Back to families© Text, layout and database rights belong to the Trust for Avian Systematics 2021.

THRESKIORNITHIDAE - Ibises and Spoonbills1 (13:35)
THRESKIORNIS G.R. Gray, 1842 M - Tantalus aethiopicus Latham, 1790; type by original designation  
Threskiornis aethiopicus 2  (Latham, 1790) African Sacred Ibis
vSenegal to Eritrea, south to South Africa; Iraq3
Threskiornis bernieri4 Madagascar Sacred Ibis
abbotti (Ridgway, 1893) Aldabra (Aldabra Is.)
bernieri (Bonaparte, 1855) W Madagascar
Threskiornis melanocephalus   (Latham, 1790) Black-headed Ibis
vNE China, S Asia, SE continental SE Asia, Sumatra, Java >> Japan, N Thai-Malay Pen., Borneo, Philippines (formerly)
Threskiornis moluccus Australian Ibis
moluccus (Cuvier, 1829)5,6 δvS Moluccas (south to Kai Is.), E Lesser Sundas (Babar, Tanimbar Is.), lowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region to E Gulf of Papua), Australia (except inland sand deserts)
pygmaeus Mayr, 19317 vRennell, Bellona (S Solomons)
Threskiornis spinicollis   (P. Jameson, 1835) Straw-necked Ibis
vLowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region to E Gulf of Papua), Australia (except inland sand deserts)
Threskiornis solitarius   (Sélys‐Longchamps, 1848) Réunion Ibis
PLATALEA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 67).  8
Platalea flavipes   Gould, 1838 Yellow-billed Spoonbill
iAustralia (except inland sand deserts)
Platalea ajaja 9  Linnaeus, 1758 Roseate Spoonbill
Coastal SE USA and Greater Antilles to NW Peru (Piura) and C Argentina (Buenos Aires)
Platalea alba   Scopoli, 1786 African Spoonbill
vSenegal to Ethiopia and south to South Africa
Platalea leucorodia10 Eurasian Spoonbill
leucorodia Linnaeus, 175811 iEurope to Russian Far East and N China, and SW and S Asia >> Africa (mainly north of the Equator), China
balsaci Naurois & F. Roux, 1974 iW Mauritania
archeri Neumann, 1928 iCoastal Sudan to Somalia
Platalea minor   Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 Black-faced Spoonbill
vE and NE China, Korea >> S China, Taiwan, E continental SE Asia, (rarely N and W Borneo, Philippines)
Platalea regia   Gould, 1838 Royal Spoonbill
vJava, SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region to E Gulf of Papua), Australia (except inland sand deserts and SW), New Zealand (South Island) >> Borneo, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, Moluccas, SW Australia, Tasmania, S Solomons (Rennell), New Zealand (North Island)
PSEUDIBIS Hodgson, 1844 F - Ibis papillosa Temminck, 1824; type by monotypy  
Pseudibis papillosa   (Temminck, 1824) Indian Black Ibis
vPakistan, Nepal, India
Pseudibis davisoni 12  (Hume, 1875) White-shouldered Ibis
iSE continental SE Asia (formerly mainland SE Asia to N Thai-Malay Pen.), W and S Borneo
Pseudibis gigantea   (Oustalet, 1877) Giant Ibis
vSE continental SE Asia (formerly SW continental SE Asia, N and C Thai-Malay Pen.)
GERONTICUS Wagler, 1832 M - Tantalus calvus Boddaert, 1783; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 67).  
