NW Thailand to NW Vietnam
nagaensis Godwin-Austen, 1874 vSE Xizang, W and S Yunnan, NE India in Nagaland and Manipur, NW and N Myanmar
grisiventris Kinnear, 192017 vMount Victoria (W Myanmar), SE Laos, Langbian mountains (SC Vietnam)
Sitta cashmirensis 18  W.E. Brooks, 1871 Kashmir Nuthatch
vAfghanistan, W Pakistan, Himalayas from N Pakistan to W Nepal
Sitta castanea19 Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch
1 castanea Lesson, 1830 vN, C and SW India
2 almorae Kinnear & Whistler, 1930 iHimalayan foothills from NE Pakistan to C Nepal
2 cinnamoventris Blyth, 1842 vHimalayan foothills east from E Nepal, NE India, SE Bangladesh, W and N Myanmar
2 prateri Whistler & Kinnear, 193220,21,22 αiEC India on E Ghats
2 koelzi Vaurie, 1950 iFar-NE India from SE Arunachal Pradesh to SE Assam
2 tonkinensis Kinnear, 1936 vSE Yunnan, NE continental SE Asia east from N Laos and NE Thailand
3 neglecta Walden, 1870 vSW Yunnan, C, S and E Myanmar, W and N Thailand, SE continental SE Asia
Sitta himalayensis   Jardine & Selby, 1835 White-tailed Nuthatch
vHimalayan foothills east from Himachal Pradesh, far-NE India, W, N and E Myanmar, N Laos, NW Vietnam
Sitta victoriae   Rippon, 1904 White-browed Nuthatch
iW Myanmar in Chin Hills
Sitta pygmaea Pygmy Nuthatch
melanotis van Rossem, 192923 vSW Canada (S British Columbia), mountains of W USA, NW Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental to N Jalisco)
pygmaea Vigors, 1839 vSW USA (C California)
leuconucha Anthony, 1889 iSW USA (SW California), NW Mexico (Baja California)
elii A.R. Phillips, 198624 iN Mexico (Sierra Madre Oriental of SE Coahuila, SW Nuevo León) [Phillips, 1986 #3071]
flavinucha van Rossem, 1939 iE Mexico (Morelos to W Veracruz)
brunnescens Norris, 1958 iSW Mexico (Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán)
Sitta pusilla Brown-headed Nuthatch
pusilla Latham, 1790 vS USA (Oklahoma to Maryland south to Gulf Coast and Florida)
insularis J. Bond, 193125 vGrand Bahama (Bahamas)
Sitta whiteheadi   Sharpe, 1884 Corsican Nuthatch
Sitta ledanti   Vielliard, 1976 Algerian Nuthatch
iN Algeria [Vielliard, 1976 #4018]
Sitta krueperi   von Pelzeln, 1863 Krüper's Nuthatch
iSamos and Lesbos Is. (E Greece), Asia Minor, W Caucasus area
Sitta yunnanensis   Ogilvie-Grant, 1900 Yunnan Nuthatch
vSE Xizang, WC to SC China from Yunnan and S Sichuan to Guizhou
Sitta canadensis 26  Linnaeus, 1766 Red-breasted Nuthatch
vSE Alaska, S Canada, USA
Sitta villosa Chinese Nuthatch
bangsi Stresemann, 1929 iWC to NC China from NW Sichuan and E Qinghai east to Ningxia and S Shaanxi
villosa J. Verreaux, 1865 vNC to far-NE China from Shanxi to E Heilongjiang
corea Ogilvie-Grant, 190627 E Russian Far East, far-N Korea >> Korea
Sitta leucopsis White-cheeked Nuthatch
leucopsis Gould, 1850 iE Afghanistan, Himalayan foothills from N Pakistan to W Nepal
przewalskii Berezovski & Bianchi, 189128 iSE and E Xizang, WC and NC China in W Sichuan and Gansu
Sitta carolinensis29 White-breasted Nuthatch
aculeata Cassin, 185630 αvW USA (Washington to California), NW Mexico (N Baja California)
alexandrae G.B. Grinnell, 192631 iNW Mexico (N Baja California)
lagunae Brewster, 1891 iNW Mexico (S Baja California)
tenuissima G.B. Grinnell, 1918 vSW Canada (S British Columbia), W USA (E Washington to E California)
nelsoni Mearns, 1902 iC and S USA (Rocky Mts. from N Montana to W Texas), N Mexico (NE Sonora, NW Chihuahua)
oberholseri H.W. Brandt, 193832 iS USA (SW Texas), NE Mexico (Sierra Madre Oriental to W Nuevo León)
mexicana Nelson & T.S. Palmer, 189433 vN and C Mexico (SE Sonora and SW Chihuahua to Puebla)
kinneari van Rossem, 193934 iSW Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca)
carolinensis Latham, 179035 vC and E Canada (east from C Alberta), E USA
Sitta neumayer Western Rock Nuthatch
neumayer Michahelles, 183036 iSE Europe, Turkey, Transcaucasia, N Iran and Levant to N Israel
tschitscherini Sarudny, 1904 iIraq, SW Iran
plumbea Koelz, 1950 vSE Iran
Sitta tephronota Eastern Rock Nuthatch
dresseri Sarudny & Buturlin, 1906 iSE Turkey to SW Iran and Iraq
obscura Sarudny & von Loudon, 1905 vS Transcaucasia to N and C Iran and NE Turkey
tephronota Sharpe, 1872 vC Asia from E Turkmenistan to SE Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, W Pakistan
iranica (Buturlin, 1916)37 vSW Turkmenistan and NE Iran to Kyzylkum Desert (Uzbekistan)
Sitta frontalis38 Velvet-fronted Nuthatch
frontalis Swainson, 1820 vHimalayan foothills east from Uttarakhand, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, continental SE Asia, N Thai-Malay Pen.
