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ARDEIDAE - Bitterns, Herons and Egrets1,2 (18:67)
ZONERODIUS Salvadori, 1882 M - Ardea heliosyla Lesson & Garnot, 1828; type by monotypy  
Zonerodius heliosylus 3  (Lesson & Garnot, 1828) Forest Bittern
vSalawati, lowland New Guinea, Aru Is.
TIGRIORNIS Sharpe, 1895 F - Tigrisoma leucolopha Jardine, 1846; type by original designation and monotypy  4
Tigriornis leucolopha   (Jardine, 1846) White-crested Tiger Heron
vSenegal to NE DR Congo and Angola
TIGRISOMA Swainson, 1827 N - Ardea tigrina J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by original designation = Ardea lineata Boddaert, 1783  
Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent Tiger Heron
lineatum (Boddaert, 1783) vNE Guatemala to SW Ecuador, N Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil
marmoratum (Vieillot, 1817) vC and S Bolivia to E Brazil, south to NE Argentina (Santa Fé) and N Uruguay
Tigrisoma fasciatum Fasciated Tiger Heron
salmoni P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1875 iFoothills of Caribbean slope of Costa Rica and Panama; Coastal Range and Andes of Venezuela south to NW Argentina (Jujuy)
fasciatum (Such, 1825)5 vSE Brazil (São Paulo and Paraná) and NE Argentina (Misiones)
pallescens Olrog, 19506 iHighlands of NW Argentina (Salta, Tucumán)
Tigrisoma mexicanum   Swainson, 1834 Bare-throated Tiger Heron
vCoastal W and E Mexico (S Sonora and S Tamaulipas) to NW Colombia (lower Atrato valley)
AGAMIA Reichenbach, 1853 F - Agamia picta Reichenbach, 1853; type by original designation and virtual tautonymy = Ardea agami J.F. Gmelin, 1789  
Agamia agami   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Agami Heron
iSE Mexico (S Veracruz) to NW Ecuador, Amazonian Brazil and N Bolivia
COCHLEARIUS Brisson, 1760 M - Cochlearius Brisson; type by tautonymy = Cancroma cochlearia Linnaeus, 1766  7
Cochlearius cochlearius Boat-billed Heron
zeledoni (Ridgway, 1885) iW Mexico (S Sinaloa to Guerrero)
phillipsi Dickerman, 1973 iE Mexico (S Tamaulipas to Quintana Roo), Belize and N Guatemala
ridgwayi Dickerman, 1973 iS Mexico (Chiapas) to W Costa Rica
panamensis Griscom, 1926 vE Costa Rica, Panama, NW Colombia (N Chocó)
cochlearius (Linnaeus, 1766) vE Panama (S Darién) to the Guianas and Amazonia, south to NE Argentina (Entre Ríos)
ZEBRILUS Bonaparte, 1855 M - Ardea undulata J.F. Gmelin, 1789; type by monotypy  8
Zebrilus undulatus   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Zigzag Heron
vE Colombia, E and S Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonian Brazil, E Ecuador, E Peru, NE Bolivia
BOTAURUS Stephens, 1819 M - Ardea stellaris Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 66).  
Botaurus stellaris9 Eurasian Bittern
stellaris (Linnaeus, 1758) vEurope to E Siberia and N Japan >> Africa, SW, S and E Asia, and mainland SE Asia
capensis (Schlegel, 1863) vS Tanzania to E Angola and South Africa
Botaurus poiciloptilus   (Wagler, 1827) Australasian Bittern
vSW and SC to SE Australia, Tasmania, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is. (Ouvéa), New Zealand
Botaurus lentiginosus 10  (Rackett, 1813) American Bittern
vSE Alaska, S Canada and N USA >> S USA, Mexico and West Indies
Botaurus pinnatus Pinnated Bittern
caribaeus Dickerman, 1961 vSE Mexico (Veracruz to Quintana Roo) and N Belize
pinnatus (Wagler, 1829) vEl Salvador to W Costa Rica; W Ecuador; C Colombia, N Venezuela, Trinidad and the Guianas locally south to Uruguay and NE Argentina (N Buenos Aires)
IXOBRYCHUS Billberg, 1828 M - Ardea minuta Linnaeus, 1766; type by subsequent designation (Stone, 1907, Auk, 24, p. 192).  