Geronticus eremita 13  (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Bald Ibis
iMorocco (resident); Syria, formerly Turkey >> Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Yemen
Geronticus calvus   (Boddaert, 1783) Southern Bald Ibis
vSouth Africa
NIPPONIA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Nipponia temminckii Reichenbach, 1853; type by original designation and virtual tautonymy = Ibis nippon Temminck, 1835  
Nipponia nippon   (Temminck, 1835) Imperial Crested Ibis
iE China, formerly Japan
BOSTRYCHIA G.R. Gray, 1847 F - Ibis carunculata Rüppell, 1837; type by original designation  14
Bostrychia olivacea Olive Ibis
olivacea (Du Bus, 1838) vSierra Leone to Ivory Coast
cupreipennis (Reichenow, 1903) vS Cameroon to DR Congo
rothschildi (Bannerman, 1919)15 iPríncipe
akeleyorum (Chapman, 1912)16 δiMountains of Kenya and Tanzania
Bostrychia bocagei 17  (Chapin, 1923) São Tomé Ibis
São Tomé
Bostrychia rara   (Rothschild, E. Hartert & O. Kleinschmidt, 1897) Spot-breasted Ibis
vSierra Leone to Ghana; Nigeria to E DR Congo and N Angola
Bostrychia hagedash Hadada Ibis
nilotica (Neumann, 1909) vSudan and Ethiopia to Uganda and NW Tanzania
brevirostris (Reichenow, 1907)18 vBioko, Senegal to DR Congo, Kenya and Somalia to E and S Tanzania, south to Zambia and N Mozambique
hagedash (Latham, 1790) iZimbabwe, S Mozambique, South Africa
Bostrychia carunculata   (Rüppell, 1837) Wattled Ibis
vEthiopia and Eritrea
THERISTICUS Wagler, 1832 M - Tantalus melanopis J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy  19
Theristicus caerulescens 20  (Vieillot, 1817) Plumbeous Ibis
iE Bolivia and SW Brazil (Mato Grosso) to NE Argentina (Entre Ríos) and Uruguay
Theristicus caudatus21 Buff-necked Ibis
caudatus (Boddaert, 1783) vColombia and Venezuela to French Guiana, south to C Brazil (Mato Grosso)
hyperorius Todd, 1948 vE Bolivia, S Brazil, Paraguay, N Argentina and Uruguay
Theristicus melanopis Black-faced Ibis
branickii von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 189422 iAndes of Ecuador to NW Bolivia (La Paz) and N Chile (Arica)
melanopis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vCoastal Peru; C Chile (Antofagasta) and S Argentina (Neuquén, Río Negro) to Tierra del Fuego >> N Argentina
CERCIBIS Wagler, 1832 F - Ibis oxycercus von Spix, 1825; type by monotypy  
Cercibis oxycerca   (von Spix, 1825) Sharp-tailed Ibis
vLlanos of E Colombia (Arauca to Meta and Vichada) to C Venezuela (Guárico); SW Guyana to N Brazil (Roraima)
MESEMBRINIBIS J.L. Peters, 1930 F - Tantalus cayennensis J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation  
Mesembrinibis cayennensis   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Green Ibis
vE Honduras to E Paraguay, NE Argentina (Misiones) and SE Brazil (Paraná)
PHIMOSUS Wagler, 1832 M - Ibis nudifrons von Spix, 1825; type by monotypy  
Phimosus infuscatus Bare-faced Ibis
berlepschi Hellmayr, 1903 iN and E Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam and N Brazil (Roraima)
nudifrons (von Spix, 1825) iC and S Brazil (Maranhão and Piauí to Paraná)
infuscatus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823) vE Bolivia, Paraguay, SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay and E Argentina (south to Córdoba and N Buenos Aires)
EUDOCIMUS Wagler, 1832 M - Scolopax rubra Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (Reichenow, 1877, Journ. f. Ornith., 25, p. 145).  
