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CINCLIDAE - Dippers (1:5)
CINCLUS Borkhausen, 1797 M - Cinclus hydrophilus Borkhausen, 1797; type by monotypy and tautonymy = Sturnus cinclus Linnaeus, 1758  1
Cinclus cinclus White-throated Dipper
hibernicus E. Hartert, 1910 vIreland, W Scotland
gularis (Latham, 1801)2 αvScotland (excl. W), W and C England
cinclus (Linnaeus, 1758) iN Europe, W and C France, N Spain, Corsica
aquaticus (Bechstein, 1797)3 vC and SE Europe, S and E Spain, Sicily
†? olympicus von Madarász, 19034 vCrete, Cyprus, W and S Asia Minor
minor Tristram, 1870 vNW Africa
†? rufiventris Tristram, 1884 vW Syria, Lebanon
uralensis Serebrovski, 19275 vUral Mts. (Russia)
caucasicus von Madarász, 1903 vN Asia Minor, Caucasus area, N Iran
persicus Witherby, 1906 vSE Turkey, NW and SW Iran, Iraq
leucogaster Bonaparte, 1850 iN Afghanistan, C Asia from Pamir and Alai ranges to Tien Shan, NW China east to Kunlun Shan (S Xinjiang ); NW Pakistan
baicalensis Dresser, 18926 vAltai range and SE Siberia east to Baikal, N Mongolia [Dresser, 1892 #1425]
cashmeriensis Gould, 1860 vHimalayas from NE Pakistan to Sikkim
przewalskii Bianchi, 19057 αiS Xizang, NC to WC China from E Qinghai and Gansu south to N Yunnan and W Sichuan; Himalayas east from Bhutan >> N Myanmar
Cinclus pallasii Brown Dipper
tenuirostris Bonaparte, 1850 vN Afghanistan and C Asia to W Tien Shan; Himalayan foothills from Pakistan to Sikkim
dorjei Kinnear, 19378 iW Yunnan, Himalayan foothills east from Bhutan, NE India, W, N and E Myanmar, NW Thailand
pallasii Temminck, 18209 iE Siberia from Yakutia and Kamchatka to Russian Far East, Sakhalin, Kuril Is., Japan, Korea, China except NW and W, Taiwan, NE continental SE Asia
Cinclus mexicanus10 American Dipper
unicolor Bonaparte, 1827 iAleutian Is., Alaska, W Canada, W USA to California and New Mexico
mexicanus Swainson, 1827 vN and C Mexico (N Chihuahua to Michoacán, México and W Puebla)
anthonyi Griscom, 1930 iSE Mexico (E Chiapas), SW Guatemala, NE and SE Honduras, NW Nicaragua
dickermani A.R. Phillips, 196611 iS Mexico (NE Puebla, C Veracruz, S Guerrero, S Oaxaca) [Phillips, 1966 #3067]
ardesiacus Salvin, 1867 vHighlands of Costa Rica and W Panama (Chiriquí and Veraguas)
Cinclus leucocephalus12,13 White-capped Dipper
1 rivularis Bangs, 1899 vN Colombia (Santa Marta Mts.)
1 leuconotus P.L. Sclater, 1858 vW Venezuela (Sierra de Perijá; Andes from Lara to S Táchira), Andes of Colombia to N Peru (C Amazonas, San Martín)
2 leucocephalus von Tschudi, 1844 vAndes of C Peru (Huánuco) to C Bolivia (W Santa Cruz)
Cinclus schulzii 14,15  Cabanis, 1882 Rufous-throated Dipperδ
iAndes of S Bolivia (S Chuquisaca, W Tarija) and NW Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, Tucumán)

1 The name Accentor Bechstein, 1797 is considered a junior synonym. Cinclus 'Moehring' 1758 is unavailable: see reference to Nozeman & Vosmaer, 1758, in the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works (I.C.Z.N., 1987) [I.C.Z.N., 1987 #4674].
2 For reasons to revert to 1801 and not use 1802 see Schodde et al. (2010) [Schodde, 2010 #12422].
3 For correction to source publication see Mey (2003) [Mey, 2003 #2655] who dated the name 1796; however, an original wrapper shows the date to be 1797 (Heidelberg University Library).
4 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1988) [Cramp, 1988 #1087].
5 For recognition see Cramp et al. (1988) [Cramp, 1988 #1087].
6 For recognition see Stepanyan (1990) [Stepanyan, 1990 #3721]. But see Ormerod & Tyler (2005) [Ormerod, 2005 #12213].
7 For date of publication see Dickinson et al. (2011) [Dickinson, 2011 #13287].
8 Includes undina see Ripley (1982) [Ripley, 1982 #3332].
9 Includes marila and yesoensis Mishima, 1958 [Mishima, 1958 #2691]; see Orn. Soc. Japan (1974) [Ornithological Society of Japan, 1974 #2874].
10 For reasons to give the name mexicanus precedence over unicolor see A.O.U. (1957) [A.O.U., 1957 #7] acting as First Reviser; however, dates given are perhaps open to challenge.
11 For recognition see Binford (1989) [Binford, 1989 #303], Brewer (2001) [Brewer, 2001 #481] and Ormerod & Tyler (2005) [Ormerod, 2005 #12213].
12 Considered to form a superspecies with C. schulzii; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
13 Subspecies groups derive from Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
14 Correct original spelling. Spelling schulzi in Dickinson (2003) [Dickinson, 2003 #9533] was an ISS.
15 Treated by Greenway (1960) [Greenway, 1960 #4631] as a subspecies of C. leucocephalus; restored to specific rank by Meyer de Schauensee (1966) [Meyer de Schauensee, 1966 #2676].