Ixobrychus involucris   (Vieillot, 1823) Stripe-backed Bittern
vN Colombia to Surinam, Trinidad; SE Bolivia (Tarija), Paraguay, SE Brazil (Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul) to C Argentina (Río Negro); WC Chile (Coquimbo to Los Ríos)
Ixobrychus exilis11 Least Bittern
exilis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vLocally in W USA and Baja California; SE Canada, E USA, E Mexico to W Costa Rica; Greater Antilles >> Central America and West Indies (N birds)
pullus van Rossem, 1930 vCoastal NW Mexico (S Sonora and Sinaloa)
erythromelas (Vieillot, 1817) iE Panama, N Colombia, N Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas to NE Bolivia, Paraguay and NE Argentina (Corrientes)
bogotensis Chapman, 1914 vAndes of C Colombia (Antioquia, S Boyacá and Cundinamarca)
limoncochae D.W. Norton, 1965 iR. Napo in NE Ecuador and N Peru
peruvianus J. Bond, 1955 vCoastal W Ecuador (Manabí and El Oro) and WC Peru (La Libertad to Lima)
Ixobrychus minutus12 Little Bittern
minutus (Linnaeus, 1766) vS and C Europe to C Asia and NW India >> Africa
payesii (Hartlaub, 1858) iSenegal to Yemen and south to South Africa
podiceps (Bonaparte, 1855) iMadagascar
dubius Mathews, 191213 vLowland SC to SE New Guinea, coastal and subcoastal Australia (including Murray-Darling basin), New Caledonia
Ixobrychus novaezelandiae 14,15  (Purdie, 1871) New Zealand Bittern
iNorth Island, South Island (New Zealand), Chatham Is. [Purdie, 1871 #10303]
Ixobrychus sinensis   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Yellow Bittern
vSeychelles; S Asia, Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, China (except NW), SE Asia, N Solomons (Bougainville), W Micronesia >> SE Asia, lowland N New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., SW Australia
Ixobrychus eurhythmus   (Swinhoe, 1873) Schrenck's Bittern
vRussian Far East, Korea, NE, E and S China >> C and S Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Philippines, Sulawesi
Ixobrychus cinnamomeus   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Cinnamon Bittern
vS Asia, C and S China, Taiwan, SE Asia to Greater Sundas, Philippines, Sulawesi and Lesser Sundas, W New Guinea
Ixobrychus sturmii   (Wagler, 1827) Dwarf Bittern
iSenegal to Ethiopia and south to South Africa
Ixobrychus flavicollis16 Black Bittern
flavicollis (Latham, 1790) vS Asia, C and S China, SE Asia to Greater Sundas, Philippines, Sulawesi and satellites
australis (Lesson, 1831)17 vMoluccas, C Lesser Sundas (Timor), Aru Is., lowland New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., coastal NW to NE and EC Australia
woodfordi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1888) iBougainville to Guadalcanal and Rennell (Solomons)
GORSACHIUS Bonaparte, 1855 M - Nycticorax goisagi Temminck, 1836; type by monotypy  
Gorsachius magnificus 18  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1899) White-eared Night Heron
vSE China, NE Vietnam
Gorsachius goisagi   (Temminck, 1836) Japanese Night Heronα
iJapan >> Ryukyu Is., Taiwan, NW Borneo, Philippines
Gorsachius melanolophus19 Malaysian Night Heron
melanolophus (Raffles, 1822) vIndia to S Ryukyu Is., SE Asia, Greater Sundas, Philippines, Christmas I. (Indian Ocean)
minor Hachisuka, 192620 vNicobars
Gorsachius leuconotus21 White-backed Night Heron
leuconotus (Wagler, 1827) vSenegal to SW Nigeria
natalensis (Roberts, 1933)22 vCameroon to W Ethiopia and south to South Africa
NYCTICORAX T. Forster, 1817 M - Nycticorax infaustus T. Forster, 1817; type by tautonymy = Ardea nycticorax Linnaeus, 1758  
Nycticorax nycticorax23 Black-crowned Night Heron
nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) iC and S Europe and N Africa east to Kazakhstan and through S and SE Asia to E China and Japan, Taiwan, the Sundas, Sulawesi and Philippines >> some northern birds to C Africa or south within given Asian range
hoactli (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)24 iSC and SE Canada (EC Alberta to Nova Scotia) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and C Argentina (R. Negro); Hawaiian Is.
obscurus Bonaparte, 185525 αvN Chile (Atacama) and C Argentina (R. Negro) to Tierra del Fuego
falklandicus E. Hartert, 191426 vFalkland Is.