saturatior E. Hartert, 190239 vC and S Thai-Malay Pen., N Sumatra
velata Temminck, 182140 vSimeulue I. (NW Sumatra)?, S Sumatra, Java
corallipes (Sharpe, 1888) iBorneo
palawana E. Hartert, 1905 vPalawan (Philippines)
Sitta solangiae41 Yellow-billed Nuthatch
solangiae (Delacour & Jabouille, 1930) iUplands of NW and NC Vietnam
fortior Delacour & Greenway, 1939 vUplands of SE Laos, C and S Vietnam
chienfengensis Cheng Tso-hsin, Ting Wen-ning & Wang Tze-yu, 1964 vHainan
Sitta oenochlamys Sulphur-billed Nuthatch
mesoleuca (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) vNW Luzon (Philippines)
isarog Rand & Rabor, 1967 iNE, C and S Luzon (Philippines) [Rand, 1967 #3200]
lilacea (J. Whitehead, 1897) vSamar and Leyte (Philippines)
apo (Hachisuka, 1930) iMindanao except SW (Philippines)
zamboanga Rand & Rabor, 1957 iSW Mindanao on Zamboanga Pen., Basilan (Philippines)
oenochlamys (Sharpe, 1877) iPanay, Guimaras (formerly?), Negros, Cebu (Philippines)
Sitta azurea Blue Nuthatch
expectata (E. Hartert, 1914) vMountains of S Thai-Malay Pen. and Sumatra
nigriventer (Robinson & Kloss, 1919) iMountains of W Java
azurea Lesson, 1830 vMountains of E Java
Sitta magna Giant Nuthatch
ligea Deignan, 1938 vSW and SC China from Yunnan and S Sichuan to Guizhou and Guangxi
magna Wardlaw Ramsay, 1876 vC and E Myanmar, NW Thailand
Sitta formosa   Blyth, 1843 Beautiful Nuthatch
vSE Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from Sikkim, NE India, N continental SE Asia from W and N Myanmar to NW Vietnam
SALPORNIS G.R. Gray, 1847 M - Certhia spilonota Franklin, 1831; type by original designation   
Salpornis salvadori43 African Salpornis
emini Hartlaub, 1884 Gambia to NE DR Congo, NW Uganda
erlangeri Neumann, 1907 W and S Ethiopia
salvadori (Bocage, 1878) W Kenya, Angola to S Tanzania and N Mozambique
xylodromus Clancey, 1975 vE Zimbabwe, W Mozambique [Clancey, 1975 #875]
Salpornis spilonota Indian Salpornis
rajputanae R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 1926 iNW India in Rajasthan
spilonota (Franklin, 1831)44 δWC India
TICHODROMINAE Incertae Sedis45
TICHODROMA Illiger, 1811 F - Certhia muraria Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy   
Tichodroma muraria Wallcreeper
muraria (Linnaeus, 1766) vS and E Europe, Turkey, Caucasus area and N Iran
nepalensis Bonaparte, 1850 vSC Siberia, N Iran and N Afghanistan, C Asia in Turkmenistan and Tien Shan, S Mongolia, N and C China, Himalayas from N Pakistan to Nepal

1 Subspecies groups derive from Vaurie (1959) [Vaurie, 1959 #3961] whose europaea group is here subdivided into three groups based on Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479]. See also Zink et al. (2006) [Zink, 2006 #10133] and Hung Chih-Ming et al. (2012) [Hung Chih-Ming, 2012 #14723].
2 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
3 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
4 The reasons to use 1835 in place of 1837 are set out in footnote 47 to Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9482], in which reference is made to the findings of Sauer (1982) [Sauer, 1982 #15686].
