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PHALACROCORACIDAE - Cormorants1 (2:31)
MICROCARBO Bonaparte, 1856 M - Pelecanus pygmeus Pallas, 1773; type by original designation  2
Microcarbo coronatus 3  (Wahlberg, 1855) Crowned Cormorant
vCoasts of Namibia and W South Africa
Microcarbo africanus4 Long-tailed Cormorant
africanus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vSenegal to Ethiopia and South Africa
pictilis (Bangs, 1918) vMadagascar
Microcarbo pygmaeus 5  (Pallas, 1773) Pygmy Cormorantδ
vC Europe to C Asia
Microcarbo niger   (Vieillot, 1817) Little Cormorant
vS Asia, S China, mainland SE Asia, Greater Sundas
Microcarbo melanoleucos Little Pied Cormorant
melanoleucos (Vieillot, 1817)6 iWallacea, lowland New Guinea and satellite islands, New Britain, Australia (except inland sand deserts), Tasmania, Solomons (except Rennell), Santa Cruz Is., New Caledonia >> Java, Bali, Palau, Norfolk I., S New Zealand Is.
brevicauda (Mayr, 1931)7 iRennell (S Solomons)
brevirostris (Gould, 1837) vNorth Island, South Island (New Zealand) >> satellite islands
PHALACROCORAX Brisson, 1760 M - Phalacrocorax Brisson; type by tautonymy = Pelecanus carbo Linnaeus, 1758  8
Phalacrocorax gaimardi 9  (Garnot, 1828) Red-legged Cormorant
iCoastal N Peru (Isla Foca) to SC Chile (Isla de Chiloé); S Argentina (coastal NE Santa Cruz)
Phalacrocorax magellanicus   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Magellanic Cormorant/Rock Shag
vCoastal S Chile (south from Los Lagos) and S Argentina (south from Punta Tombo, Chubut); Falkland Is.
Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum 10  (Lesson, 1837) Guanay Cormorantδ
iCoasts of Peru and N Chile (south to Valparaíso) >> coasts of S Colombia to SC Chile
Phalacrocorax atriceps Imperial Cormorant
atriceps P.P. King, 1828 iS Chile (north to Isla Mocha), S Argentina (north to Chubut)
bransfieldensis Murphy, 193611 vAntarctic Pen., South Shetland Is., Elephant I.
albiventer (Lesson, 1831)12,13 δFalkland Is.
georgianus Lönnberg, 190614 vSouth Georgia I., South Orkney Is., South Sandwich Is., Shag Rocks (Scotia Sea)
melanogenis (Blyth, 1860)15 vPrince Edward Is., Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen
nivalis Falla, 1937 vHeard I.
purpurascens (von Brandt, 1837) Macquarie I.
Phalacrocorax verrucosus 16  (Cabanis, 1875) Kerguelen Shag
vIles Kerguelen
Phalacrocorax carunculatus17 Rough-faced Shag
carunculatus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vIslands of N South Island lining Cook Strait >> S North Island (New Zealand)
chalconotus (G.R. Gray, 1845) vSE South Island (Otago coast) to Stewart I. (New Zealand)
onslowi H.O. Forbes, 1893 Chatham Is.
Phalacrocorax campbelli18 Campbell Shag
campbelli (Filhol, 1878) Campbell I. >> Antipodes Is.
ranfurlyi Ogilvie-Grant, 1901 Bounty Is. >> Antipodes Is. (?)
colensoi Buller, 1888 Auckland Is.
Phalacrocorax auritus Double-crested Cormorant
cincinatus (von Brandt, 1837) vE Aleutian Is. (Unalaska) to SE Alaska (Alexander Arch.)