Nycticorax caledonicus Rufous Night Heron/Nankeen Night Heron
†? crassirostris Vigors, 1839 vOgasawara Is. (Japan)
manillensis Vigors, 1831 vPhilippines, N Borneo, Java, Bali
australasiae (Vieillot, 1823)27 iWallacea, Western Papuan Is., Biak I., Aru Is., lowland New Guinea, NW Bismarck Arch. (Long I., Ninigo Group, Kaniet Is., Admiralty Is.), Australia (except inland sand deserts), New Zealand (S North Island, N South Island) [Vieillot, 1823 #5581]
pelewensis Mathews, 1926 vBabeldaob to Angaur (Palau); Chuuk (Caroline Is.)
caledonicus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vNew Caledonia
mandibularis Ogilvie-Grant, 1888 vC, E and S Bismarck Arch. (including Hibernian Is.), N, C and SE Solomons
Nycticorax duboisi   (Rothschild, 1907)
Nycticorax mauritianus   (E. Newton & Gadow, 1893) Mauritius Night Heron
Nycticorax megacephalus   (A. Milne‐Edwards, 1873) Rodrigues Night Heron
NYCTANASSA Stejneger, 1887 F - Ardea violacea Linnaeus, 1758; type by original designation  28
Nyctanassa violacea Yellow-crowned Night Heron
violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) vE USA (Massachusetts to SE Minnesota and E Texas) and along Caribbean coast of Mexico to E Costa Rica >> south to Panama, West Indies
bancrofti Huey, 192729 iNW Mexico (S Baja California and C Sonora) along Pacific coast to Nicaragua; Isla Socorro; Islas Marías; West Indies30
caliginis Wetmore, 1946 iIsla de Coco (Costa Rica); Panama (both coasts) and Pacific coast of Colombia to NW Peru (Tumbes)
cayennensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)31 vNE Panama and Atlantic coast of Colombia to SE Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul)
pauper (P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1870)32 iGalapagos Is.
Nyctanassa carcinocatactes   Olson & Wingate, 2006 Bermuda Night Heron
BUTORIDES Blyth, 1852 F - Ardea javanica Horsfield, 1821; type by monotypy  
Butorides virescens Green Heron
anthonyi (Mearns, 1895) iSW Canada (SW British Columbia) to NW Mexico (N Baja California and Sonora)
frazari (Brewster, 1888) iNW Mexico (S Baja California)
virescens (Linnaeus, 1758)33 iSE Canada, E USA (Maine to North Dakota and C Texas) and Mexico >> south to Panama, N Colombia, N Venezuela and E Ecuador
bahamensis (Brewster, 1888)34 vBahamas
Butorides striata35 Striated Heron
striata (Linnaeus, 1758) vE Panama through South America to SW Peru (Tacna) and EC Argentina (Buenos Aires)
sundevalli (Reichenow, 1877)36 iGalapagos Is.
atricapilla (Afzelius, 1804) iSenegal to Ethiopia and south to Namibia and E and C South Africa
brevipes (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833) iRed Sea and N Somalia coasts
rhizophorae Salomonsen, 1934 iComoros
rutenbergi (Hartlaub, 1880) iMadagascar
crawfordi Nicoll, 1906 iAmirante Is., Aldabra Is. (Aldabra, Assomption)
degens E. Hartert, 1920 iSeychelles
didi W.W.A. Phillips & Sims, 195837 N Maldives
albidula Bangs, 1913 vS Maldives
albolimbata Reichenow, 1900 vChagos Arch. (Indian Ocean)
spodiogaster Sharpe, 1894 iAndamans, Nicobars, islands off W Sumatra (Simeulue I. to Pagai Is.)