5 For recognition see Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479].
6 For recognition see Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479].
7 For recognition see Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479].
8 Correct original spelling. Spelling takatsukasae in Greenway (1967) [Greenway, 1967 #4633] was an ISS.
9 For recognition see Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479]; but included in subspecies asiatica by Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875].
10 Published February 10, 1887 see Anon. (1947) [Anon., 1947 #14610].
11 For recognition see Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479]; but included in subspecies amurensis by Orn. Soc. Japan (2000) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 2000 #2875].
12 The date 1870 was supported by Dickinson et al. (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9482]; however, as explained in Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287], the siege of Paris provides evidence that 1871 is correct.
13 For recognition see Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479].
14 For evidence of sympatry with S. europaea and reasons for recognition at species rank see Red'kin & Konovaleva (2006) [Red'kin, 2006 #9479].
15 Treatment as a separate species from S. europaea open to question; breeding sympatry not yet demonstrated. Altitudinal replacement seems to occur and the two may belong to one species (Harrap, 1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894].
16 Includes nebulosa; see Vaurie (1957) [Vaurie, 1957 #8343].
17 For a suggestion that the two highly disjunct populations may each deserve a name see Dickinson (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9478].
18 For treatment as separate species from S. castanea see Inskipp & Inskipp (1991) [Inskipp, 1991 #4678] and Harrap (1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894].
19 Subspecies groups follow Harrap (1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894]. These have been elevated to species by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] and by Harrap (2008) [Harrap, 2008 #12242]. The case is persuasive but deserves detailed elaboration and results of any molecular studies have not been traced.
20 Not considered diagnosably distinct by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749], but see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
21 Might reasonably be argued that authorship is by Kinnear & Whistler, but see Pittie & Dickinson (2010) [Pittie, 2010 #12619].
22 Erroneously dated 1936 by Greenway (1967) [Greenway, 1967 #1812].
23 Includes canescens and chihuahuae; see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071].
24 Tentatively accepted; see Dickerman & Parkes (1997) [Dickerman, 1997 #1353].
25 For treatment as a separate species see Hayes et al. (2004) [Hayes, 2004 #9888].
26 Considered to form a superspecies with S. villosa; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566]; or possibly conspecific, see A.O.U. (1998) [A.O.U., 1998 #9].
27 For recognition see Nazarenko (2006) [Nazarenko, 2006 #9480].
28 For treatment as a separate species see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749] and Harrap (2008) [Harrap, 2008 #12242].
29 Walstrom et al. (2012) [Walstrom, 2012 #13628] found their samples to suggest four clades and a case to recognise more than one species. See also Spellman & Klicka (2007) [Spellman, 2007 #10074]; but see Chesser et al. (2013) [Chesser, 2013 #14902].
30 For recommended date see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
31 For recognition, see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071], Harrap (1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894], Harrap (2008) [Harrap, 2008 #12242] and Grubb & Pravosudov (2008) [Grubb, 2008 #14501].
32 For recognition, see Phillips (1986) [Phillips, 1986 #3071], Harrap (1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894] and Harrap (2008) [Harrap, 2008 #12242].
33 Includes umbrosa see Harrap (2008) [Harrap, 2008 #12242].
34 Placed in the synonymy of mexicana by Grubb & Pravosudov (2008) [Grubb, 2008 #14501].
35 Includes atkinsi see Harrap (2008) [Harrap, 2008 #12242].
36 Includes syriaca, zarudnyi and rupicola; see Kirwan et al. (2008) [Kirwan, 2008 #13632].
37 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].
38 The relationships of this species, soloangiae and oenochlamys are uncertain. Harrap (1996) [Harrap, 1996 #1894] preferred to treat them as three species, pending further research; as did Dickinson (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9478].
39 For need to reassess subspecific identity of Sumatran birds see Quaisser & Dekker (2006) [Quaisser, 2006 #9483].
40 For recognition that Javan birds are distinct see Mees (1986) [Mees, 1986 #2631].
41 The yellow bill suggests a closer affinity to S. oenochlamys than to S. frontalis; see Dickinson (2006) [Dickinson, 2006 #9478].
42 Family-group name name introduced by Mayr & Amadon (1951) [Mayr, 1951 #6996] but not therein described; however valid under Art. 13.2.1 of the Code (I.C.Z.N., 1999) [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059] since used as valid by Wolters (1979) [Wolters, 1979 #4454].
43 For treatment as a separate species from S. spilonota see Tietze & Martens (2010) [Tietze, 2010 #13472].
44 Misspelled spilonotus in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533]; spelling not variable.
45 Apparently no published molecular evidence yet sustains treatment as a monotypic subfamily as is traditional, nor as a family as in Cramp et al. (1993) [Cramp, 1993 #1089].