albociliatus Ridgway, 1884 vCoasts of SW Canada (Vancouver I.) to NW Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Sinaloa and Islas Revillagigedo) and inland in C Washington, S Oregon, W Nevada, California and Arizona
auritus (Lesson, 1831) vInland C North America (Alberta to SW Québec south to C Utah, C Kansas and S Indiana) and coastal E North America (Newfoundland to Virginia) >> S USA and E Mexico
floridanus (Audubon, 1835) vSE USA (North Carolina south to Florida and west to Oklahoma and Texas); coast of Yucatan Pen.; N Bahamas, Cuba
heuretus Watson, Olson & J.R. Miller, 1991 vSan Salvador (S Bahamas) [Watson, 1991 #4092]
Phalacrocorax brasilianus19 Neotropic Cormorant
mexicanus (von Brandt, 1837)20 vS USA (S Arizona, SC New Mexico, S and E Texas, S Louisiana, SW Mississippi) south to Nicaragua; Bahamas, Cuba
brasilianus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)21 vCosta Rica to Tierra del Fuego
Phalacrocorax harrisi 22  Rothschild, 1898 Flightless Cormorant
iGalapagos Is. (Fernandina and Isabela)
Phalacrocorax penicillatus   (von Brandt, 1837) Brandt's Cormorant
vCoasts of SE Alaska (Prince William Sound) to Baja California
Phalacrocorax pelagicus23 Pelagic Cormorant
pelagicus Pallas, 1811 vWrangel I., coastal NE Siberia (Chukchi Pen. to S Sea of Okhotsk), Sakhalin, Kuril Is., N Japan (Hokkaido), Commander Is., Aleutian Is., coasts of W and S Alaska to W Canada (Queen Charlotte Is.) >> coasts of Korea, E China, Japan and W USA (Washington)
resplendens Audubon, 1838 iCoastal SW Canada (Vancouver I.) to NW Mexico (Islas Los Coronados off N Baja California)
Phalacrocorax urile   (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) Red-faced Cormorant
iN Japan (NE Hokkaido), Kuril Is., Commander Is., Aleutian Is., Pribilof Is., Nunivak I., and coastal S Alaska (Alaska Pen. to Prince William Sound)
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus   Pallas, 1811 Spectacled Cormorant
vIslands in Bering Sea, Commander Is.
Phalacrocorax aristotelis European Shag
aristotelis (Linnaeus, 1761) iIceland and W European coast from Lapland to Portugal
riggenbachi E. Hartert, 192324 iCoast of Morocco
desmarestii (Payraudeau, 1826) iC Mediterranean
Phalacrocorax carbo25 Great Cormorant
carbo (Linnaeus, 1758) iCoasts of NE North America (N Gulf of St. Lawrence and S Newfoundland south to Prince Edward I., Nova Scotia and Maine), SW Greenland, Faroe Is., Iceland, British Isles, N Norway and NW Russia (Kola Pen.) >> SE USA, S Europe and NW Africa
sinensis (Staunton, 1796)26 vEurope to Russian Far East, Korea, China, SW and S Asia, continental SE Asia, (formerly Sumatra) >> Africa, Thai-Malay Pen. (rare), Borneo
hanedae N. Kuroda, Sr., 1925 iJapan
maroccanus E. Hartert, 1906 vNW Africa
lucidus (M.H.C. Lichtenstein, 1823)27 vCape Verde Is., Mauritania to Eritrea and W Somalia, south to South Africa
novaehollandiae Stephens, 182628 iAustralia, Tasmania, New Zealand (North Island, South Island), Chatham Is., New Caledonia, S Solomons (Rennell) >> S New Zealand Islands, Kermadec Is., Norfolk I., New Guinea, SE Moluccas (Kai Is.)
Phalacrocorax capillatus 29,30  (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) Japanese Cormorantα
vNE Asia to China, Japan
Phalacrocorax capensis   (Sparrman, 1788) Cape Cormorant
vCoasts of Angola, Namibia and South Africa
Phalacrocorax nigrogularis   Ogilvie-Grant & H.O.Forbes, 1899 Socotra Cormorant
vS Red Sea, Persian Gulf
Phalacrocorax neglectus   (Wahlberg, 1855) Bank Cormorant
vCoasts of Namibia and W South Africa
Phalacrocorax fuscicollis   Stephens, 1826 Indian Cormorant
vS Asia, S Myanmar, C Thailand
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris 31  (von Brandt, 1837) Little Black Cormorant
vJava, S Borneo, Wallacea, lowland New Guinea, Aru Is., D'Entrecasteaux Arch. (Fergusson I.), Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand (North Island, South Island)
Phalacrocorax fuscescens   (Vieillot, 1817) Black-faced Cormorant
iCoasts of S Australia and Tasmania
Phalacrocorax varius Great Pied Cormorant
hypoleucos (von Brandt, 1837) iCoastal Australia and inland in east to Great Artesian Basin >> Tasmania
varius (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) vNorth Island, South Island, Stewart I. (New Zealand)
Phalacrocorax punctatus32 Spotted Shag
punctatus (Sparrman, 1786) vCoasts of New Zealand (North Island, N and E South Island)
oliveri Mathews, 1930 iW coast of South Island, Stewart I. and offshore islands (New Zealand)
Phalacrocorax featherstoni 33  Buller, 1873 Pitt Shag
iChatham Is.