amurensis (von Schrenck, 1860) vRussian Far East, Japan, Korea, NE China >> Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Philippines, N Sulawesi
actophila Oberholser, 1912 vC and S China, NE continental SE Asia >> mainland SE Asia, Sumatra, Borneo
javanica (Horsfield, 1821)38 vMascarenes; S Asia (including Laccadive Is.), Taiwan, mainland SE Asia (except NE), Greater Sundas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas (east to Tanimbar Is.).
steini Mayr, 194339 Lesser Sundas
moluccarum E. Hartert, 1920 iMoluccas (south to Kai Is.)
papuensis Mayr, 1940 vWaigeo, Misool (Western Papuan Is.), Numfoor I., Biak I., Yapen I. (in Cenderawasih Bay), lowland NW and N New Guinea (Vogelkop to E coast of Cenderawasih Bay), Aru Is.
idenburgi Rand, 1941 iLowland N New Guinea (R. Mamberamo, R. Sepik and R. Ramu basins)
flyensis Salomonsen, 196640 vCoastal SC to SE New Guinea
rogersi Mathews, 191141 WC Australia (coast of Pilbara region)
stagnatilis (Gould, 1848)42 vCoastal NW and NC Australia
macrorhyncha (Gould, 1848)43 vCoastal NE to EC Australia (to S coast of New South Wales)
patruelis (Peale, 1848) iTahiti (Society Is.)
solomonensis Mayr, 1940 vNew Britain, New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.), all Solomons, Santa Cruz Is., Torres Is., Banks Is., Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga (?)
ARDEOLA Boie, 1822 F - Ardea ralloides Scopoli, 1769; type by monotypy  
Ardeola ralloides44 Squacco Heron
ralloides (Scopoli, 1769) S Europe to Kazakhstan
paludivaga Clancey, 196845 vSub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar
Ardeola grayii   (Sykes, 1832) Indian Pond Heron
iIran, S Asia, Myanmar >> W continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen.
Ardeola bacchus 46  (Bonaparte, 1855) Chinese Pond Heronα
iE and NE India, Russian Far East, Japan, Korea (?), N and E China, NE continental SE Asia >> mainland SE Asia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines
Ardeola speciosa Javan Pond Heron
continentalis Salomonsen, 1933 vC and S continental SE Asia >> Thai-Malay Pen.
speciosa (Horsfield, 1821) vGreater Sundas, S Philippines (Mindanao), Sulawesi and satellites, W Lesser Sundas (east to Flores)
Ardeola idae   (Hartlaub, 1860) Madagascar Pond Heron
iAldabra (Aldabra Is.), Madagascar >> C and E Africa
Ardeola rufiventris   (Sundevall, 1850) Rufous-bellied Heronα
vS Uganda, Tanzania to N Botswana and E South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
BUBULCUS Bonaparte, 1855 M - Ardea ibis Linnaeus, 1758; type by tautonymy = Ardea bubulcus Audouin, 1823  47
Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret
ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)48 i(a) Spain to Iran, N and C Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Comoros, Seychelles; (b) S Canada to N Chile and C Argentina49
coromandus (Boddaert, 1783)50 vJapan, Korea, E and S China, S and SE Asia, coastal SC to SE New Guinea, N and E Australia >> Tasmania, New Zealand
ARDEA Linnaeus, 1758 F - Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (G.R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 66).  
Ardea cinerea51 Grey Heron
cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 vAfrica, Europe to E Siberia and NW China, S Asia
jouyi A.H. Clark, 1907 iRussian Far East, Japan, Korea, China (except NW), mainland SE Asia, Sumatra, SW Borneo, Java, Lesser Sundas (east to Sumba) >> mainland SE Asia, Borneo, Philippines
monicae Jouanin & F. Roux, 196352 iBanc d'Arguin (Mauritania)
firasa E. Hartert, 1917 iAldabra Is., Comoros, Madagascar
Ardea herodias Great Blue Heron
fannini Chapman, 190153 iCoastal NW North America (SE Alaska to C British Columbia, Queen Charlotte Is.) 54
wardi Ridgway, 188255 SW Canada, W and S USA, to NW Mexico (Baja California) >> N Central America
herodias Linnaeus, 1758 iS Canada (Alberta to Nova Scotia), C and E USA and E Mexico (Tamaulipas to Tabasco) >> Central America, West Indies, N Colombia, N Venezuela
occidentalis Audubon, 183556 vExtreme SE USA (S Florida Pen.); Yucatan Pen.; Cuba; islets off N Venezuela (Islas Las Aves, Islas Los Roques, Isla Orchila, Isla La Tortuga)
cognata Bangs, 190357 vGalapagos Is.