Eudocimus albus23 White Ibis
albus (Linnaeus, 1758) vCoasts of SE USA (North Carolina to Texas) and Middle America (to Nicaragua on Caribbean coast and Panama on Pacific coast); Greater Antilles
ramobustorum Patten, 2012 Coastal N South America (N Colombia to NE Venezuela; SW Ecuador to NW Peru); llanos of NE Colombia and SW Venezuela [Patten, 2012 #14110]
Eudocimus ruber   (Linnaeus, 1758) Scarlet Ibis
vCoastal N Colombia to N Brazil (Maranhão); llanos of NE Colombia and SW Venezuela; SE Brazil (Santos Bay in São Paulo)
PLEGADIS Kaup, 1829 M - Tantalus falcinellus Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy  
Plegadis falcinellus 24  (Linnaeus, 1766) Glossy Ibis
i(a) Africa, Madagascar, S Europe, SW and S Asia, continental SE Asia, Java, Wallacea, lowland SC New Guinea (Trans-Fly region) and Australia (except inland sand deserts); (b) coastal E and S USA; Greater Antilles; S Mexico; NW Costa Rica; NC Venezuela
Plegadis chihi   (Vieillot, 1817) White-faced Ibis
iW and C USA >> Mexico to Guatemala; C Mexico (Durango to Puebla); SE Bolivia and S Brazil to C Chile (Los Ríos) and C Argentina (Río Negro)
Plegadis ridgwayi   (J.A. Allen, 1876) Puna Ibis
iAndes of N Peru (Cajamarca) to N Chile (Tarapacá) and NW Argentina (Jujuy)
LOPHOTIBIS Reichenbach, 1853 F - Tantalus cristatus Boddaert, 1783; type by original designation  
Lophotibis cristata Madagascar Crested Ibis
cristata (Boddaert, 1783) vN and E Madagascar
urschi Lavauden, 1929 iW and S Madagascar

1 For formal conservation of this family name see Opinion 1674 (I.C.Z.N., 1992) [I.C.Z.N., 1992 #9661].
2 Forms a superspecies with T. bernieri, T. melanocephalus, and T. moluccus; see Condon (1975) [Condon, 1975 #1033] and White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
3 Introduced to coastal W and S France.
4 For treatment as a separate species from T. aethiopicus see Morris & Hawkins (1998) [Morris, 1998 #2731].
5 Includes strictipennis; see Mees (1982) [Mees, 1982 #2627].
6 Original spelling molucca; variable, see David & Gosselin (2011) [David, 2011 #13197].
7 For recognition see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966]; included in nominate moluccus by Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486].
8 Formerly placed in a separate subfamily Plataleinae, but see Sibley & Ahlquist (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636], Fleischer & McIntosh (2001) [Fleischer, 2001 #13779], and Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12706]. Species sequence and tentative placement next to Threskiornis follows Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12706].
9 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Ajaia, but see Amadon & Woolfenden (1952) [Amadon, 1952 #73], Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966], and Chesser et al. (2010) [Chesser, 2010 #12706]. For spelling of Ajaia see David et al. (2009) [David, 2009 #11541].
10 Forms a superspecies with P. alba, P. minor, and P. regia; see Amadon & Woolfenden (1952) [Amadon, 1952 #73].
11 Includes major; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
12 For treatment as a separate species from P. papillosa see Sözer et al. (1997) [Sözer, 1997 #3686].
13 Forms a superspecies with G. calvus; see Steinbacher (1979) [Steinbacher, 1979 #3707]. Despite major range gap the Moroccan and Turkish populations differ little; see Pegoraro et al. (2001) [Pegoraro, 2001 #2995].
14 Circumscription of this genus follows Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
15 For treatment as a separate species from B. olivacea see Naurois (1973) [Naurois, 1973 #13796].
16 Original spelling akleyorum. Here emended based on internal evidence referring to the surname Akeley.
17 For treatment as a separate species from B. olivacea see Naurois (1973) [Naurois, 1973 #13796].
18 Includes erlangeri; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
19 Circumscription of this genus follows Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
20 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Harpiprion, but most recent classifications have included it in Theristicus, e.g. Steinbacher (1979) [Steinbacher, 1979 #3707].
21 Forms a superspecies with T. melanopis; see Steinbacher (1979) [Steinbacher, 1979 #3707].
22 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
23 Forms a superspecies with E. ruber; see Steinbacher (1979) [Steinbacher, 1979 #3707]. For possible treatment as conspecific see Ramo & Busto (1987) [Ramo, 1987 #14288].
24 Includes peregrinus; see Amadon & Woolfenden (1952) [Amadon, 1952 #73]. Forms a superspecies with P. chihi; see Steinbacher (1979) [Steinbacher, 1979 #3707].