1 Siegel-Causey (1988) [Siegel-Causey, 1988 #3645] divided the family into subfamilies and several genera, but see Kennedy et al. (2000, 2009) [Kennedy, 2000 #2201] [Kennedy, 2009 #11861].
2 Recognition follows from data in Kennedy et al. (2000, 2009) [Kennedy, 2000 #2201], [Kennedy, 2009 #11861].
3 For treatment as a separate species from M. africanus see Crawford et al. (1982) [Crawford, 1982 #13699].
4 Considered to form a superspecies with M. coronatus by Snow (1978) [Snow, 1978 #13852].
5 Original spelling pygmeus was an incorrect Latin spelling; and spelling pygmaeus in Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408] a justified emendation contra Dickinson & Remsen (2013) [Dickinson, 2013 #15620].
6 Includes melvillensis; see Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408].
7 May merit treatment as a separate species from M. melanoleucos; see Orta (1992) [Orta, 1992 #2877].
8 Species sequence derived from Kennedy et al. (2009) [Kennedy, 2009 #11861].
9 First published in Lesson's Manuel d'Ornithologie which antedates the publication of the plate in the Voyage. In the Manuel both name and description were supplied by Garnot, see Dickinson et al. (2015) [Dickinson, 2015 #15882].
10 Original spelling bougainvillii. Here emended based on internal information: two famous French mariners.
11 Treated as a synonym of P. a. atriceps by Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408], but for treatment as a full species see Siegel-Causey (1988) [Siegel-Causey, 1988 #3645]. See also Siegel-Causey & Lefevre (1989) [Siegel-Causey, 1989 #14012].
12 The spelling albiventor in Opinion 409 (I.C.Z.N., 1956) [I.C.Z.N., 1956 #9575] is a lapsus calami. We use the original spelling.
13 Treated as a separate species, as are, melanogenis and purpurascens, by Orta (1992) [Orta, 1992 #2877] and others, but see Devillers & Terschuren (1978) [Devillers, 1978 #14001], Siegel-Causey (1988) [Siegel-Causey, 1988 #3645], and Rasmussen (1991) [Rasmussen, 1991 #14009].
14 Treated as a separate species by Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] and Orta (1992) [Orta, 1992 #2877].
15 This, nivalis, and purpurascens each treated as a separate species by Orta (1992) [Orta, 1992 #2877].
16 For treatment as a separate species from P. atriceps see Voisin (1970) [Voisin, 1970 #14001].
17 Polytypic treatment follows Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408]. For treatment as three species see Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486] and Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
18 Polytypic treatment follows Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408]. For treatment as three species see Marchant & Higgins (1990) [Marchant, 1990 #2486] and Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
19 Previously known as P. olivaceus, but see Browning (1989) [Browning, 1989 #5951].
20 Includes chancho; see Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408].
21 Includes hornensis; see Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408].
22 Formerly treated in monotypic genus Nannopterum, but see Kennedy et al. (2009) [Kennedy, 2009 #11861].
23 Includes P. kenyoni Siegel-Causey, 1991 [Siegel-Causey, 1991 #3646]; see Rohwer et al. (2000) [Rohwer, 2000 #3372].
24 May not be diagnosable from desmarestii; see Orta (1992) [Orta, 1992 #2877].
25 Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636] elevated lucidus to species rank, but see Sibley & Monroe (1993) [Sibley, 1993 #9208]. The species P. carbo and P. capillatus are partially sympatric.
26 For correction of author and date of publication see Mlíkovsky (2011) [Mlíkovsky, 2011 #13527].
27 Includes lugubris; see White (1950) [White, 1950 #14002].
28 Includes steadi; see Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408] and Gill et al. (2010) [Gill, 2010 #12348].
29 For selection of capillatus over filamentosus see Morioka et al. (2005) [Morioka, 2005 #7217], but see also Mlíkovsky (2012) [Mlíkovsky, 2012 #14172], who found that no selection was needed because capillatus has precedence.
30 Not 1850 as per Holthuis & Sakai (1970) [Holthuis, 1970 #1986]; see Dekker et al. (2001) [Dekker, 2001 #1258].
31 Treated as monotypic following Dorst & Mougin (1979) [Dorst, 1979 #1408].
32 Forms a superspecies with P. featherstoni; see Sibley & Monroe (1990) [Sibley, 1990 #3636].
33 For treatment as a separate species from P. punctatus see Siegel-Causey (1988) [Siegel-Causey, 1988 #3645].