Ardea cocoi   Linnaeus, 1766 Cocoi Heron
iE Panama (E Darién) through South America to SC Chile (Aisén) and SC Argentina (Chubut)
Ardea pacifica   Latham, 1801 White-necked Heronα
vAustralia (except inland sand deserts), lowland SC New Guinea >> Tasmania, montane EC New Guinea
Ardea melanocephala 58,59  Children & Vigors, 1826 Black-headed Heron
vSenegal to Somalia and South Africa
Ardea humbloti   A. Milne-Edwards & A. Grandidier, 1885 Madagascar Heron/Humblot's Heron
iW Madagascar
Ardea insignis 60  Hume, 1878 White-bellied Heron
vSikkim, Bhutan, Bangladesh, NE India, Myanmar
Ardea sumatrana 61,62  Raffles, 1822 Great-billed Heron
vIslands in Andaman Sea, coastal SE Asia (except N continental), Waigeo, Biak I., lowland New Guinea, Aru Is., coastal NW to NE Australia
Ardea goliath 63  Cretzschmar, 1829 Goliath Heronα
iSenegal to Somalia, south to N Botswana and E South Africa, W Yemen, Iraq, Iran >> NE India
Ardea purpurea Purple Heron
purpurea Linnaeus, 176664 vS and C Europe to Kazakhstan and Middle East, Cape Verde Is., Africa
madagascariensis van Oort, 1910 vMadagascar
manilensis Meyen, 1834 vRussian Far East, S Asia, E and S China, mainland SE Asia, Philippines, Greater Sundas, Sulawesi, Moluccas, W and C Lesser Sundas (east to Timor)
Ardea alba65,66 Great Egret
alba Linnaeus, 1758 vEurope to Russian Far East, Japan, NW and extreme NE China >> Japan, Korea, C China
modesta J.E. Gray, 1831 vS Asia, S Japan, E and S China, SE Asia to Wallacea, lowland New Guinea and satellite islands, Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, Admiralty Is.), Solomons (where mostly vagrant), Australia (except inland sand deserts), Tasmania, New Zealand
melanorhynchos Wagler, 1827 iSenegal to Ethiopia and South Africa
egretta J.F. Gmelin, 1789 iS Canada (S Manitoba to S Québec) to S Chile (Aisén) and S Argentina (Santa Cruz)
Ardea intermedia67 Intermediate Egret
brachyrhyncha (A.E. Brehm, 1854) vSenegal to Ethiopia, E and southern Africa
intermedia Wagler, 1829 vS Asia, C and S China, S Japan, mainland SE Asia >> Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Philippines
plumifera (Gould, 1848)68 vGreater and Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi and satellite islands, Moluccas, Salawati, lowland New Guinea, Aru Is., NW to all E Australia
SYRIGMA Ridgway, 1878 F - Ardea sibilatrix Temminck, 1824; type by original designation  69
Syrigma sibilatrix Whistling Heron
fostersmithi Friedmann, 194970 iE Colombia (Meta to Arauca and Vichada) and NC Venezuela (Barinas and Apure to Monagas and N Bolívar)
sibilatrix (Temminck, 1824) iE Bolivia, Paraguay and S Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul to São Paulo) south to E Argentina (Buenos Aires)
PILHERODIUS Reichenbach, 1853 M - Ardea pileata Boddaert 1783; type by original designation  71
Pilherodius pileatus   (Boddaert, 1783) Capped Heron
vE Panama to E Bolivia, N Paraguay and SE Brazil (Santa Catarina)
EGRETTA T. Forster, 1817 F - Ardea garzetta Linnaeus, 1766; type by monotypy  
Egretta picata   (Gould, 1845) Pied Heron
vSulawesi, S Moluccas, C and E Lesser Sundas (Timor, Tanimbar Is.), lowland New Guinea, Aru Is., NW to NE Australia
Egretta novaehollandiae 72  (Latham, 1790) White-faced Heron
iIslands in Flores Sea, S and SE Moluccas, Lesser Sundas, lowland S to montane C New Guinea, Aru is., Louisiade Arch., Australia, Tasmania, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, New Caledonia, Norfolk I., Kermadec Is., New Zealand, Chatham Is. >> Bali, Sulawesi, Solomons
Egretta rufescens Reddish Egret
rufescens (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) iCoastal SE USA (Texas to S Florida) and E Mexico (Tamaulipas, N Veracruz, Yucatan Pen.); Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico >> south to coasts of Costa Rica, N Colombia, N Venezuela
dickeyi (van Rossem, 1926)73 iCoastal NW Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Sinaloa)
Egretta ardesiaca   (Wagler, 1827) Black Heron
vSenegal to Ethiopia, E and S Africa.
Egretta vinaceigula 74  (Sharpe, 1895) Slaty Egret
iS and W Zambia to N Botswana
Egretta tricolor Tricolored Heron
ruficollis Gosse, 184775 vCoastal E and SE USA (S Maine to Texas), coastal Middle America to N Venezuela (east to Sucre) and NW Peru (Tumbes); West Indies
rufimentum (Hellmayr, 1906)76 Trinidad (and Tobago?)
tricolor (Statius Muller, 1776) iCoastal NE Venezuela (Monagas) to NE Brazil (Piauí)
Egretta caerulea   (Linnaeus, 1758) Little Blue Heron
vE and S USA to SW Peru (Arequipa) and SE Brazil (Paraná)
Egretta thula 77  (G.I. Molina, 1782) Snowy Egret
N USA (S Oregon to S Maine) to C Chile (Los Lagos) and C Argentina (W Mendoza and Buenos Aires)
Egretta garzetta78 Little Egret
garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) iAfrica, Europe to Japan and Korea, C and S China, mainland SE Asia, N Sumatra, Philippines; Barbados
dimorpha E. Hartert, 191479 vCoastal S Kenya and N Tanzania, Pemba I., Madagascar to Seychelles
nigripes (Temminck, 1840)80 iGreater Sundas, Wallacea, lowland New Guinea, Aru Is., coastal and subcoastal WC to all N and E Australia >> Palau, New Britain, Louisiade Arch., Solomons, Tasmania, New Zealand
Egretta gularis81 Western Reef Egret
gularis (Bosc, 1792) vCoastal tropical W Africa
schistacea (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828) vCoastal NE Africa to W India, Sri Lanka
Egretta sacra Pacific Reef Egret
sacra (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)82 vCoastal E and SE Asia to New Guinea, all coastal Australia, New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia
albolineata (G.R. Gray, 1859) vNew Caledonia, Loyalty Is.
Egretta eulophotes   (Swinhoe, 1860) Chinese Egret
iYellow Sea coasts >> SE China, Taiwan, E continental SE Asia, Thai-Malay Pen., Greater Sundas, Philippines, N Sulawesi

1 Sequence and composition of genera based on Sheldon et al. (1996) [Sheldon, 1996 #3596], McCracken & Sheldon (1998) [McCracken, 1998 #2588], and Sheldon et al. (2000) [Sheldon, 2000 #3599]. Species arrangements therein largely follow Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516].
2 Traditional classifications of the family include multiple subfamily designations, but none of these is monophyletic; see Sheldon et al. (2000) [Sheldon, 2000 #3599] and references therein.
3 Dual authorship flows from introduction of this name in the plate list; see Zimmer (1926) [Zimmer, 1926 #4296].
4 For placement in Tigrisoma see Sheldon et al. (1996) [Sheldon, 1996 #3596].
5 Formerly treated as a subspecies of T. lineatum but see Eisenmann (1965) [Eisenmann, 1965 #13992].
6 For continued recognition see Eisenmann (1965) [Eisenmann, 1965 #13992].
7 Formerly placed in monotypic family, but see Bock (1956) [Bock, 1956 #5900] and Sheldon et al. (2000) [Sheldon, 2000 #3599].
8 For placement with bitterns see Sheldon et al. (1996) [Sheldon, 1996 #3596].
9 Forms a superspecies with B. poiciloptilus; see Payne & Risely (1976) [Payne, 1976 #13784]. Bock (1956) [Bock, 1956 #5900] and Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566] considered all four species in the genus to form a superspecies.
10 For continued treatment as monotypic see Parkes (1955) [Parkes, 1955 #13782]. Considered to form a superspecies with B. pinnatus by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
11 May consist of more than one species; see Behrstock (1996) [Behrstock, 1996 #13773] and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) [Ridgely, 2001 #3274].
12 Forms a superspecies with I. exilis, I. novaezelandiae and I. sinensis; see Mayr & Short (1970) [Mayr, 1970 #2566].
13 For treatment as a separate species from I. minutus see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4748] and Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602].
14 For recognition see Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486].
15 For changed authorship see Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
16 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Dupetor, but see Payne & Risley (1976) [Payne, 1976 #13784], Chang et al. (2003) [Chang Qing, 2003 #13957] and Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602].
17 For recognition see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966], but see also White & Bruce (1986) [White, 1986 #4194].
18 Placed by some authors in Nycticorax but see Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739] and King (2005) [King, 2005 #9925].
19 Forms a superspecies with G. goisagi; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
20 For recognition see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749].
21 Placed in Nycticorax by Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516], but see Urban (1982) [Urban, 1982 #13830]; may require recognition of monotypic genus Calherodius.
22 For recognition see Allen in Hockey et al. (2005) [Hockey, 2005 #12724].
23 Forms a superspecies with N. caledonicus; see Bock (1956) [Bock, 1956 #5900].
24 Not recognised by Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966], but see Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516].
25 Date dubious as based on advance distribution of sheets.
26 For continued recognition see Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516] but see Hellmayr & Conover (1948) [Hellmayr, 1948 #6474].
27 Includes hilli; see Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348]. For use of this name after 1899 see Mathews & Iredale (1913) [Mathews, 1913 #13999].
28 Frequently included in Nycticorax but see Sheldon et al. (2000) [Sheldon, 2000 #3599]. Nyctherodius, used since 1899, may need restoration; see Gregory & Dickinson (2012) [Gregory, 2012 #13835].
29 Includes gravirostris; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
30 For inclusion of West Indies in the range see Watts (2011) [Watts, 2011 #13173].
31 Included in nominate violacea by Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966] but recognised by Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516] and Watts (2011) [Watts, 2011 #13173].
32 Original spelling pauper must be used as this name falls under Art. 31.2.2 of the Code [I.C.Z.N., 1999 #2059].
33 Includes maculata; see Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516].
34 For continued recognition see Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516].
35 For continued treatment as a separate separate species from B. virescens making the two allospecies see Monroe & Browning (1992) [Monroe, 1992 #2707] and Hayes (2006) [Hayes, 2006 #9525]; thus treated here as allospecies.
36 May merit treatment as a separate species but see Payne (1974) [Payne, 1974 #13783].
37 For recognition of this and albidula see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749], but see also Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
38 Includes carcinophila; see Parkes (1971) [Parkes, 1971 #2925] and Cheng (1987) [Cheng Tso-hsin, 1987 #739], but see also Kushlan & Hancock (2005) [Kushlan, 2005 #12285]. Also includes chloriceps; see Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4749]. Eck & Quaisser (2004) [Eck, 2004 #1485] recognised banggaiensis.
39 For recognition see Kushlan & Hancock (2005) [Kushlan, 2005 #12285]. Mees (2006) [Mees, 2006 #7094] included this in javanica.
40 For recognition see Schodde et al. (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3510] and Kushlan & Hancock (2005) [Kushlan, 2005 #12285].
41 For recognition see Kushlan & Hancock (2005) [Kushlan, 2005 #12285] but see also Schodde et al. (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3510].
42 Includes cinerea; see Schodde et al. (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3510].
43 Includes littleri; see Schodde et al. (1980) [Schodde, 1980 #3510].
44 Forms a superspecies with A. grayii, A. bacchus and A. speciosa; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
45 For recognition see Dowsett et al. (2008) [Dowsett, 2008 #12725].
46 Date 1855 doubtful because this presumes distribution of advance sheets.
47 For close relationship to Ardea see Sheldon et al. (2000) [Sheldon, 2000 #3599] and Chang et al. (2003) [Chang Qing, 2003 #13957]. Included in Ardeola by Bock (1956) [Bock, 1956 #5900] and in Egretta by Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
48 Includes seychellarum; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
49 Introduced to Hawaiian Is.
50 Treated as a separate species from B. ibis by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) [Rasmussen, 2005 #4748], as suggested by Payne & Risley (1976) [Payne, 1976 #13784]; but see Ahmed (2011) [Ahmed, 2011 #13998].
51 Forms a superspecies with A. herodias and A. cocoi; see Bock (1956) [Bock, 1956 #5900].
52 Treated as a separate species from A. cinerea by Érard et al. (1986) [Érard, 1986 #13778].
53 For continued recognition see Dickerman (2004) [Dickerman, 2004 #1354].
54 For restriction of range see Dickerman (2004) [Dickerman, 2004 #1354].
55 For continued recognition see Dickerman (2004) [Dickerman, 2004 #1354] but see also Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
56 May merit recognition as a separate species from A. herodias; see Butler (2011) [Butler, 2011 #12935].
57 May not be diagnosable (Butler 2011) [Butler, 2011 #12935].
58 Forms a superspecies with A. humbloti; see Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516].
59 For evidence of dual authorship see Zoological Journal, 1827: 452.
60 Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966] used the name imperialis, but see Walters (2001) [Walters, 2001 #4080].
61 Includes mathewsae; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
62 Forms a superspecies with A. insignis; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
63 Precedence of this name and authorship sustained by Steinheimer (2005) [Steinheimer, 2005 #3709].
64 Includes bournei; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
65 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Casmerodius but see Sheldon et al. (2000) [Sheldon, 2000 #3599].
66 May consist of more than one species; see Martens & Bahr (2007) [Martens, 2007 #10461], Christidis & Boles (2008) [Christidis, 2008 #11602], and Pratt (2011) [Pratt, 2011 #13262].
67 Formerly placed in monotypic genus Mesophoyx but Chang et al. (2003) [Chang Qing, 2003 #13957] found that it is sister to A. alba.
68 For recognition see Kushlan & Hancock (2005) [Kushlan, 2005 #12285].
69 For sister relationship to Egretta see McCracken & Sheldon (1998) [McCracken, 1998 #2588] and Sheldon et al. (2000) [Sheldon, 2000 #3599].
70 Perhaps undiagnosable; not recognised by Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
71 Usually attributed to Bonaparte, 1855, but first used by Reichenbach (1853) [Reichenbach, 1853 #14000].
72 Includes parryi; for treatment as monotypic see Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486].
73 Diagnosability and range limits controversial; see Lowther & Paul (2002) [Lowther, 2002 #13059].
74 For treatment as a separate species from E. ardesiaca see Benson et al. (1971) [Benson, 1971 #13774].
75 Includes occidentalis; see Frederick (1997) [Frederick, 1997 #12986], but see also Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
76 Considered undiagnosable from nominate tricolor by Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966] but see Blake (1977) [Blake, 1977 #326].
77 Includes brewsteri; see Appendix 2.2.
78 Forms a superspecies with E. thula and E. gularis; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
79 For treatment as a subspecies of E. garzetta, see Cramp et al. (1977) [Cramp, 1977 #1083]; but see also Hancock & Kushlan (1984) [Hancock, 1984 #4643].
80 Includes immaculata; see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
81 For treatment as a separate species from E. garzetta see Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966].
82 Apparently includes micronesiae Momiyama, 1926 [Momiyama, 1926 #2700]; omitted by Peters (1931) [Peters, 1931 #3006], and not mentioned by Payne (1979) [Payne, 1979 #2966] or Martínez-Vilalta & Motis (1992) [Martínez-Vilalta, 1992 #2516].